FREE Chapter 3: Nursings Pathway to Professionalism My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 3: Nursings Pathway to Professionalism

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following was recognized earliest as a true profession?

a.

Ministry

b.

Teaching

c.

Social work

d.

Engineering

ANS: A

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A

Historically only medicine, law, and the ministry were accepted as professions.

B

Teaching was not accepted as an early profession.

C

Social work was not accepted as an early profession.

D

Engineering was not accepted as an early profession.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 52

2. Which of the following characteristics of a profession were listed in Flexners work on professions?

a.

Activities of professions are more physically than intellectually oriented.

b.

Activities of professions are based on their own body of knowledge.

c.

Beliefs of professions are more theoretical than practical.

d.

Beliefs and traditions are handed down from generation to generation.

ANS: B

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A

Flexner actually lists intellectual as opposed to physical activities.

B

Flexners characteristics of professions list a body of knowledge that can be learned and is refreshed and refined through research.

C

Flexner lists practical as well as theoretical beliefs.

D

Flexner stressed that in professions, information is taught through a process of highly specialized professional education.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 53

3. Similarities exist between various ideas about what constitutes a profession. Which of the following is believed to be a characteristic of a profession?

a.

Members have autonomy.

b.

Members are trained on the job.

c.

Members are motivated primarily by financial reward.

d.

The group lacks a code of ethics.

ANS: A

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A

A review of the literature on characteristics of a profession yielded these similarities: service/altruism, specialized knowledge, and autonomy/ethics.

B

Specialized formal education is required.

C

Members are motivated by altruism.

D

Ethics or a code of ethics is a characteristic of professions.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 54

4. Which of the following best describes the difference between an occupation and a profession?

a.

A profession requires a duty to serve.

b.

A profession is defined by members average income.

c.

In a profession, action is based on intuition.

d.

In a profession, knowledge is handed down from generation to generation.

ANS: A

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A

Profession is defined as a duty, vocation, or form of employment that provides a needed service to society and possesses characteristics of expertise, autonomy, long academic preparation, commitment, and responsibility.

B

Average income does not determine the difference between an occupation and a profession.

C

In a profession, action is based on long academic preparation, a body of knowledge, and instruction in techniques of the profession, not on intuition.

D

Knowledge is transferred in formal academic preparation, not handed down.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 59

5. According to the nurses Code of Ethics, the hallmark of nursing practice is

a.

autonomy.

b.

accountability.

c.

evidence-based practice.

d.

altruism.

ANS: B

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A

Nurses do not have complete autonomy but work with other disciplines.

B

Individual accountability has become the hallmark of practice. Provision 4 of the Code of Ethics states, The nurse is responsible and accountable for individual practice. . .

C

Evidence-based practice is relatively new to nursing.

D

Although important to nursing, altruism is not the hallmark of nursing practice according to the Code of Ethics.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 56

6. The document that provides professional standards and a framework for professional decision making that ensures decisions are made with the highest integrity is the

a.

Nurse Practice Act.

b.

Code of Ethics.

c.

Nursings Social Policy Statement.

d.

bylaws of the American Nurses Association (ANA).

ANS: B

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A

The Nurse Practice Act defines the legal scope of practice.

B

The Code of Ethics in nursing guides decisions and the conduct of practitioners.

C

Nursings Social Policy Statement describes the responsibilities of nurses toward society.

D

Bylaws of the ANA guide the processes of the organization.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 57

7. A component that separates occupations from professions is commitment. Which of the following is the best way that nurses can show commitment to each other?

a.

Reporting substandard practice by unlicensed personnel

b.

Reading the professional literature

c.

Mentoring nursing students and novice nurses

d.

Making a financial donation to a professional organization

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Reporting substandard practice is not the best example of commitment to each other.

B

Reading the literature does not involve mentoring or disseminating knowledge to others.

C

Nurses show commitment to the profession by mentoring others entering the profession.

D

Donating to a professional organization is less effective than serving as an active member of the organization and disseminating knowledge through active participation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 60

8. The nursing profession has experienced barriers to professionalism. Which of the following is the primary current barrier to nursings professionalism?

a.

Too many men in nursing

b.

Unquestioning obedience to doctors

c.

Limitations placed on practice by state legislators

d.

Variability of educational backgrounds of nurses

ANS: D

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A

Although increasing, the number of men in nursing is low.

B

Unquestioning obedience is not a current behavior.

C

Currently, nurse practice acts are broader than ever before.

D

No other profession allows entry into practice at less than the baccalaureate level. In fact, many professions require postgraduate preparation for beginning professional practice.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 60

9. The process of professionalization of an occupation typically follows a pattern of developmental stages. One of the stages is collective identity. Which of the following is an example of collective identity?

a.

Legal right to practice profession to protect unique skills from outsiders

b.

Apprenticeship programs to develop skills

c.

A loose association of practitioners

d.

Definition of the professions mission related to full-time work

ANS: A

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A

Professions will be defined legally to determine who can use the skills practiced by their members.

B

Professions have a formal educational process for all members.

C

Professions have very organized associations for their members that may set standards for practice.

D

To practice a profession, the work does not need to be full time only.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 54

10. Preparation is a component that separates occupations from professions. Which of the following is the best way that a nurse demonstrates preparation for the profession?

a.

Improves nursing practice through the use of trial and error methods

b.

Focuses on the skills needed for the practice setting

c.

Articulates the values of caring and compassion in patient-centered care

d.

Utilizes textbooks from college to support practice 5 years after graduation

ANS: C

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A

Professional preparation enables practitioners to act in a logical, rational manner rather than relying on intuition, tradition, or trial and error.

B

The preparation includes more than just practice skills.

C

Preparation for a profession includes more than the acquisition of knowledge and skills. Preparation includes the orientation to the beliefs, values, and attitudes expected of members of the profession.

D

Professions have an ever-expanding base of knowledge, which means practitioners need to use the most current information to inform practice decisions.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 54

11. A barrier to professionalism attributed to nursings roots in altruism is illustrated when a nurse

a.

questions a medication order written by the physician.

b.

takes the time to listen to a patients fears about surgery.

c.

needs to seek approval from charge nurse to give a PRN medication.

d.

feels guilty for expecting to be paid well for work.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The nurse is serving as a patient advocate by questioning the order if it is unclear; unquestioningly following the order would violate the patients trust.

B

Listening to patients concerns is an important aspect of nursing.

C

The nurse is an independent practitioner and does not require permission to provide nursing care.

D

As with other helping professions practitioners, the value of altruism frequently makes nurses feel guilty or greedy for expecting compensation for the complex and demanding work they do.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 62

12. A major challenge to full autonomy for nurses is/are

a.

state nurse practice acts.

b.

lobbyists for the American Medical Association (AMA) and hospital associations.

c.

the status of nurses in hospital hierarchy.

d.

the view of physicians as the gatekeepers in health care.

ANS: B

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A

Although nurse practice acts in many states reinforce nursings tenuous self-determination by requiring that nurses perform certain actions only when authorized by supervising physicians or hospital protocols, they are not the major challenge.

B

Historically at least three groups have attempted to control nursing practice, organized medicine, and health service administration, as well as organized nursing. However, both the medical profession and health services administration have attempted to control nursing because they believed it was in their best interest to keep nurses dependent on them.

C

Although status within the hospital may influence autonomy of practice, it is not the major challenge.

D

Although physician supervision or authorization is required before certain activities can occur, this is not the major challenge to nursing autonomy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 57

13. One of the characteristics of a profession identified by Kelly was there is an organization (association) that encourages and supports high standards of practice. Which of the following illustrates a concern for nursing meeting this characteristic?

a.

The ANA has existed for more than 100 years.

b.

Nursing specialty organizations have greater power to influence practice than a more general nursing organization.

c.

The membership of the ANA is less than 10% of all nurses.

d.

The purpose of the ANA does not address the economic and general welfare of nurses.

ANS: C

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A

Although the ANA has existed since 1896, the longevity of the organization does not assure the development of standards of practice.

B

Although specialty organizations may influence practice in specialty areas, the ANA addresses the needs of all nurses regardless of area of practice.

C

Fewer than 1 in 10 nurses belong to the ANA, the official voice of nursing.

D

The ANA has a clear focus on the economic and general welfare of nurses historically.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 58

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Scholars have defined profession through the years. Which of the following were identified as common major characteristics according to scholars? (Select all that apply.)

a.

It is based on a body of knowledge that can be learned.

b.

It has a service orientation.

c.

Practice is in a single recognized setting.

d.

Professionals control their own practice.

e.

Skills can be learned in a variety of settings, including through job training.

ANS: A, B, D

Feedback

Correct

Based on a body of knowledge that can be learned, has a service orientation, and professionals control their own practice are correct as these characteristics were identified by Flexner, Hall, and others.

Incorrect

Professionals control their own practice is incorrect because a profession is not always practiced in a single setting. For example, nursing may be practiced in organized health settings, as well as in the home and community. The education and skills needed to learn a profession come from an institution of higher education.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 53

2. An important aspect of professionalism is collegiality. Which of the following demonstrates collegiality? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Assisting a nurse researcher with data collection related to measuring stress levels in hospitalized children

b.

Reporting a nursing assistant to the nurse manager when heart rate was not recorded in a patient

c.

Participating in weekly patient care conferences with physicians, social workers, and other therapists

d.

Sharing with another nurse that you heard the nurse manager is dating the new physical therapist on the unit

e.

Serving as a preceptor to a nurse completing a refresher course to reactivate her nursing license.

ANS: A, C, E

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Correct

Assisting nurse researcher with data collection related to measuring stress levels in hospitalized children; participating in weekly patient care conferences with physicians, social workers, and other therapists; and serving as a preceptor to a nurse completing a refresher course to reactivate her nursing license are correct because these actions demonstrate collegiality by sharing with, supporting, assisting, and counseling other nurses and health care providers.

Incorrect

Reporting a nursing assistant to the nurse manager when heart rate was not recorded in a patient is incorrect because this is not a supportive activity as everyone can make a mistake and needs to be given the opportunity to correct this behavior. Sharing with another nurse that you heard the nurse manager is dating the new physical therapist on the unit is incorrect because participating in gossip and rumors does not support others.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 60

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