FREE Chapter 1: Evolution of Nursing My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 1: Evolution of Nursing

Cooper and Gosnell: Foundations and Adult Health Nursing, 7th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.What is a nursing program considered when certified by a state agency?

a. Accredited
b. Approved
c. Provisional
d. Exemplified

ANS: B

Approved means certified by a state agency for having met minimum standards; accredited means certified by the NLN for having met more complex standards. Provisional and exemplified are not terms used in regard to nursing program certification.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 10

OBJ: 5 TOP: Nursing programs KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

2.Which of the following must the nurse recognize regarding the health care delivery system?

a. It includes all states.
b. It affects the illness of patients.
c. Insurance companies are not involved.
d. The major goal is to achieve optimal levels of health care.

ANS: D

The nurse must recognize that in the health care delivery system, the major goal is to achieve optimal levels of health care. The health care system consists of a network of agencies, facilities, and providers involved with health care in a specified geographic area. Insurance companies do have involvement in the health care system. The illness of patients is not necessarily affected by the health care system.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 12

OBJ: 7 TOP: Health care systems KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

3.What is required by the health care team to identify the needs of a patient and to design care to meet those needs?

a. The Kardex
b. The physicians order sheet
c. An individualized care plan
d. The nurses notes

ANS: C

An individualized care plan involves all health care workers and outlines care to meet the needs of the individual patient. The Kardex, physicians order sheet, and nurses notes do not identify the needs of the patient nor are they designed to assist all members of the health care team to meet those needs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 13, 16

OBJ: 8 | 9 TOP: Care plan KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

4.Patient care emphasis on wellness, rather than illness, begins as a result of:

a. increased education concerning causes of illness.
b. improved insurance payments.
c. decentralized care centers.
d. increased number of health care givers.

ANS: A

The acute awareness of preventive medicine has resulted in todays emphasis on education about issues such as smoking, heart disease, drug and alcohol abuse, weight control, and mental health and wellness promotion activities. This preventive education has resulted in an emphasis on wellness, rather than illness. Improved insurance payments, decentralized care centers, and increased numbers of health care givers did not influence an emphasis on wellness.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 12

OBJ: 4 | 8 TOP: Wellness KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

5.What is the most effective process to ensure that the care plan is meeting the needs of the patient?

a. Documentation
b. Communication
c. Evaluation
d. Planning

ANS: B

Communication is the primary essential component among the health care team to evaluate and modify the care plan. Documentation, evaluation, and planning are not primary essential components to ensure the care plan is meeting the needs of the patient.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 16

OBJ: 8 TOP: Communication KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

6.How does an interdisciplinary approach to patient treatment enhance care?

a. By improving efficiency of care
b. By reducing the number of caregivers
c. By preventing the fragmentation of patient care
d. By shortening hospital stay

ANS: C

An interdisciplinary approach prevents fragmentation of care. An interdisciplinary approach does not improve the efficiency of care, reduce the number of caregivers, or shorten hospital stay.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 16

OBJ: 8 | 9 TOP: Interdisciplinary approach KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

7.How may a newly licensed LPN/LVN practice?

a. Independently in a hospital setting
b. With an experienced LPN/LVN
c. Under the supervision of a physician or RN
d. As a sole practitioner in a clinic setting

ANS: C

An LPN/LVN practices under the supervision of a physician, dentist, OD, or RN.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Pages 13, 19

OBJ: 11 TOP: Vocational nursing KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

8.Whose influence on nursing practice in the 19th century was related to improvement of patient environment as a method of health promotion?

a. Clara Barton
b. Linda Richards
c. Dorothea Dix
d. Florence Nightingale

ANS: D

The influence of Florence Nightingale was highly significant in the 19th century as she fought for sanitary conditions, fresh air, and general improvement in the patient environment. Clara Barton developed the American Red Cross in 1881. Linda Richards is known as the first trained nurse in America, was responsible for the development of the first nursing and hospital records, and is credited with the development of our present-day documentation system. Dorothea Dix was the pioneer crusader for elevation of standards of care for the mentally ill and superintendent of female nurses of the Union Army.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Pages 2, 17 Table 1-2

OBJ: 2 | 4 TOP: Nursing leaders KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

9.What document identifies the roles and responsibilities of the LPN/LVN?

a. NLN Accreditation Standards
b. Nurse Practice Act
c. NAPNE Code
d. American Nurses Association Code

ANS: B

The LPN/LVN functions under the Nurse Practice Act. NLN Accreditation Standards, the NAPNE Code, and the American Nurses Association Code do not identify the roles and responsibilities of the LPN/LVN.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 13

OBJ: 11 TOP: Roles and Responsibilities KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

10.What is a cost-effective delivery of care used by many hospitals that allows the LPN/LVN to work with the RN to meet the needs of patients?

a. Focused nursing
b. Team nursing
c. Case management
d. Primary nursing

ANS: C

Case management is a cost-effective method of care. Focused nursing, team nursing, and primary nursing are not cost-effective methods of delivering care that allow the LPN/LVN to work with the RN to meet patient needs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 14

OBJ: 7 | 9 TOP: Patient care delivery systems KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

11.What is the title of the American Hospital Associations 1972 document that outlines the patients expectations to be treated with dignity and compassion?

a. Code of Ethics
b. Patients Bill of Rights
c. OBRA
d. Advance directives

ANS: B

Patient expectations are outlined by the Patients Bill of Rights. Patient expectations are not outlined in the Code of Ethics, OBRA, or advance directives.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 15

OBJ: 4 | 8 TOP: Patients rights KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

12.The relationships among nursing, patients, health, and the environment are the basis for:

a. care plans.
b. nursing models.
c. physicians orders.
d. evaluation of patient care.

ANS: B

Nursing models are theories based on the relationship between nursing, patients, health, and environment. Care plans, physicians orders, and evaluation of patient care are not based on the relationships among nursing, patients, health, and environment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 17

OBJ: 1 TOP: Nursing models KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

13.What system reduces the number of employees but still provides quality care for patients?

a. Team nursing
b. Cross-training
c. Use of critical pathways
d. Case management

ANS: B

Cross-training reduces the number of employees but does not alter the quality of patient care. Team nursing, use of critical pathways, and case management do not reduce the number of employees while continuing to provide quality care for patients.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 14-15

OBJ: 8 TOP: Patient care KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

14.What is the purpose of licensing laws for LPN/LVNs?

a. To limit the number of LPN/LVNs.
b. Prevention of malpractice
c. Protection of the public from unqualified people
d. To increase revenue for the state board of nursing

ANS: C

The purpose of licensing laws for LPN/LVNs is to protect the public from unqualified practitioners. Licensing laws purpose is not to limit the number of LPNs/LVNs, prevent malpractice, or increase revenue for the state board of nursing.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 4-5

OBJ: 4 | 9 | 10 TOP: Licensure KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

15.What premise is Maslows hierarchy of needs based on?

a. All needs are equally important.
b. Basic needs must be met before the next level of needs can be met.
c. Self-actualization is a primary need.
d. Individuals prioritize needs the same way.

ANS: B

Maslows hierarchy of needs is based on the premise that basic needs must be met first. It is not based on all needs being equally important or that individuals prioritize needs the same way. Self-actualization is not a primary need according to Maslow.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 12

OBJ: 8 TOP: Maslows hierarchy of needs KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

16.What must the nurse realize when assessing physical and social environmental factors affecting health and illness?

a. They affect one another.
b. They cause illness.
c. They cause patients to react similarly.
d. They can be separated.

ANS: A

Physical and social factors affect each other, cannot be separated, and cause each patient to react in a unique manner. They do not necessarily cause illness or cause patients to react similarly, and they cannot be separated.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 12

OBJ:4 | 8TOP:Environmental factors

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

17.What organization, established during World War II, provided nursing education and training?

a. Nightingale school
b. Cadet Nurse Corps
c. Public health department
d. Frontier Nursing Service

ANS: B

The Cadet Nurse Corps was established during World War II to provide nursing education and training. The Nightingale school, public health department, and Frontier Nursing Service are not organizations established during World War II to provide nursing education and training.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 5

OBJ: 1 | 4 TOP: Nursing education KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

18.What is a modern educational advancement program for the LPN/LVN to enter RN education?

a. Repetition
b. Exclusion
c. Articulation
d. Coexistence

ANS: C

Most states have some type of articulation program in which the LPN/LVN can achieve advanced standing in an RN program without having to enroll in the entire curriculum. Repetition, exclusion, and coexistence do not refer to educational advancement.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 10

OBJ: 1 | 9 TOP: Nursing education KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

19.Where did Florence Nightingales original nursing education take place?

a. Saint Thomas
b. Kings College Hospital
c. Crimean Hospital
d. Kaiserswerth School

ANS: D

Florence Nightingale trained at Kaiserswerth School. Florence Nightingales original training was not at Saint Thomas, Kings College Hospital, or Crimean Hospital.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 2

OBJ: 2 TOP: Nursing programs KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

20.What system of comprehensive patient care considers the physical, emotional, and social environment and spiritual needs of a person?

a. Interdependent care
b. Holistic health care
c. Illness prevention care
d. Health promotion care

ANS: B

Holistic health care encompasses the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual aspects of the patient.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 13

OBJ: 8 TOP: Health care KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

21.What official agency exists exclusively for LPN/LVN membership and promotes standards for the LPN/LVN?

a. NFLPN
b. ANA
c. NLN
d. NAPNES

ANS: A

The NFLPN exists solely for the LPN/LVN. The other options have membership that includes RNs and the lay public.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 9

OBJ: 5 | 6 | 9 TOP: Nursing organizations KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

22.What score does the graduate practical nurse require to be issued a license upon completion of the computerized examination?

a. 70% or better
b. This is defined and set by each state
c. Designated as pass
d. Within the 75th percentile

ANS: C

Currently graduates of an approved vocational school are eligible to take the licensing examination and be awarded a license with a score of pass that is recognized by all states.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 11

OBJ: 3 TOP: Licensure examination KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

23.What document, published in 1965 by the ANA, clearly defined two levels of nursing practice?

a. Licensing standards
b. Position paper
c. Smith-Hughes Act
d. Nurse practice act

ANS: B

The ANAs position paper of 1965 defined two levels of nursing: registered nurse and technical nurse. Licensing standards, the Smith-Hughes Act, and the nurse practice act were not documents defining two levels of nursing practice published in 1965.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 11

OBJ: 3 | 4 | 9 TOP: Position paper KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

24.What is the wellness/illness continuum defined as?

a. A concept that never changes
b. The range of a persons total health
c. A continuum influenced only by ones physical condition
d. An idea that focuses strictly on an individuals social well-being

ANS: B

The wellness/illness continuum is defined as the range of a persons total health. This continuum is ever-changing, and it is influenced by the individuals physical condition, mental condition, and social well-being.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 12

OBJ: 8 TOP: Wellness/Illness continuum KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

25.Florence Nightingale established a nursing school at Saint Thomas Hospital in London. What was it characterized by? (Select all that apply.)

a. Allowing all applicants who applied to be enrolled
b. Offering formal and practical educational experiences
c. Keeping records of students progress
d. Focusing on sanitation and hygiene
e. Retaining a registry of all graduates

ANS: B, C, D, E

The nursing school established by Florence Nightingale rigorously screened its applicants. The curriculum, which included both formal education and practical experiences, was focused on hygiene and sanitation. The school kept records of the students progress during their school years, and also kept a registry of the graduates.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 3

OBJ:1 | 2TOP:School established by Florence Nightingale

KEY:Nursing Process Step: N/AMSC:NCLEX: N/A

COMPLETION

26.Primitive medical interventions were based on the belief that illness was caused by the presence of _______________ _________________.

ANS:

evil spirits

Illness was thought to be caused by the inhabitation of the body by evil spirits. Medical interventions were designed to drive out the evil spirits by introducing good spirits.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 1

OBJ: 1 TOP: Primitive health care KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

27.During early civilization _____________ ________ performed witchcraft and rituals to induce the bad spirits to leave the body of the ailing person.

ANS:

medicine men

Medicine men performed witchcraft and rituals to induce the bad spirits to leave the body of the ailing person during early civilization.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 2

OBJ: 1 TOP: Primitive health care KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

28.The National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) performs a job analysis every ________ years to determine the scope of practice of LPN/LVNs.

ANS:

3

three

The National Council of State Boards of Nursing performs a job analysis every 3 years to measure the scope of practice for LPN/LVNs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 18

OBJ: 6 | 9 TOP: National Council analysis KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

29.Graduates of the first school for training the practical nurse were referred to as ___________ nurses.

ANS:

attendant

The first school for training the practical nurse started in Brooklyn, New York in 1892 and was conducted under the auspices of the Young Womens Christian Association (YWCA). The Ballard School, as it was known, was approximately 3 months in duration and trained its students to care for the chronically ill, invalids, children, and the elderly. The main emphasis was on home care and included cooking, nutrition, basic science, and basic procedures. Graduates of this program were referred to as attendant nurses.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 9

OBJ: 1 TOP: Attendant nurses KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

30.In 1949, the National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses (NFLPN) was founded by __________ _____________.

ANS:

Lillian Kuster

In 1949 the National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses (NFLPN) was founded by Lillian Kuster. This association is the official membership organization for licensed practical nurses/licensed vocational nurses (LPN/LVNs), and membership is limited to LPNs and LVNs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 9

OBJ: 2 TOP: National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses

KEY:Nursing Process Step: N/AMSC:NCLEX: N/A

OTHER

31.What is the order of Maslows hierarchy of needs beginning with the most basic?

a. Safety and security

b. Love/belongingness

c. Physiological

d. Self-actualization

e. Esteem

ANS:

C, A, B, E, D

Abraham Maslow believed that an individuals behavior is formed by the individuals attempts to meet essential human needs, which he identified as physiological, safety and security, love and belongingness, and esteem and self-actualization.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 12

OBJ: 8 TOP: Maslows Hierarchy of Needs KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

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