Chapter 59: Nursing Management: Chronic Neurologic Problems My Nursing Test Banks

Lewis: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition

Chapter 59: Nursing Management: Chronic Neurologic Problems

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. After teaching a patient about management of migraine headaches, the nurse determines that the teaching has been effective when the patient says,

a.

I will take the (Topamax) as soon as any headaches start.

b.

I should avoid taking aspirin and sumatriptan (Imitrex) at the same time.

c.

I will try to lie down someplace dark and quiet when the headaches begin.

d.

A glass of wine might help me relax and prevent headaches from developing.

ANS: C

It is recommended that the patient with a migraine rest in a dark, quiet area. Topiramate (Topamax) is used to prevent migraines and must be taken for several months to determine effectiveness. Aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications can be taken with the triptans. Alcohol may precipitate migraine headaches.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1490-1494 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. When a patient is experiencing a cluster headache, the nurse will plan to assess for

a.

nuchal rigidity.

b.

projectile vomiting.

c.

unilateral eyelid swelling.

d.

throbbing, bilateral facial pain.

ANS: C

Unilateral eye edema, tearing, and ptosis are characteristic of cluster headaches. Nuchal rigidity suggests meningeal irritation, such as occurs with meningitis. Although nausea and vomiting may occur with migraine headaches, projectile vomiting is more consistent with increases in intracranial pressure (ICP). Unilateral sharp, stabbing pain, rather than throbbing pain, is characteristic of cluster headaches.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1490

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

3. A patient has a tonic-clonic seizure while the nurse is in the patients room. Which action should the nurse take?

a.

Insert an oral airway during the seizure to maintain a patent airway.

b.

Restrain the patients arms and legs to prevent injury during the seizure.

c.

Avoid touching the patient to prevent further nervous system stimulation.

d.

Time and observe and record the details of the seizure and postictal state.

ANS: D

Because diagnosis and treatment of seizures frequently are based on the description of the seizure, recording the length and details of the seizure is important. Insertion of an oral airway and restraining the patient during the seizure are contraindicated. The nurse may need to move the patient to decrease the risk of injury during the seizure.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1501

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

4. An elementary teacher who has just been diagnosed with epilepsy after having a generalized tonic-clonic seizure tells the nurse, I cannot teach anymore, it will be too upsetting if I have a seizure at work. Which response by the nurse is best?

a.

You may want to contact the Epilepsy Foundation for assistance.

b.

You might benefit from some psychologic counseling at this time.

c.

The Department of Vocational Rehabilitation can help with work retraining.

d.

Most patients with epilepsy are well controlled with antiseizure medications.

ANS: D

The nurse should inform the patient that most patients with seizure disorders are controlled with medication. The other information may be necessary if the patient seizures persist after treatment with antiseizure medications is implemented.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1497-1498 | 1501-1502

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity

5. Which action will the nurse take when evaluating a patient who is taking phenytoin (Dilantin) for adverse effects of the medication?

a.

Inspect the oral mucosa.

b.

Listen to the lung sounds.

c.

Auscultate the bowel tones.

d.

Check pupil reaction to light.

ANS: A

Phenytoin can cause gingival hyperplasia, but does not affect bowel tones, lung sounds, or pupil reaction to light.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1498 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

6. A patient found in a tonic-clonic seizure reports afterward that the seizure was preceded by numbness and tingling of the arm. The nurse knows that this finding indicates what type of seizure?

a.

Atonic

b.

Partial

c.

Absence

d.

Myoclonic

ANS: A

The initial symptoms of a partial seizure involve clinical manifestations that are localized to a particular part of the body or brain. Symptoms of an absence seizure are staring and a brief loss of consciousness. In an atonic seizure, the patient loses muscle tone and (typically) falls to the ground. Myoclonic seizures are characterized by a sudden jerk of the body or extremities.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1494-1496

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

7. When obtaining a health history and physical assessment for a patient with possible multiple sclerosis (MS), the nurse should

a.

assess for the presence of chest pain.

b.

inquire about any urinary tract problems.

c.

inspect the skin for rashes or discoloration.

d.

question the patient about any increase in libido.

ANS: B

Urinary tract problems with incontinence or retention are common symptoms of MS. Chest pain and skin rashes are not symptoms of MS. A decrease in libido is common with MS.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1503-1504

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

8. A 28-year-old woman who has multiple sclerosis (MS) asks the nurse about risks associated with pregnancy. Which response by the nurse is accurate?

a.

MS symptoms may be worse after the pregnancy.

b.

Women with MS frequently have premature labor.

c.

Symptoms of MS are likely to become worse during pregnancy.

d.

MS is associated with a slightly increased risk for congenital defects.

ANS: A

During the postpartum period, women with MS are at greater risk for exacerbation of symptoms. There is no increased risk for congenital defects in infants born of mothers with MS. Symptoms of MS may improve during pregnancy. Onset of labor is not affected by MS.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1503-1504

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. A patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is to begin treatment with glatiramer acetate (Copaxone). Which information will the nurse include in patient teaching?

a.

Recommendation to drink at least 3 to 4 L daily

b.

Need to avoid driving or operating heavy machinery

c.

How to draw up and administer injections of the medication

d.

Use of contraceptive methods other than oral contraceptives

ANS: C

Copaxone is administered by self-injection. Oral contraceptives are an appropriate choice for birth control. There is no need to avoid driving or drink large fluid volumes when taking glatiramer.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1504-1505

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

10. Which information about a patient with MS indicates that the nurse should consult with the health care provider before giving the prescribed dose of fampridine (Ampyra)?

a.

The patient has relapsing-remitting MS.

b.

The patient enjoys walking for relaxation.

c.

The patient has an increased creatinine level.

d.

The patient complains of pain with neck flexion.

ANS: C

Fampridine should not be given to patients with impaired renal function. The other information will not impact on whether the fampridine should be administered.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1505-1506

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

11. A patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) has urinary retention caused by a flaccid bladder. Which action will the nurse plan to take?

a.

Teach the patient how to use the Cred method.

b.

Decrease the patients fluid intake in the evening.

c.

Suggest the use of incontinence briefs for nighttime use only.

d.

Assist the patient to the commode every 2 hours during the day.

ANS: A

The Cred method can be used to improve bladder emptying. Decreasing fluid intake will not improve bladder emptying and may increase risk for urinary tract infection (UTI) and dehydration. The use of incontinence briefs and frequent toileting will not improve bladder emptying.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1507-1508 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

12. A patient with Parkinsons disease has a nursing diagnosis of impaired physical mobility related to bradykinesia. Which action will the nurse include in the plan of care?

a.

Instruct the patient in activities that can be done while lying or sitting.

b.

Suggest that the patient rock from side to side to initiate leg movement.

c.

Have the patient take small steps in a straight line directly in front of the feet.

d.

Teach the patient to keep the feet in contact with the floor and slide them forward.

ANS: B

Rocking the body from side to side stimulates balance and improves mobility. The patient will be encouraged to continue exercising because this will maintain functional abilities. Maintaining a wide base of support will help with balance. The patient should lift the feet and avoid a shuffling gait.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1506-1508 | 1513-1514

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

13. A patient has a new prescription for bromocriptine (Parlodel) to control symptoms of Parkinsons disease. Which information obtained by the nurse may indicate a need for a decrease in the dose?

a.

The patient has a chronic dry cough.

b.

The patient has four loose stools in a day.

c.

The patient develops a deep vein thrombosis.

d.

The patients blood pressure is 90/46 mm Hg.

ANS: D

Hypotension is an adverse effect of bromocriptine, and the nurse should check with the health care provider before giving the medication. Diarrhea, cough, and deep vein thrombosis are not associated with bromocriptine use.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1510 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

14. When teaching a patient with myasthenia gravis (MG) about management of the disease, the nurse advises the patient to

a.

perform physically demanding activities in the morning.

b.

anticipate the need for weekly plasmapheresis treatments.

c.

do frequent weight-bearing exercise to prevent muscle atrophy.

d.

protect the extremities from injury due to poor sensory perception.

ANS: A

Muscles are generally strongest in the morning, and activities involving muscle activity should be scheduled then. Plasmapheresis is not routinely scheduled but is used for myasthenia crisis or for situations in which corticosteroid therapy should be discontinued. There is no decrease in sensation with MG, and muscle atrophy does not occur because muscles are used during part of the day.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1512-1514

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

15. A patient who is seen in the outpatient clinic complains of restless legs syndrome. Which of the following over-the-counter medications that the patient is taking routinely should the nurse discuss with the patient?

a.

multivitamin (Stresstabs)

b.

acetaminophen (Tylenol)

c.

ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil)

d.

diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

ANS: D

Antihistamines can aggravate restless legs syndrome. The other medications will not contribute to the restless legs syndrome.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1516-1517

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

16. A patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is hospitalized with pneumonia. Which nursing action will be included in the plan of care?

a.

Assist with active range of motion.

b.

Observe for agitation and paranoia.

c.

Give muscle relaxants as needed to reduce spasms.

d.

Use simple words and phrases to explain procedures.

ANS: A

ALS causes progressive muscle weakness, but assisting the patient to perform active ROM will help to maintain strength as long as possible. Psychotic symptoms such as agitation and paranoia are not associated with ALS. Cognitive function is not affected by ALS, and the patients ability to understand procedures will not be impaired. Muscle relaxants will further increase muscle weakness and depress respirations.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1516-1517 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

17. A 42-year-old patient who was adopted at birth is diagnosed with early Huntingtons disease (HD). When teaching the patient, spouse, and children about this disorder, the nurse will provide information about the

a.

use of levodopa-carbidopa (Sinemet) to help reduce HD symptoms.

b.

need to take prophylactic antibiotics to decrease the risk for pneumonia.

c.

lifestyle changes such as increased exercise that delay disease progression.

d.

availability of genetic testing to determine the HD risk for the patients children.

ANS: D

Genetic testing is available to determine whether an asymptomatic individual has the HD gene. The patient and family should be informed of the benefits and problems associated with genetic testing. Sinemet will increase symptoms of HD given that HD involves an increase in dopamine. Antibiotic therapy will not reduce the risk for aspiration. There are no effective treatments or lifestyle changes that delay the progression of symptoms in HD.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1517

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

18. A patient is seen in the health clinic with symptoms of a stooped posture, shuffling gait, and pill rollingtype tremor. The nurse will anticipate teaching the patient about

a.

oral corticosteroids.

b.

antiparkinsonian drugs.

c.

the purpose of electroencephalogram (EEG) testing.

d.

preparation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

ANS: B

The diagnosis of Parkinsons is made when two of the three characteristic signs of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia are present. The confirmation of the diagnosis is made on the basis of improvement when antiparkinsonian drugs are administered. This patient has symptoms of tremor and bradykinesia; the next anticipated step will be treatment with medications. MRI and EEG are not useful in diagnosing Parkinsons disease, and corticosteroid therapy is not used to treat it.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1509-1510 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

19. A patient seen at the health clinic with a severe migraine headache tells the nurse about having four similar headaches in the last 3 months. Which initial action should the nurse take?

a.

Refer the patient for stress counseling.

b.

Ask the patient to keep a headache diary.

c.

Suggest the use of muscle-relaxation techniques.

d.

Teach about the effectiveness of the triptan drugs.

ANS: B

The initial nursing action should be further assessment of the precipitating causes of the headaches, quality, and location of pain, etc. Stress reduction, muscle relaxation, and the triptan drugs may be helpful, but more assessment is needed first.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1492-1493

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

20. A hospitalized patient complains of a moderate bilateral headache that radiates from the base of the skull. Which of these prescribed PRN medications should the nurse administer initially?

a.

lorazepam (Ativan)

b.

acetaminophen (Tylenol)

c.

morphine sulfate (Roxanol)

d.

butalbital and aspirin (Fiorinal)

ANS: B

The patients symptoms are consistent with a tension headache, and initial therapy usually involves a nonopioid analgesic such as acetaminophen, sometimes combined with a sedative or muscle relaxant. Lorazepam may be used in conjunction with acetaminophen but would not be appropriate as the initial monotherapy. Morphine sulfate and butalbital and aspirin would be more appropriate for a headache that did not respond to a nonopioid analgesic.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1490

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

21. A patient tells the nurse about using acetaminophen (Tylenol) several times every day for recurrent bilateral headaches. Which action will the nurse plan to take first?

a.

Discuss the need to stop taking the acetaminophen.

b.

Suggest the use of biofeedback for headache control.

c.

Teach the patient about magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

d.

Describe the use of botulism toxin (BOTOX) for headaches.

ANS: A

The headache description suggests that the patient is experiencing medication overuse headache. The initial action will be withdrawal of the medication. The other actions may be needed if headaches persist.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1492-1493

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

22. The health care provider is considering the use of sumatriptan (Imitrex) for a patient with migraine headaches. Which information obtained by the nurse is most important to report to the health care provider?

a.

The patient has at least 1 to 2 cups of coffee daily.

b.

The patient has had migraine headaches for 30 years.

c.

The patient has a history of a recent acute myocardial infarction.

d.

The patient has been taking topiramate (Topamax) for 2 months.

ANS: C

The triptans cause coronary artery vasoconstriction and should be avoided in patients with coronary artery disease. The other information will be reported to the health care provider, but none of it is an indication that sumatriptan would be an inappropriate treatment.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1490-1492

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

23. The nurse witnesses a patient with a seizure disorder as the patient suddenly jerks the arms and legs, falls to the floor, and regains consciousness immediately. It will be most important for the nurse to

a.

assess the patient for a possible head injury.

b.

give the scheduled dose of divalproex (Depakote).

c.

document the timing and description of the seizure.

d.

notify the patients health care provider about the seizure.

ANS: A

The patient who has had a myoclonic seizure and fall is at risk for head injury and should be evaluated and treated for this possible complication first. Documentation of the seizure, notification of the seizure, and administration of antiseizure medications also are appropriate actions, but the initial action should be assessment for injury.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1494-1495

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

24. Which of these prescribed interventions will the nurse implement first for a hospitalized patient who is experiencing continuous tonic-clonic seizures?

a.

Give phenytoin (Dilantin) 100 mg IV.

b.

Monitor level of consciousness (LOC).

c.

Obtain computed tomography (CT) scan.

d.

Administer lorazepam (Ativan) 4 mg IV.

ANS: D

To prevent ongoing seizures, the nurse should administer rapidly acting antiseizure medications such as the benzodiazepines. A CT scan is appropriate, but prevention of any seizure activity during the CT scan is necessary. Phenytoin also will be administered, but it is not rapidly acting. Patients who are experiencing tonic-clonic seizures are nonresponsive, although the nurse should assess LOC after the seizure.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1498

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

25. When the home health RN is planning care for a patient with a seizure disorder, which nursing action can be delegated to an LPN/LVN?

a.

Make referrals to appropriate community agencies.

b.

Place medications in the home medication organizer.

c.

Teach the patient and family how to manage seizures.

d.

Assess for use of medications that may precipitate seizures.

ANS: B

LPN/LVN education includes administration of medications. The other activities require RN education and scope of practice.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1502

OBJ: Special Questions: Delegation TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

26. Which information about a patient who is being treated with carbidopa/levodopa (Sinemet) for Parkinsons disease is most important for the nurse to report to the health care provider?

a.

Shuffling gait

b.

Tremor at rest

c.

Cogwheel rigidity of limbs

d.

Uncontrolled head movement

ANS: D

Dyskinesia is an adverse effect of the Sinemet, indicating a need for a change in medication or decrease in dose. The other findings are typical with Parkinsons disease.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1509-1512

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

27. A patient with Parkinsons disease has decreased tongue mobility and an inability to move the facial muscles. Which nursing diagnosis is of highest priority?

a.

Activity intolerance

b.

Self-care deficit: toileting

c.

Ineffective self-health management

d.

Imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements

ANS: D

The data about the patient indicate that poor nutrition will be a concern because of decreased swallowing. The other diagnoses also may be appropriate for a patient with Parkinsons disease, but the data do not indicate they are current problems for this patient.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1511

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

28. When the nurse is assessing a patient with myasthenia gravis, which action will be most important to take?

a.

Check pupillary size.

b.

Monitor grip strength.

c.

Observe respiratory effort.

d.

Assess level of consciousness.

ANS: C

Because respiratory insufficiency may be life threatening, it will be most important to monitor respiratory function. The other data also will be assessed but are not as critical.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1512-1514

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

29. Following a thymectomy, a patient with myasthenia gravis receives the usual dose of pyridostigmine (Mestinon). An hour later, the patient complains of nausea and severe abdominal cramps. Which action should the nurse take first?

a.

Auscultate the patients bowel sounds.

b.

Notify the patients health care provider.

c.

Administer the prescribed PRN antiemetic drug.

d.

Give the scheduled dose of prednisone (Deltasone).

ANS: B

The patients history and symptoms indicate a possible cholinergic crisis. The health care provider should be notified immediately, and it is likely that atropine will be prescribed. The other actions will be appropriate if the patient is not experiencing a cholinergic crisis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1514-1515

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

30. A hospitalized 24-year-old patient with a history of cluster headache awakens during the night with a severe stabbing headache. Which action should the nurse take first?

a.

Start the ordered PRN oxygen at 6 L/min.

b.

Put a moist hot pack on the patients neck.

c.

Give the ordered PRN acetaminophen (Tylenol).

d.

Notify the patients health care provider immediately.

ANS: A

Acute treatment for cluster headache is administration of 100% oxygen at 6 to 8 L/min. If the patient obtains relief with the oxygen, there is no immediate need to notify the health care provider. Cluster headaches last only 60 to 90 minutes, so oral pain medications have minimal effect. Hot packs are helpful for tension headaches but are not as likely to reduce pain associated with a cluster headache.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1492-1493

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. When preparing to admit a patient who has been treated for status epilepticus in the emergency department, which equipment should the nurse have available in the room (select all that apply)?

a.

Siderail pads

b.

Tongue blade

c.

Oxygen mask

d.

Suction tubing

e.

Nasogastric tube

ANS: A, C, D

The patient is at risk for further seizures, and oxygen and suctioning may be needed after any seizures to clear the airway and maximize oxygenation. The beds side rails should be padded to minimize the risk for patient injury during a seizure. Insertion of a nasogastric (NG) tube is not indicated because the airway problem is not caused by vomiting or abdominal distention. Use of tongue blades during a seizure is contraindicated.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1500-1501

OBJ: Special Questions: Alternate Item Format TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. A patient with Parkinsons disease is admitted to the hospital for treatment of an acute infection. Which nursing interventions will be included in the plan of care (select all that apply)?

a.

Use an elevated toilet seat.

b.

Cut patients food into small pieces.

c.

Provide high protein foods at each meal.

d.

Place an arm chair at the patients bedside.

e.

Observe for sudden exacerbation of symptoms.

ANS: A, B, D

Since the patient with Parkinsons has difficulty chewing, food should be cut into small pieces. An armchair should be used when the patient is seated so that the patient can use the arms to assist with getting up from the chair. An elevated toilet seat will facilitate getting on and off the toilet. High protein foods will decrease the effectiveness of L-dopa. Parkinsons is a steadily progressive disease without acute exacerbations.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1511-1512 | 1513-1514

OBJ: Special Questions: Alternate Item Format TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

Mosby items and derived items 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier, Inc.

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