FREE Chapter 1 My Nursing Test Banks

LeMone/Burke/Bauldoff/Gubrud, Medical-Surgical Nursing 6th Edition Test Bank
Chapter 1

Question 1

Type: MCSA

The nurse is instructing a patient on the role of diet, exercise, and medication to control type 2 diabetes mellitus. Which core competency for healthcare professionals is the nurse implementing?

1. Quality improvement

2. Evidence-based practice

3. Patient-centered care

4. Teamwork and collaboration

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Identifying safety hazards and measuring quality is an example of the core competency quality improvement.

Rationale 2: Using best research when providing patient care is an example of the core competency evidence-based practice.

Rationale 3: The nurse instructing the patient is an example of the competency patient-centered care.

Rationale 4: The core competency teamwork and collaboration involves collaboration between disciplines to provide continuous and reliable care.

Global Rationale: In 2003, the National Academy of Sciences proposed a set of five core competencies that all healthcare professionals should possess to meet the needs of the 21st century. The nurse instructing the patient is an example of the competency patient-centered care. Identifying safety hazards and measuring quality are examples of the core competency quality improvement. Using best research when providing patient care is an example of the core competency evidence-based practice. Collaboration between disciplines to provide continuous and reliable care is an example of the core competency teamwork and collaboration.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.A.1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care

AACN Essential Competencies: IX.7. Provide appropriate patient teaching that reflects developmental stage, age, culture, spirituality, patient preferences, and health literacy considerations to foster patient engagement in their care

NLN Competencies: Relationship Centered Care: Learn cooperatively, facilitate the learning of others

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 1. Describe the core competencies for healthcare professionals: patient-centered care, interprofessional teams, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and health information technology.

MNL Learning Outcome: 10.5.4. Utilize the nursing process in care of client.

Page Number: 4

Question 2

Type: MCSA

The nurse is planning to utilize the core competency use informatics when providing patient care. Which action should the nurse perform when using this core competency?

1. Change the sharps container in a patients room.

2. Document the effectiveness of pain medication for a patient.

3. Discuss the effectiveness of bedside physical therapy with the therapist.

4. Search through a database of articles to find current research on wound care.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Changing the sharps container is an example of quality improvement.

Rationale 2: Documenting the effectiveness of pain medication for a patient is an example of patient-centered care.

Rationale 3: Discussing the effectiveness of bedside physical therapy with the therapist is an example of teamwork and collaboration.

Rationale 4: Searching through a database of articles to find current research on wound care is an example of use informatics.

Global Rationale: Examples of the nurse using the core competency use informatics include the use of technology to communicate, manage knowledge, reduce errors, and support decision making. The activity of searching through a database of articles to find current research on wound care is an example of use informatics. Changing the sharps container in a patients room is an example of quality improvement. Documenting the effectiveness of pain medication for a patient is an example of patient-centered care. Discussing the effectiveness of bedside physical therapy with the therapist is an example of teamwork and collaboration.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: VI.B.2. Apply technology and information management tools to support safe processes of care

AACN Essentials Competencies: IV.1. Demonstrate skills in using patient care technologies, information systems, and communication devices that support safe nursing practice

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Electronic databases; literature retrieval; evaluating data for validity and reliability; evidence and best practices for nursing

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1. Describe the core competencies for healthcare professionals: patient-centered care, interprofessional teams, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and health information technology.

MNL Learning Outcome: 4.3.3. Examine the treatments used for pressure ulcers.

Page Number:  4

Question 3

Type: MCMA

The nurse plans to implement evidence-based practice when providing patient care. Which activities should the nurse perform?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Participate in education and research activities when possible.

2. Integrate research findings with clinical care to maximize patient outcomes.

3. Serve on the committee to create critical pathways for patient care.

4. Reinforce hand hygiene techniques with unlicensed assistive personnel.

5. Contact Environmental Services to report a malfunctioning infusion pump.

Correct Answer: 1, 2

Rationale 1: Participating in education and research activities when possible is an example of implementing evidence-based practice in the provision of patient care.

Rationale 2: Integrating research findings with clinical care to maximize patient outcomes is an example of implementing evidence-based practice in the provision of patient care.

Rationale 3: Serving on the committee to create critical pathways for patient care is an example of teamwork and collaboration.

Rationale 4: Reinforcing hand hygiene techniques with unlicensed assistive personnel is an example of quality improvement.

Rationale 5: Contacting Environmental Services to report a malfunctioning infusion pump is an example of quality improvement.

Global Rationale: Participating in education and research activities when possible is an example of implementing evidence-based practice in the provision of patient care. Integrating research findings with clinical care to maximize patient outcomes is an example of implementing evidence-based practice in the provision of patient care. Serving on the committee to create critical pathways for patient care is an example of teamwork and collaboration. Reinforcing hand hygiene techniques with unlicensed assistive personnel is an example of quality improvement. Contacting Environmental Services to report a malfunctioning infusion pump is an example of quality improvement.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: III.B.6. Participate in structuring the work environment to facilitate integration of new evidence into standards of practice

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.2. Demonstrate an understanding of the basic elements of the research process and models for applying evidence to clinical practice

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Defining what is evidence-based practice

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1. Describe the core competencies for healthcare professionals: patient-centered care, interprofessional teams, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and health information technology.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  4

Question 4

Type: MCSA

The community health nurse is planning to meet with several community members during a health fair. Which nursing activity exemplifies the core competency patient-centered care?

1. Provide smoking cessation classes and literature.

2. Increase the hours for the physician to see patients.

3. Attend a continuing education program on clean water initiatives.

4. Evaluate the effectiveness of weight reduction strategies.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Providing smoking cessation classes and literature is an example of an activity to provide patient-centered care.

Rationale 2: Increasing the hours for the physician to see patients is an activity to support the competency teamwork and collaboration.

Rationale 3: Attending a continuing education program on clean water initiatives is an activity to support the competency evidence-based practice.

Rationale 4: Evaluating the effectiveness of weight reduction strategies is an activity to support the competency quality improvement.

Global Rationale: Activities to exemplify the core competency patient-centered care should be focused on disease prevention, wellness, and promotion of healthy lifestyles. Providing smoking cessation classes and literature is an example of patient-centered care. Increasing the hours for the physician to see patients is an activity to support the competency teamwork and collaboration. Attending a continuing education program on clean water initiatives is an activity to support the competency evidence-based practice. Evaluating the effectiveness of weight reduction strategies is an activity to support the competency quality improvement.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.B.3. Provide patient-centered care with sensitivity and respect for the diversity of human experience

AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.3. Implement holistic, patient-centered care that reflects an understanding of human growth and development, pathophysiology, pharmacology, medical management and nursing management across the health-illness continuum, across lifespan, and in all healthcare settings

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Knowledge; health promotion/disease prevention

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1. Describe the core competencies for healthcare professionals: patient-centered care, interprofessional teams, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and health information technology.

MNL Learning Outcome: 5.9.4. Utilize the nursing process in care of client.

Page Number:  4

Question 5

Type: MCSA

The nurse is instructing a patient on weight reduction and smoking cessation. Which code of nursing practice is the nurse implementing?

1. International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics for Nurses

2. American Nurses Association Standards of Professional Practice

3. American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses

4. State Board of Nursing Code

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The International Council of Nurses (ICN) Code of Ethics for Nurses specifies what nurses are accountable for in terms of people, practice, society, coworkers, and the profession. The philosophical basis for this code is that nurses are responsible for promoting health, preventing illness, and alleviating suffering. Instructing a patient on weight reduction and smoking cessation exemplifies the ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses.

Rationale 2: The American Nurses Association Standards of Professional Practice are standards, not a code, and focus on specific behaviors to address quality practice, practice evaluation, education, collegiality, collaboration, ethics, research, resource utilization, and leadership.

Rationale 3: The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses has nine statements that address the nurses professional relationships, commitment to patients, patient rights, nursing practice, competency, conditions of employment, and contributions to the science of nursing, collaboration, and nursing values.

Rationale 4: The state boards of nursing do not publish codes for nursing.

Global Rationale: The International Council of Nurses (ICN) Code of Ethics for Nurses specifies what nurses are accountable for in terms of people, practice, society, coworkers, and the profession. The philosophical basis for this code is that nurses are responsible for promoting health, preventing illness, and alleviating suffering. Instructing a patient on weight reduction and smoking cessation exemplifies the ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses. The American Nurses Association Standards of Professional Practice are standards, not a code, and focus on specific behaviors to address quality practice, practice evaluation, education, collegiality, collaboration, ethics, research, resource utilization, and leadership. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses has nine statements that address the nurses professional relationships, commitment to patients, patient rights, nursing practice, competency, conditions of employment, and contributions to the science of nursing, collaboration, and nursing values. The state boards of nursing do not publish codes for nursing.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.A.1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care

AACN Essentials Competencies: VII.4. Use behavioral change techniques to promote health and manage illness

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Knowledge; health promotion/disease prevention

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 4. Explain the importance of nursing and interprofessional codes of ethics and standards of practice as guidelines for clinical nursing practice.

MNL Learning Outcome: 5.9.4. Utilize the nursing process in care of client.

Page Number:  9

Question 6

Type: MCSA

The nurse is providing patient care within the American Nurses Association Standards of Professional Performance. Which activity is the nurse implementing?

1. Integrating research findings into practice

2. Implementing a patients plan of care

3. Evaluating patient progress toward identified outcomes

4. Analyzing assessment data to determine issues

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The nurse who is practicing within the American Nurses Association Standards of Professional Performance would integrate research findings into practice. The standards focus on ethics, education, evidence-based practice and research, quality nursing practice, communication, leadership, collaboration, professional practice evaluation, resource utilization, and environmental health.

Rationale 2: Implementing a patients plan of care is an example of adhering to the American Nurses Association Standards of Practice.

Rationale 3: Evaluating patient progress toward identified outcomes is an example of adhering to the American Nurses Association Standards of Practice.

Rationale 4: Analyzing assessment data to determine issues is an example of adhering to the American Nurses Association Standards of Practice.

Global Rationale: The nurse who is practicing within the American Nurses Association Standards of Professional Performance would integrate research findings into practice. The standards focus ethics, education, evidence-based practice and research, quality nursing practice, communication, leadership, collaboration, professional practice evaluation, resource utilization, and environmental health. The other activities would be implemented when the nurse is adhering to the American Nurses Association Standards of Practice.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: III.B.6. Participate in structuring the work environment to facilitate integration of new evidence into standards of practice

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.2. Demonstrate an understanding of the basic elements of the research process and models for applying evidence to clinical practice

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Defining what is evidence-based practice

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 4. Explain the importance of nursing and interprofessional codes of ethics and standards of practice as guidelines for clinical nursing practice.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  10

Question 7

Type: MCSA

The nurse prescribes strategies and alternatives to assist a patient achieve expected outcomes. Within which American Nurses Association standard is the nurse practicing?

1. Planning

2. Assessment

3. Diagnosis

4. Implementation

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The American Nurses Association Standards of Practice follow the nursing process. The nurse who prescribes strategies and alternatives to assist a patient achieve expected outcomes is practicing within the standard of planning.

Rationale 2: Assessment activities include data collection.

Rationale 3: Diagnosis activities include analyzing data to determine issues.

Rationale 4: Implementation activities include implementing the identified plan, coordinating care delivery, and employing strategies to promote health and a safe environment.

Global Rationale: The American Nurses Association Standards of Practice follow the nursing process. The nurse who prescribes strategies and alternatives to assist a patient achieve expected outcomes is practicing within the standard of planning. Assessment activities include data collection. Diagnosis activities include analyzing data to determine issues. Implementation activities include implementing the identified plan, coordinating care delivery, and employing strategies to promote health and a safe environment.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.B.3. Provide patient-centered care with sensitivity and respect for the diversity of human experience

AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.3. Implement holistic, patient-centered care that reflects an understanding of human growth and development, pathophysiology, pharmacology, medical management and nursing management across the health-illness continuum, across lifespan, and in all healthcare settings

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Practice; conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 4. Explain the importance of nursing and interprofessional codes of ethics and standards of practice as guidelines for clinical nursing practice.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  10

Question 8

Type: MCSA

A patient with a terminal illness is concerned about pain control. If the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics for Nurses is followed, what should the nurse plan for the patient?

1. Measures to alleviate suffering

2. Modified activities of daily living

3. Enforcement of strict bed rest

4. Dietary interventions to maximize strength

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The philosophical basis for the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics for Nurses is the responsibility to promote health, prevent illness, and alleviate suffering. The nurse should plan measures to alleviate the patients suffering.

Rationale 2: Modified activities of daily living may not affect pain control.

Rationale 3: Enforcement of strict bed rest may not affect pain control.

Rationale 4: Dietary interventions to maximize strength may not affect pain control.

Global Rationale: The philosophical basis for the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics for Nurses is the responsibility to promote health, prevent illness, and alleviate suffering. The nurse should plan measures to alleviate the patients suffering. Modified activities of daily living, enforcement of strict bed rest, and dietary interventions to maximize strength may not affect pain control.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.B.7. Initiate effective treatments to relieve pain and suffering in light of patient values, preferences and expressed needs

AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.6. Implement patient and family care around resolution of end-of-life and palliative care issues, such as symptom management, support of rituals, and respect for patient and family preferences

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 4. Explain the importance of nursing and interprofessional codes of ethics and standards of practice as guidelines for clinical nursing practice.

MNL Learning Outcome: 3.4.3. Critique interventions appropriate for the client with cancer.

Page Number:  9

Question 9

Type: MCSA

A patient is angry after waiting over an hour for pain medication. What should the nurse respond to the patient that demonstrates critical thinking?

1. I understand your anger and am sorry for the delay. I have your pain medication now.

2. I had other patients who needed my attention first, so I did a few things before getting the pain medication.

3. I needed to find out what your medication is and if you can have more when you asked.

4. It seems that you always ask for pain medication when I am trying to do other things.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Critical thinking is evident when the nurse challenges assumptions, overtly identifies and acknowledges the values and beliefs he/she brings to the situation, considers the influence of context, generates possible explanations, and deliberately maintains healthy skepticism. For the patient who is angry, this statement demonstrates empathy and critical thinking.

Rationale 2: This statement is not an example of critical thinking and would be an inappropriate response.

Rationale 3: This statement is not an example of critical thinking and would be an inappropriate response.

Rationale 4: This statement is not an example of critical thinking and would be an inappropriate response.

Global Rationale: Critical thinking is evident when the nurse challenges assumptions, overtly identifies and acknowledges the values and beliefs he/she brings to the situation, considers the influence of context, generates possible explanations, and deliberately maintains healthy skepticism. As the patient is angry, the statement that demonstrates empathy and critical thinking is I understand your anger and am sorry for the delay. I have your pain medication now. The other choices are not examples of critical thinking and would be inappropriate responses.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.B.7. Initiate effective treatments to relieve pain and suffering in light of patient values, preferences and expressed needs

AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.6. Implement patient and family care around resolution of end-of-life and palliative care issues, such as symptom management, support of rituals, and respect for patient and family preferences

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  4

Question 10

Type: MCSA

The nurse is reviewing data collected from a patient during an assessment. Which activity demonstrates that the nurse is using divergent thinking when analyzing this data?

1. The nurse identifies abnormal data for further analyzing.

2. The nurse focuses on normal data to rule out health problems.

3. The nurse discriminates between facts and guesses.

4. The nurse thinks about the information to determine solutions.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Divergent thinking, a critical-thinking skill, is the ability to weigh the importance of information. The nurse should sort out the data that are relevant from data that are irrelevant for the patient, remembering that abnormal data are usually considered relevant.

Rationale 2: Normal data are helpful but may not change the care to provide to the patient. This is not divergent thinking because it does not weigh the importance of the information.

Rationale 3: Discriminating between facts and guesses describes the critical-thinking skill of reasoning.

Rationale 4: Thinking about the information to determine solutions describes the critical-thinking skill of reflection.

Global Rationale: Divergent thinking, a critical-thinking skill, is the ability to weigh the importance of information. The nurse should sort out the data that are relevant from data that are irrelevant for the patient. Abnormal data are usually considered relevant; normal data are helpful but may not change the care to provide to the patient. Discriminating between facts and guesses describes the critical-thinking skill of reasoning. Thinking about the information to determine solutions describes the critical-thinking skill of reflection.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.6. Integrate evidence, clinical judgment, interprofessional perspectives and patient preferences in planning, implementing, and evaluating outcomes of care

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  4

Question 11

Type: MCSA

The nurse is identifying nursing diagnoses appropriate for a patients plan of care. What should the nurse use to determine these diagnoses?

1. Diagnostic reasoning

2. Communication techniques

3. Identified outcome criteria

4. Established priorities

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Making a diagnosis is a complex process, and the nurse uses diagnostic reasoning to choose nursing diagnoses that best define the individual patients health problems. Diagnostic reasoning is a form of clinical judgment used to make decisions about which label, or diagnosis, best describes the patterns of data. Steps in the process include identifying significant cues, clustering the cues and identifying gaps, drawing conclusions about the present health status, and determining etiologies and categorizing problems.

Rationale 2: Communication techniques would be needed when conducting the patient assessment.

Rationale 3: Identification of outcome criteria is a part of the planning phase of the nursing process.

Rationale 4: Priorities are established during the implementation phase of the nursing process.

Global Rationale: Making a diagnosis is a complex process, and the nurse uses diagnostic reasoning to choose nursing diagnoses that best define the individual patients health problems. Diagnostic reasoning is a form of clinical judgment used to make decisions about which label, or diagnosis, best describes the patterns of data. Steps in the process include identifying significant cues, clustering the cues and identifying gaps, drawing conclusions about the present health status, and determining etiologies and categorizing problems. Communication techniques would be needed when conducting the patient assessment. Identification of outcome criteria is a part of the planning phase of the nursing process. Priorities are established during the implementation phase of the nursing process.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.A.1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.6. Integrate evidence, clinical judgment, interprofessional perspectives and patient preferences in planning, implementing, and evaluating outcomes of care

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  6

Question 12

Type: MCSA

The nurse plans and implements care for a patient based on nursing knowledge and skills. In which role is the nurse functioning?

1. Caregiver

2. Advocate

3. Educator

4. Leader

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The caregiver role for the nurse today is both independent and collaborative. Nurses independently make assessments and plan and implement patient care based on nursing knowledge and skills.

Rationale 2: The nurse functioning as a patient advocate actively promotes the patients rights to autonomy and free choice.

Rationale 3: The nurse functioning in the role of educator nurse assesses learning needs, plans and implements teaching methods to meet those needs, and evaluates the effectiveness of the teaching.

Rationale 4: The nurse functioning in the role of leader directs, delegates, and coordinates nursing activities.

Global Rationale: The caregiver role for the nurse today is both independent and collaborative. Nurses independently make assessments and plan and implement patient care based on nursing knowledge and skills. The nurse functioning as a patient advocate actively promotes the patients rights to autonomy and free choice. The nurse functioning in the role of educator nurse assesses learning needs, plans and implements teaching methods to meet those needs, and evaluates the effectiveness of the teaching. The nurse functioning in the role of leader directs, delegates, and coordinates nursing activities.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: II.B.4. Function competently within own scope of practice as a member of the health care team

AACN Essentials Competencies: VI.2. Use inter- and intraprofessional communication and collaborative skills to deliver evidence-based, patient-centered care

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Explain the activities and characteristics of the nurse as caregiver, educator, advocate, leader and manager, and researcher.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  11

Question 13

Type: MCSA

A patient has questions about a required surgical procedure. When performing as a patient advocate, what should the nurse do?

1. Contact the healthcare provider and ask that the procedure be explained to the patient.

2. Explain the procedure to the patient.

3. Document that the patient does not understand the proposed surgical procedure.

4. Instruct the patient in alternatives to the surgical procedure.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The nurse as patient advocate actively promotes the patients rights to autonomy and free choice. The nurse should protect the patients right to self-determination about the surgical procedure.

Rationale 2: The nurse should not explain the procedure to the patient. This is not patient advocacy.

Rationale 3: The nurse should not do anything beyond documenting the patients lack of understanding about the procedure.

Rationale 4: The nurse should not provide alternatives to the surgical procedure.

Global Rationale: The nurse as patient advocate actively promotes the patients rights to autonomy and free choice. The nurse should protect the patients right to self-determination about the surgical procedure. The nurse should not explain the procedure to the patient. The nurse should not do anything beyond documenting the patients lack of understanding about the procedure. The nurse should not provide alternatives to the surgical procedure.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.B.2. Communicate patient values, preferences and expressed needs to other members of health care team

AACN Essentials Competencies: VI.2. Use inter- and intraprofessional communication and collaborative skills to deliver evidence-based, patient-centered care

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Explain the activities and characteristics of the nurse as caregiver, educator, advocate, leader and manager, and researcher.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  13

Question 14

Type: MCSA

The nurse teaches a patient newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus about the importance of an annual dilated-retina eye examination and annual urine tests to measure protein levels. Within which role is the nurse functioning?

1. Educator

2. Researcher

3. Advocate

4. Leader

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The nurse is functioning as an educator by instructing the patient on annual tests to maintain health.

Rationale 2: As a researcher, the nurse would have a goal to improve the care nurses provide to patients.

Rationale 3: As an advocate, the nurse actively promotes the patients rights to autonomy and free choice.

Rationale 4: As a leader, the nurse manages time, people, and resources by delegating, directing, and coordinating nursing activities.

Global Rationale: The nurse is functioning as an educator by instructing the patient on annual tests to maintain health. As a researcher, the nurse would have a goal to improve the care nurses provide to patients. As an advocate, the nurse actively promotes the patients rights to autonomy and free choice. As a leader, the nurse manages time, people, and resources by delegating, directing, and coordinating nursing activities.

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

QSEN Competencies: I.B.15. Communicate care provided and needed at each transition in care

AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.7. Provide appropriate patient teaching that reflects developmental stage, age, culture, spirituality, patient preferences, and health literacy considerations to foster patient engagement in their care

NLN Competencies: Relationship Centered Care; Practice; learn cooperatively, facilitate the learning of others

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Explain the activities and characteristics of the nurse as caregiver, educator, advocate, leader and manager, and researcher.

MNL Learning Outcome: 10.5.4. Utilize the nursing process in care of client.

Page Number:  12

Question 15

Type: MCMA

The nurse is providing care within the primary nursing delivery model. Which leadership activities should the nurse perform within this model?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Communicate with patients, families, and other care providers.

2. Serve as the team leader by making assignments and being responsible for all care provided.

3. Make referrals and manage the quality of care to include timeliness and cost.

4. Manage a caseload of patients and the health team members providing care to the patients.

5. Create patient discharge plans.

Correct Answer: 1, 5

Rationale 1: When providing care to patients within the primary nursing care delivery model, leadership activities of the nurse include communicating with patients, families, and other care providers.

Rationale 2: In the team nursing care delivery model, leadership activities of the nurse include serving as the team leader, making assignments, and being responsible for all care provided.

Rationale 3: In the transitional care coordination model, leadership activities of the nurse include making referrals and managing the quality of care to include timeliness and cost.

Rationale 4: In the transitional care coordination model, leadership activities of the nurse include managing a caseload of patients and the health team members providing care to the patients.

Rationale 5: When providing care to patients within the primary nursing care delivery model, leadership activities of the nurse include creating discharge plans.

Global Rationale: When providing care to patients within the primary nursing care delivery model, leadership activities of the nurse include communicating with patients, families, and other care providers, and planning the discharge of the patients. In the team nursing care delivery model, leadership activities of the nurse include serving as the team leader, making assignments, and being responsible for all care provider. In the transitional care coordination model, leadership activities of the nurse include making referrals, managing the quality of care to include timeliness and cost, managing a caseload of patients, and managing the health team members providing care to the patients.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.B.15. Communicate care provided and needed at each transition in care

AACN Essentials Competencies: I.4. Use written, verbal, non-verbal and emerging technology methods to communicate effectively

NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety; Practice; Communicate effectively with different individuals (team members, other care providers, patients, families, etc.) so as to minimize risks associated with handoffs among providers and across transitions in care.

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Explain the activities and characteristics of the nurse as caregiver, educator, advocate, leader and manager, and researcher.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  13

Question 16

Type: MCSA

The nurse is using a specific process to plan smoking cessation activities for a patient. What is this nurse most likely using to plan the care for this patient?

1. Nursing process

2. Critical pathways

3. Evidence-based practice

4. Variance analysis

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The nursing process is a series of critical-thinking and clinical reasoning activities that nurses use to provide care to patients. The purpose of care may be to promote wellness, restore health, or facilitate coping with a disability or death.

Rationale 2: Critical pathways are used primarily to manage disease conditions.

Rationale 3: Evidence-based practice is used primarily to manage disease conditions.

Rationale 4: Variance analyzing implies the use of statistics-based research.

Global Rationale: The nursing process is a series of critical-thinking and clinical reasoning activities that nurses use to provide care to patients. The purpose of care may be to promote wellness, restore health, or facilitate coping with a disability or death. Critical pathways and evidence-based practice are used primarily to manage disease conditions. Variance analyzing implies the use of statistics-based research.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.A.1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.6. Integrate evidence, clinical judgment, interprofessional perspectives and patient preferences in planning, implementing, and evaluating outcomes of care

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  5

Question 17

Type: MCSA

The nurse stops to think about a previous patient care situation before providing care to a current patient. What type of thinking is this nurse performing?

1. Reflective

2. Divergent

3. Systematic

4. Creative

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Reflective thinking involves two kinds of thinking. Reflecting-in-action occurs while a situation is being addressed. Reflecting-on-action is deliberate, occurs after an event, and creates embodied knowledge and skillfulness that will influence what the nurse perceives as salient when confronted with similar patient situations in the future.

Rationale 2: Divergent thinking is the ability to weigh the importance of information.

Rationale 3: Systematic thinking involves collecting, analyzing, and organizing information in a methodical manner that supports development of pattern recognition.

Rationale 4: Creative thinking involves clinical imagination that integrates science, skilled know-how, and practical knowledge to develop unique solutions to individual patient needs.

Global Rationale: Reflective thinking involves two kinds of thinking. Reflecting-in-action occurs while a situation is being addressed. Reflecting-on-action is deliberate, occurs after an event, and creates embodied knowledge and skillfulness that will influence what the nurse perceives as salient when confronted with similar patient situations in the future. Divergent thinking is the ability to weigh the importance of information. Systematic thinking involves collecting, analyzing, and organizing information in a methodical manner that supports development of pattern recognition. Creative thinking involves clinical imagination that integrates science, skilled know-how, and practical knowledge to develop unique solutions to individual patient needs.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.A.1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.6. Integrate evidence, clinical judgment, interprofessional perspectives and patient preferences in planning, implementing, and evaluating outcomes of care

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  4

Question 18

Type: MCSA

A nurse working on a quality improvement study wants to evaluate a patient care process. What should the nurse use to evaluate this process?

1. Nursing process

2. Critical pathway

3. Variance analysis

4. Evidence-based practice

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The nursing process can serve as a framework for the evaluation of quality care.

Rationale 2: The use of critical pathways would not provide the best, recommended means to evaluate a patient care process.

Rationale 3: The use of variance analysis would not provide the best, recommended means to evaluate a patient care process.

Rationale 4: The use of evidence-based practice would not provide the best, recommended means to evaluate a patient care process.

Global Rationale: The nursing process can serve as a framework for the evaluation of quality care. The use of critical pathways, variance analysis, and evidence-based practice would not provide the best, recommended means to evaluate a patient care process.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: IV.A.1. Describe strategies for learning about the outcomes of care in the setting in which one is engaged in clinical practice

AACN Essentials Competencies: II.1.Apply leadership concepts, skills and decision making in the provision of high quality nursing care, healthcare team coordination and the oversight and accountability for care delivery in a variety of settings

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Knowledge; Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Explain the activities and characteristics of the nurse as caregiver, educator, advocate, leader and manager, and researcher.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  5

Question 19

Type: MCSA

The nurse is reviewing the outcome of care that was provided to a patient. Which nursing process step is the nurse implementing?

1. Evaluation

2. Assessment

3. Implementation

4. Planning

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The evaluation step allows the nurse to determine whether the plan was effective and whether to continue, revise, or terminate the plan. The outcome criteria that were established during the planning step provide the basis for evaluation.

Rationale 2: During the assessment phase, the nurse is actively collecting data.

Rationale 3: Implementation is the phase of the nursing process during which the nurse performs interventions.

Rationale 4: Determining the needs of the patient and devising a plan of action take place during the planning phase.

Global Rationale: The evaluation step allows the nurse to determine whether the plan was effective and whether to continue, revise, or terminate the plan. The outcome criteria that were established during the planning step provide the basis for evaluation. During the assessment phase, the nurse is actively collecting data. Implementation is the phase of the nursing process during which the nurse performs interventions. Determining the needs of the patient and devising a plan of action take place during the planning phase.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.C.10. Value active partnership with patients or designated surrogates in planning, implementation, and evaluation of care

AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.9. Monitor client outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of psychobiological interventions

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  9

Question 20

Type: MCSA

A patient says, I have pain in my leg when I stand too long. As which type of data should the nurse categorize this information?

1. Subjective

2. Evaluative

3. Qualitative

4. Objective

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Information that is perceived only by the person experiencing it is subjective data.

Rationale 2: Evaluative data is used to assess responses to care.

Rationale 3: Qualitative data refers to the presence or absence of a factor.

Rationale 4: Objective data can be measured by someone or something other than the patient.

Global Rationale: Information that is perceived only by the person experiencing it is subjective data. Evaluative data is used to assess responses to care. Qualitative data refers to the presence or absence of a factor. Objective data can be measured by someone or something other than the patient.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.B.1. Elicit patient values, preferences and expressed needs as part of clinical interview, implementation of care plan and evaluation of care

AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Practice; conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome: Page Number:  6

Question 21

Type: MCSA

While providing care, the nurse stops to assess a new patient problem. What type of assessment is the nurse conducting?

1. Focused

2. Initial

3. Objective

4. Subjective

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Focused assessments are ongoing and continuous, occurring whenever the nurse interacts with the patient. In a focused assessment, data are gathered about an identified or potential problem and are used to evaluate nursing actions and make decisions about whether to continue or change interventions to meet outcomes. Focused assessments enable the nurse to identify responses to a disease process or treatment modality not present during the initial assessment, and to identify new problems.

Rationale 2: The initial assessment refers to the first interaction.

Rationale 3: Subjective assessment is not indicated in this scenario.

Rationale 4: Objective assessment is not indicated in this scenario.

Global Rationale: Focused assessments are ongoing and continuous, occurring whenever the nurse interacts with the patient. In a focused assessment, data are gathered about an identified or potential problem and are used to evaluate nursing actions and make decisions about whether to continue or change interventions to meet outcomes. Focused assessments enable the nurse to identify responses to a disease process or treatment modality not present during the initial assessment, and to identify new problems. The initial assessment refers to the first interaction. Subjective and objective assessments are not indicated in this scenario.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.B.1. Elicit patient values, preferences and expressed needs as part of clinical interview, implementation of care plan and evaluation of care

AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Practice; conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  6

Question 22

Type: MCSA

At the completion of an assessment, the nurse chooses a nursing diagnosis that best defines the patients health problems. Which type of clinical judgment should the nurse use at this time?

1. Diagnostic reasoning

2. Evidence-based practice

3. Critical pathway

4. Nursing process

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Diagnostic reasoning is a form of clinical judgment used to make decisions about which diagnostic label best describes the patterns of patient data.

Rationale 2: Evidence-based practice refers to the implementation of care initiatives that have been supported by research.

Rationale 3: A critical pathway is a health care plan developed to provide care with a multidisciplinary, managed action focus.

Rationale 4: The nursing process is a series of critical thinking and clinical reasoning activities nurses use as they provide care to patients.

Global Rationale: Diagnostic reasoning is a form of clinical judgment used to make decisions about which diagnostic label best describes the patterns of patient data. Evidence-based practice refers to the implementation of care initiatives that have been supported by research. A critical pathway is a healthcare plan developed to provide care with a multidisciplinary, managed action focus. The nursing process is a series of critical thinking and clinical reasoning activities nurses use as they provide care to patients.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.A.1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.6. Integrate evidence, clinical judgment, interprofessional perspectives and patient preferences in planning, implementing, and evaluating outcomes of care

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  6

Question 23

Type: MCSA

The nurse is creating outcome criteria for identified nursing diagnoses for a patient. What characteristics should the nurse include when creating the criteria?

1. Patient-specific, time-specific, and measurable

2. Constructed as nursing goals

3. Structured as statements

4. Focus on psychomotor actions

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Outcome criteria for nursing diagnoses are patient-centered, time-specific, and measurable. They are classified into three domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.

Rationale 2: The focus of the outcome criteria is the patient, not the nurse.

Rationale 3: While the outcome criteria are often written as statements, this option does not encompass all of the criteria that are to be included.

Rationale 4: Outcome criteria are not limited to psychomotor skills; they may also be cognitive or affective.

Global Rationale: Outcome criteria for nursing diagnoses are patient-centered, time-specific, and measurable. They are classified into three domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. The focus of the outcome criteria is the patient, not the nurse. While the outcome criteria are often written as statements, this option does not encompass all of the criteria that are to be included. Outcome criteria are not limited to psychomotor skills; they may also be cognitive or affective.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.A.8. Describe the limits and boundaries of therapeutic patient-centered care

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.6. Integrate evidence, clinical judgment, interprofessional perspectives and patient preferences in planning, implementing, and evaluating outcomes of care

NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety; Practice; Contribute to assessment of outcome achievement

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  7

Question 24

Type: MCSA

The nurse is implementing a plan of care for a patient. After providing care, what should the nurse do as the final step in the process?

1. Document

2. Reassess the patient

3. Measure vital signs

4. Provide report to the charge nurse

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Documenting interventions is the final component of implementation as well as a legal requirement.

Rationale 2: Ongoing assessment of the patient is an essential component of implementation, but it is not the final step.

Rationale 3: Measuring vital signs can be completed at any time and not necessarily at the end of implementing the plan of care.

Rationale 4: Providing report is an ongoing process and is not necessarily completed after implementing the plan of care.

Global Rationale: Documenting interventions is the final component of implementation as well as a legal requirement. Ongoing assessment of the patient is an essential component of implementation, but it is not the final step. Measuring vital signs can be completed at any time and not necessarily at the end of implementing the plan of care. Providing report is an ongoing process and is not necessarily completed after implementing the plan of care.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: VI.B.4. Document and plan patient care in an electronic health record

AACN Essentials Competencies: IV.4. Understand the use of CIS (clinical information systems) systems to document interventions related to achieving nurse sensitive outcomes

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Use Databases for practice, administrative, education, and/or research purposes; document via electronic health records; use software applications related to nursing practice

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  9

Question 25

Type: MCSA

A patient care issue has been raised about the actions taken by a nurse who provided care to a patient whose healthcare decisions were considered controversial. The units nurse manager is concerned that care was not appropriately provided. What should be consulted to protect the patient and to evaluate the care in question?

1. Nursing Code of Ethics

2. Hospital quality improvement guidelines

3. Nurse Practice Act

4. Critical pathway

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: An established code of ethics is one criterion that defines a profession. Ethics are principles of conduct. Codes of ethics for nurses provide a frame of reference for ideal nursing behaviors that are congruent with the principles expressed in the Code for Nurses.

Rationale 2: Quality improvement uses data to monitor the outcomes of care and the processes used to deliver that care.

Rationale 3: The Nurse Practice Act provides the standards for an individual states stance on the nurses scope of practice.

Rationale 4: A critical pathway is a healthcare plan developed to provide care with a multidisciplinary, managed action focus.

Global Rationale: An established code of ethics is one criterion that defines a profession. Ethics are principles of conduct. Codes of ethics for nurses provide a frame of reference for ideal nursing behaviors that are congruent with the principles expressed in the Code for Nurses. Quality improvement uses data to monitor the outcomes of care and the processes used to deliver that care. The Nurse Practice Act provides the standards for an individual states stance on the nurses scope of practice. A critical pathway is a healthcare plan developed to provide care with a multidisciplinary, managed action focus.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.A.7. Explore ethical and legal implications of patient-centered care

AACN Essentials Competencies: VIII.12. Act to prevent unsafe, illegal or unethical care practices

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Knowledge; Code of Ethics; regulatory and professional standards

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 4. Explain the importance of nursing and interprofessional codes of ethics and standards of practice as guidelines for clinical nursing practice.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  9

Question 26

Type: MCSA

The nurse is preparing a patient to go home. Which skill should the nurse use when preparing this patient?

1. Familiarity with adult learning principles

2. Ability to follow written orders

3. Ability to use critical thinking

4. Ability to support patient decision making

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The nurse will function as an educator when preparing a patient for discharge. To do this adequately, the nurse will need to have some level of familiarity with adult learning principles to provide effective patient education and evaluate the outcome.

Rationale 2: Following written orders is considered a basic caregiver skill.

Rationale 3: Using critical thinking would be considered a basic caregiver skill.

Rationale 4: The ability to support patient decision making relates to the role of patient advocate.

Global Rationale: The nurse will function as an educator when preparing a patient for discharge. To do this adequately, the nurse will need to have some level of familiarity with adult learning principles to provide effective patient education and evaluate the outcome. Following written orders and using critical thinking would be considered basic caregiver skills. The ability to support patient decision making relates to the role of patient advocate.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.B.3. Provide patient-centered care with sensitivity and respect for the diversity of human experience

AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 7. Provide appropriate patient teaching that reflects developmental stage, age, culture, spirituality, patient preferences, and health literacy considerations to foster patient engagement in their care

NLN Competencies: Relationship Centered Care; Practice; learn cooperatively, facilitate the learning of others.

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Explain the activities and characteristics of the nurse as caregiver, educator, advocate, leader and manager, and researcher. 

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  13

Question 27

Type: MCSA

The nurse is preparing to provide patient care information to a group of unlicensed assistive personnel. Which type of care delivery system is this nurse most likely using to provide patient care?

1. Team nursing

2. Functional nursing

3. Primary nursing

4. Case management

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Team nursing is practiced by teams of healthcare providers with various levels of education, including unlicensed assistive personnel. Team members work together and provide the care for which they are individually trained.

Rationale 2: Functional nursing is not a recognized term.

Rationale 3: In primary nursing, total nursing care is provided by the assigned nurse.

Rationale 4: The focus of case management is meeting the needs and care of a group of patients, with concurrent goals of maximized outcomes and cost containment.

Global Rationale: Team nursing is practiced by teams of healthcare providers with various levels of education, including unlicensed assistive personnel. Team members work together and provide the care for which they are individually trained. Functional nursing is not a recognized term. In primary nursing, total nursing care is provided by the assigned nurse. The focus of case management is meeting the needs and care of a group of patients, with concurrent goals of maximized outcomes and cost containment.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: II.B.5. Assume role of team member or leader based on the situation

AACN Essentials Competencies: VI.1. Compare/contrast the roles and perspectives of the nursing profession with other care professionals on the healthcare team (i.e. scope of discipline, education and licensure requirements)

NLN Competencies: Relationship Centered Care; Knowledge; Team building and team dynamics

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 5. Explain the activities and characteristics of the nurse as caregiver, educator, advocate, leader and manager, and researcher.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  13

Question 28

Type: MCSA

A nurse has delegated the collection of vital signs, including blood pressure readings, to two unlicensed assistive personnel. What is the nurses responsibility for the delegated care?

1. The nurse is accountable for the care that was delegated.

2. The nurse is not responsible for these vital signs.

3. The nurse is not accountable for these vital signs.

4. The nurse is responsible for re-measuring all the vital signs.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: When the nurse delegates nursing care activities to another person, that person is authorized to act in the place of the nurse, while the nurse retains accountability for the activities performed.

Rationale 2: The nurse retains responsibility/accountability for the vital signs.

Rationale 3: The nurse is accountable for reviewing the data collected and ensuring it is done appropriately.

Rationale 4: The purpose of delegation is to share tasks appropriately, not to increase the workload of the primary nurse.

Global Rationale: When the nurse delegates nursing care activities to another person, that person is authorized to act in the place of the nurse, while the nurse retains accountability for the activities performed. The nurse retains responsibility/accountability for the vital signs. The nurse is accountable for reviewing the data collected and ensuring it is done appropriately. The purpose of delegation is to share tasks appropriately, not to increase the workload of the primary nurse.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: II.B.5. Assume role of team member or leader based on the situation

AACN Essentials Competencies: VI.1. Compare/contrast the roles and perspectives of the nursing profession with other care professionals on the healthcare team (i.e. scope of discipline, education and licensure requirements)

NLN Competencies: Relationship Centered Care; Knowledge; Team building and team dynamics

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Explain the activities and characteristics of the nurse as caregiver, educator, advocate, leader and manager, and researcher.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  14

Question 29

Type: MCSA

Quality assurance chart audits provide nurses with information that impacts the future outcomes of patient care. What should the nurses do with this information?

1. Create an action plan to address any negative findings.

2. Share it with the hospital administrator.

3. Submit it to the agencys accrediting body.

4. Place it in a file to compare with the next set of audits.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The results of quality assurance audits can be used to develop a plan of action to resolve differences or issues with patient care. Nurses are expected to use the information if it will have a positive impact on the nursing practice.

Rationale 2: There is no real purpose to sharing the results of a quality assurance audit with the hospital administrator.

Rationale 3: While the accrediting body of an institution may encourage quality improvement activities, there is no reason to provide the chart audit results.

Rationale 4: Nurses are expected to use the information if it will have a positive impact on the nursing practice.

Global Rationale: The results of quality assurance audits can be used to develop a plan of action to resolve differences or issues with patient care. There is no real purpose to sharing the results of a quality assurance audit with the hospital administrator.  While the accrediting body of an institution may encourage quality improvement activities, there is no reason to provide the chart audit results. Nurses are expected to use the information if it will have a positive impact on the nursing practice.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: IV.B. 5. Use quality measures to understand performance

AACN Essentials Competencies: II. 1. Apply leadership concepts, skills and decision making in the provision of high quality nursing care, healthcare team coordination and the oversight and accountability for care delivery in a variety of settings

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 1. Describe the core competencies for healthcare professionals: patient-centered care, interprofessional teams, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and health information technology.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  4

Question 30

Type: MCSA

A graduate nurse attends a seminar regarding the role of the nurse as a patient advocate. Which statement by the graduate nurse indicates the need for further education?

1. Patient advocates have the authority to make decisions for the patient.

2. Being a patient advocate entails making efforts to improve patient outcomes.

3. Providing education to the patient and family is a key way to be a positive patient advocate.

4. Communicating patient needs to the members of the healthcare team is a role of the patient advocate.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The nurse who serves as a patient advocate may assist and support the patient in decision making. The nurse cannot make decisions for the patient.

Rationale 2: This is an element of being a successful patient advocate.

Rationale 3: This is an element of being a successful patient advocate.

Rationale 4: This is an element of being a successful patient advocate.

Global Rationale: The nurse who serves as a patient advocate may assist and support the patient in decision making. The nurse cannot make decisions for the patient. The remaining answer choices are elements of being a successful patient advocate.

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.B.2. Communicate patient values, preferences and expressed needs to other members of health care team

AACN Essentials Competencies: VI.2. Use inter- and intraprofessional communication and collaborative skills to deliver evidence-based, patient-centered care

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 5. Explain the activities and characteristics of the nurse as caregiver, educator, advocate, leader and manager, and researcher. 

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  13

Question 31

Type: MCMA

The nurse is assessing a patient with pain in the lower back. Which questions or results indicate the nurse is using divergent thinking during the assessment process?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Tell me about your dietary practices.

2. Can you tell me on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the worst, how you would rate your pain now?

3. The nurse notes a cluster of blisters on the patients scapula.

4. When was the last time you had a physical?

5. Does your eyesight affect your ability to see the insulin you are taking?

Correct Answer: 2, 3, 5

Rationale 1: Normal data are helpful but may not change the care the nurse provides.

Rationale 2: Divergent thinking is the ability to weigh the importance of information. When collecting data from a patient, the nurse can sort out the data that are relevant for care from the data that are not relevant.

Rationale 3: Divergent thinking is the ability to weigh the importance of information. When collecting data from a patient, the nurse can sort out the data that are relevant for care from the data that are not relevant.

Rationale 4: Normal data are helpful but may not change the care the nurse provides.

Rationale 5: Divergent thinking is the ability to weigh the importance of information. When collecting data from a patient, the nurse can sort out the data that are relevant for care from the data that are not relevant.

Global Rationale: Divergent thinking is the ability to weigh the importance of information. When collecting data from a patient, the nurse can sort out the data that are relevant for care from the data that are not relevant. Normal data are helpful but may not change the care the nurse provides.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub: Reduction of Risk Potential

QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.6. Integrate evidence, clinical judgment, interprofessional perspectives and patient preferences in planning, implementing, and evaluating outcomes of care

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  4

Question 32

Type: SEQ

Arrange in order the steps the nurse should take in a focused assessment for a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Standard Text: Click and drag the options below to move them up or down.

Choice 1. Nurse notes patient is reluctant to draw up insulin in syringe.

Choice 2. Nurse assesses what the patient already knows.

Choice 3. Nurse has patient practice drawing up insulin.

Choice 4. Nurse calls in diabetic educator.

Choice 5. Nurse notes patient is not aware of differences between hypo- and hyperglycemia.

Correct Answer: 2, 5, 1, 3, 4

Rationale 1:

Rationale 2:

Rationale 3:

Rationale 4:

Rationale 5:

Global Rationale: Focused assessments are ongoing and continuous. Data are used to evaluate nursing actions and make decisions about whether to continue or change interventions to meet outcomes. Assessments also provide structure for documenting nursing care, enable responses to a disease process or treatment, and identify new problems. For this situation, the nurse should follow the nursing process and begin by assessing what the patient already knows. From this, the nurse would note that the patient does not know the difference between hypo- and hyperglycemia. The nurse would also observe that the patient is reluctant to draw up insulin and would address this reluctance by having the patient practice. Finally the nurse would consult with a diabetic educator to assist with the patients teaching.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub: Reduction of Risk Potential

QSEN Competencies: I.B.1. Elicit patient values, preferences and expressed needs as part of clinical interview, implementation of care plan and evaluation of care

AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Practice; conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome: 10.5.4. Utilize the nursing process in care of client.

Page Number:  6

Question 33

Type: MCSA

The director of nursing is reviewing situations that require attention. Which situation is an ethical dilemma that might need to be studied by the hospital Ethics Committee?

1. A 20-year-old male patient with an opportunistic disease is HIV positive and does not want to share this information with his sexual partners.

2. The nursepatient ratio is 5:1 on a medical-surgical care area.

3. A nurse inexperienced with electrocardiogram interpretation was assigned to the telemetry unit to provide care.

4. Nursing staff provide medication to patients after doses are dropped on the floor.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: A dilemma is a choice between two unpleasant, ethically troubling alternatives. Nurses who provide medical-surgical nursing care face dilemmas almost daily. Many commonly experienced dilemmas involve confidentiality, patient rights, and issues of dying and death. Nurses respect the right to confidentiality of patient information found in the patients record or secured during interviews. An individuals right to privacy and confidentiality creates a dilemma when it conflicts with the nurses right to information that may affect personal safety. The law in most states mandates that HIV test results can be given to another person only with the patients written consent. Many healthcare providers believe that this law violates their own right to personal safety.

Rationale 2: This situation is not a dilemma but may violate standards of care or standards of practice.

Rationale 3: This situation is not a dilemma but may violate standards of care or standards of practice.

Rationale 4: This situation is not a dilemma but may violate standards of care, codes of ethics, or standards of practice.

Global Rationale: A dilemma is a choice between two unpleasant, ethically troubling alternatives. Nurses who provide medical-surgical nursing care face dilemmas almost daily. Many commonly experienced dilemmas involve confidentiality, patient rights, and issues of dying and death. Nurses respect the right to confidentiality of patient information found in the patients record or secured during interviews. An individuals right to privacy and confidentiality creates a dilemma when it conflicts with the nurses right to information that may affect personal safety. The law in most states mandates that HIV test results can be given to another person only with the patients written consent. Many healthcare providers believe that this law violates their own right to personal safety. The other situations are not dilemmas but may violate standards of care, codes of ethics, or standards of practice.

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub:

QSEN Competencies: I.A.7. Explore ethical and legal implications of patient-centered care

AACN Essentials Competencies: VIII.12. Act to prevent unsafe, illegal or unethical care practices

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Knowledge; Code of Ethics; regulatory and professional standards

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 4. Explain the importance of nursing and interprofessional codes of ethics and standards of practice as guidelines for clinical nursing practice.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  11

Question 34

Type: MCMA

The nurse is approached by a patient who offers to provide the nurse with tickets to a sporting event in exchange for free home care for 1 week. The nurse accepts this offer. Which standards did the nurse violate?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. HIPAA

2. ANA standards

3. Professional boundaries

4. State nurse practice acts

5. Standards pertinent to specific hospital protocols

Correct Answer: 3, 4

Rationale 1: HIPAA involves violations of patient confidentiality.

Rationale 2: A violation of ethics in the ANA Standards of Care would not apply here.

Rationale 3: Professional boundaries are the borders between the vulnerability of the patient and the power of the nurse. It is vital that nurses recognize this relationship and establish boundaries to safely and effectively meet the patients needs. Confusion between the needs of the nurse and those of the patient can result in boundary violations.

Rationale 4: Professional boundaries are outlined in individual state nurse practice acts.

Rationale 5: Hospital protocols are not identified in the question; however, the nurses action violates a professional boundary.

Global Rationale: Professional boundaries are the borders between the vulnerability of the patient and the power of the nurse. It is vital that nurses recognize this relationship and establish boundaries to safely and effectively meet the patients needs. Confusion between the needs of the nurse and those of the patient can result in boundary violations. HIPAA addresses confidentiality. ANA standards address ethics and codes of conduct. Hospital protocols are not a part of this question.

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub:

QSEN Competencies: I.A.7. Explore ethical and legal implications of patient-centered care

AACN Essentials Competencies: VIII.1. Demonstrate the professional standards of moral, ethical, and legal conduct

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Knowledge; Code of Ethics; regulatory and professional standards

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 4. Explain the importance of nursing and interprofessional codes of ethics and standards of practice as guidelines for clinical nursing practice.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  11

Question 35

Type: MCSA

A seasoned nurse does not want to assist nursing students during clinical rotations and often obstructs the students learning process. Which standard is this nurse violating?

1. ICN Code of Ethics

2. ANA Standards of Practice

3. ANA Code of Ethics

4. State practice acts

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses helps guide nurses in setting priorities, making judgments, and taking action when they face ethical dilemmas in clinical practice.

Rationale 2: The nurse is violating the standards of leadership and collaboration by refusing to assist the students during the learning process.

Rationale 3: The nurse is not violating the Code of Ethics.

Rationale 4: The nurse is not violating the state nurse practice act.

Global Rationale: The nurse is violating the standards of leadership and collaboration when refusing to assist the students during the learning process. The nurse is not violating a Code of Ethics or the state nurse practice act.

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: II.C.6. Value teamwork and the relationships upon which it is based

AACN Essentials Competencies: VIII.1. Demonstrate the professional standards of moral, ethical, and legal conduct

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Knowledge; Code of Ethics; regulatory and professional standards

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 4. Explain the importance of nursing and interprofessional codes of ethics and standards of practice as guidelines for clinical nursing practice.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  10

Question 36

Type: MCSA

The nurse attends interprofessional meetings to discuss the plan of care for a trauma patient who has been transferred to the medical-surgical unit. In what role is this nurse functioning?

1. Caregiver

2. Team leader

3. Delegate

4. Advocate

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: The caregiver works independently and collaboratively with the patient.

Rationale 2: Team leaders are nurses who are participating in roles of leadership in that they manage time, people, resources, and the environment to ensure that staff is able to provide the proper care.

Rationale 3: Delegates are nurses who are responsible for completing care as assigned.

Rationale 4: The nurse as advocate actively promotes the patients rights to autonomy and free choice. The nurse will communicate with other healthcare team members and assist and support patient decision making.

Global Rationale: The nurse as advocate actively promotes the patients rights to autonomy and free choice. The nurse will communicate with other healthcare team members and assist and support patient decision making. The caregiver works independently and collaboratively with the patient. Team leaders are nurses who are participating in roles of leadership in that they manage time, people, resources, and the environment to ensure that staff is able to provide the proper care. Delegates are nurses who are responsible for completing care as assigned.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.B.2. Communicate patient values, preferences and expressed needs to other members of health care team

AACN Essentials Competencies: VI.2. Use inter- and intraprofessional communication and collaborative skills to deliver evidence-based, patient-centered care

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Explain the activities and characteristics of the nurse as caregiver, educator, advocate, leader and manager, and researcher.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  13

Question 37

Type: MCMA

The director of nursing is meeting with the hospital administrator to plan an initiative to improve the quality and safety of patient care. After reviewing the Triple Aim approach, which actions should the director recommend?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Improve the patient care experience.

2. Improve the health of populations.

3. Reduce the per capita costs of health care.

4. Implement evidence-based practice.

5. Support nursing continuing education plans.

Correct Answer: 1, 2, 3

Rationale 1: The Triple Aim initiative was launched by The Institute of Health Improvement, which identified approaches to improve models for healthcare. Improving the patient care experience is one of the three critical objectives identified.

Rationale 2: The Triple Aim initiative was launched by The Institute of Health Improvement, which identified approaches to improve models for healthcare. Improving the health of populations is one of the three critical objectives identified.

Rationale 3: The Triple Aim initiative was launched by The Institute of Health Improvement, which identified approaches to improve models for healthcare. Reducing the per capita costs of health care is one of the three critical objectives identified.

Rationale 4: Implementing evidence-based practice is not an objective identified by the Triple Aim.

Rationale 5: Supporting nursing continuing education plans is not an objective identified by the Triple Aim.

Global Rationale: The Triple Aim initiative was launched by The Institute of Health Improvement, which identified approaches to improve models for healthcare. This initiative identified three critical objectives: improve the patient care experience, improve the health of populations, and reduce the per capita costs of health care. Implementing evidence-based practice and supporting nursing continuing education plans are not objectives identified by the Triple Aim.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: IV.B.5. Use quality measures to understand performance

AACN Essentials Competencies: II.11. Employ principles of quality improvement, healthcare policy, and cost-effectiveness to assist in the development and initiation of effective plans for the microsystem and/or system-wide practice improvements that will improve the quality of healthcare delivery

NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety; Knowledge; Factors that contribute to a systemwide safety culture; the importance of reporting hazards and adverse events; the just culture approach to system improvement

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 1.Describe the core competencies for healthcare professionals: patient-centered care, interprofessional teams, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and health information technology.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  3

Question 38

Type: MCSA

The nurse would like to do a research project that focuses on vending machine choices that patients prefer. What should the nurse question before proceeding with this research study?

1. Is the research valid?

2. Will this promote patient independence?

3. Is this a project that would add value to the hospital experience?

4. Does this research contribute to patient care?

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: To be relevant, nursing research must have a goal to improve the care that nurses provide patients. This means that all nurses must consider the researcher role to be integral to nursing practice. The research might be valid; however, it does not improve patient care.

Rationale 2: To be relevant, nursing research must have a goal to improve the care that nurses provide patients. This means that all nurses must consider the researcher role to be integral to nursing practice. The research might promote patient independence but may not improve patient care.

Rationale 3: To be relevant, nursing research must have a goal to improve the care that nurses provide patients. This means that all nurses must consider the researcher role to be integral to nursing practice. The research might add value to the hospital experience but may not improve patient care.

Rationale 4: To be relevant, nursing research must have a goal to improve the care that nurses provide patients. This means that all nurses must consider the researcher role to be integral to nursing practice.

Global Rationale: To be relevant, nursing research must have a goal to improve the care that nurses provide patients. This means that all nurses must consider the researcher role to be integral to nursing practice. Research that does not improve patient care is not appropriate.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: III.B.1. Participate effectively in appropriate data collection and other research activities

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.2. Demonstrate an understanding of the basic elements of the research process and models for applying evidence to clinical practice

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Knowledge; Defining the relationships between research and science building, and between research and EBP

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 5. Explain the activities and characteristics of the nurse as caregiver, educator, advocate, leader and manager, and researcher.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  14

Question 39

Type: SEQ

The nurse is identifying nursing diagnoses for a patients care. In which order should the nurse complete this process?

Standard Text: Click and drag the options below to move them up or down.

Choice 1. Draw conclusions about the present health status.

Choice 2. Determine etiologies and categorize problems.

Choice 3. Cluster cues and identify data gaps.

Choice 4. Verify the problem or diagnoses.

Choice 5. Identify significant cues.

Correct Answer: 5, 3, 1, 2, 4

Rationale 1:

Rationale 2:

Rationale 3:

Rationale 4:

Rationale 5:

Global Rationale: When identifying nursing diagnoses, the nurse should interpret the data, identify significant cues, cluster cues and identify data gaps, draw conclusions about the present health status, determine etiologies and categorize problems, and verify the problem or diagnoses.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.A.1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.6. Integrate evidence, clinical judgment, interprofessional perspectives and patient preferences in planning, implementing, and evaluating outcomes of care

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Practice; Translate research into practice in order to promote quality and improve practices

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  6

Question 40

Type: MCMA

The nurse is hired to coordinate care in a community health clinic that opened after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Which types of care should the nurse expect to provide?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Health promotion

2. Disease prevention

3. Chronic disease management

4. Rehabilitation

5. Palliative care

Correct Answer: 1, 2, 3

Rationale 1: The ACA will provide access to health care services for more Americans and create new models of care.  The profession is well positioned to respond to new demands that emphasize health promotion.

Rationale 2: The ACA will provide access to health care services for more Americans and create new models of care.  The profession is well positioned to respond to new demands that emphasize disease prevention.

Rationale 3: The ACA will provide access to health care services for more Americans and create new models of care.  The profession is well positioned to respond to new demands that emphasize management of chronic disease.

Rationale 4: Rehabilitation is not a new model of care that will be provided in a community health clinic.

Rationale 5: Palliative care is not a new model of care that will be provided in a community health clinic.

Global Rationale: The ACA will provide access to health care services for more Americans and create new models of care.  The profession is well positioned to respond to new demands that emphasize health promotion, disease prevention, and management of chronic disease. Rehabilitation and palliative care are not new models of care that will be provided through a community health clinic.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

QSEN Competencies: I.A.1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care

AACN Essentials Competencies: VII.5. Use evidence-based practices to guide health teaching, health counseling, screening, outreach, disease and outbreak investigation, referral and follow-up throughout the lifespan

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Knowledge; health promotion/disease prevention

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2. Describe emerging new roles and responsibilities for nurses in an era of healthcare reform.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  2

Question 41

Type: MCMA

The nurse manager is evaluating the use of evidence-based practice guidelines to guide care on a patient care area. Which observations indicate that these guidelines are being used appropriately?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Guidelines are posted on the staff bulletin board in the break room.

2. A guideline was quoted in a narrative note in a patients medical record.

3. A guideline is placed in the Kardex to support the use of a nursing diagnosis for a patients health problem.

4. Guidelines are accessed through the clinical documentation system by nurses prior to writing patient care plans.

5. A guideline was referenced prior to implementing skin care interventions for a patient prone to pressure ulcer formation.

Correct Answer: 2, 3, 4, 5

Rationale 1: Evidence-based practice guidelines are collections of practical information used to help guide decisions related to specific circumstances. These guidelines help identify appropriate interventions for a given nursing care problem or diagnosis. Posting the guidelines on the staff bulletin board does not indicate that they are being used appropriately.

Rationale 2:  Evidence-based practice guidelines are collections of practical information used to help guide decisions related to specific circumstances. These guidelines help identify appropriate interventions for a given nursing care problem or diagnosis. Basing patient care on a guideline indicates that it is being used appropriately.

Rationale 3: Evidence-based practice guidelines are collections of practical information used to help guide decisions related to specific circumstances. These guidelines help identify appropriate interventions for a given nursing care problem or diagnosis. Placing a copy of the guideline in the Kardex to support a particular nursing diagnosis indicates that it is being used appropriately.

Rationale 4: Evidence-based practice guidelines are collections of practical information used to help guide decisions related to specific circumstances. These guidelines help identify appropriate interventions for a given nursing care problem or diagnosis. Evidence-based nursing guidelines are available through specialty nursing organizations, healthcare systems, on the web, and in published resources. Observing staff access guidelines through the clinical documentation system indicates they are being used appropriately.

Rationale 5: Evidence-based practice guidelines are collections of practical information used to help guide decisions related to specific circumstances. These guidelines help identify appropriate interventions for a given nursing care problem or diagnosis. Referring to a guideline before planning skin care interventions indicates the guideline is being used appropriately.

Global Rationale: Evidence-based practice guidelines are collections of practical information used to help guide decisions related to specific circumstances. These guidelines help identify appropriate interventions for a given nursing care problem or diagnosis. Quoting a guideline in a nurses note, placing a copy of a guideline in a Kardex, accessing guidelines through the clinical documentation system, and referencing a guideline before planning skin care interventions indicate appropriate use of the guidelines. Posting a guideline on a bulletin board is not an appropriate use of a guideline.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: III.B.6. Participate in structuring the work environment to facilitate integration of new evidence into standards of practice

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.2. Demonstrate an understanding of the basic elements of the research process and models for applying evidence to clinical practice

NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science; Defining what is evidence-based practice

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 1. Describe the core competencies for healthcare professionals: patient-centered care, interprofessional teams, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and health information technology.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  8

Question 42

Type: MCMA

An interprofessional team is meeting to create a care bundle to prevent the development of contractures in patients with limb paralysis from neurological health problems. Which actions should the committee members include when creating this care bundle?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Narrow the patient population in which the bundle will be applied.

2. Define the number and type of range-of-motion exercises to be performed.

3. Identify three interventions proven to reduce the development of contractures.

4. Communicate when the bundle has been completed and ready to for implementation.

5. Emphasize that interventions are recommendations to reduce the incidence of contractures.

Correct Answer: 1, 3, 4

Rationale 1: Care bundles are multidisciplinary standards that pull together a short list of interventions and treatments that are already recommended and are generally accepted in national guidelines. For a care bundle to be successful, it must be written for a defined patient population in one location. The development of a bundle to prevent contractures in patients with limb paralysis from neurological health problems is too broad and needs to be further defined or narrowed.

Rationale 2: Bundle elements should be descriptive rather than prescriptive, to allow for customization and appropriate clinical judgment. The bundle should state that range-of-motion exercises are to be done but not identify the number and type of exercises.

Rationale 3: The bundle should have three to five interventions with strong clinician agreements. The bundles integrate a short list of already recommended guidelines that are accepted nationally or through consensus by local clinicians.

Rationale 4: The multidisciplinary team develops the bundle. Communication and teamwork are essential to successful implementation of a bundle.

Rationale 5: Compliance with bundles is measured using all-or-nothing measurement, with a goal of 95% or greater. If any of the interventions are not documented, implementation of the bundle is considered incomplete and no partial credit is given.

Global Rationale: Care bundles are multidisciplinary standards that pull together a short list of interventions and treatments that are already recommended and are generally accepted in national guidelines. For a care bundle to be successful, it must be written for a defined patient population in one location. The development of a bundle to prevent contractures in patients with limb paralysis from neurological health problems is too broad and needs to be further defined or narrowed. Bundle elements should be descriptive rather than prescriptive, to allow for customization and appropriate clinical judgment. The bundle should state that range-of-motion exercises are to be done but not identify the number and type of exercises. The bundle should have three to five interventions with strong clinician agreements. The bundles integrate a short list of already recommended guidelines that are accepted nationally or through consensus by local clinicians. The multidisciplinary team develops the bundle. Communication and teamwork are essential to successful implementation of a bundle. Compliance with bundles is measured using all-or-nothing measurement, with a goal of 95% or greater. If any of the interventions are not documented, implementation of the bundle is considered incomplete and no partial credit is given.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: III.B.6. Participate in structuring the work environment to facilitate integration of new evidence into standards of practice

AACN Essentials Competencies: III.9. Describe mechanisms to resolve identified practice discrepancies between identified standards and practice that may adversely impact patient outcomes

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Knowledge; accreditation standards

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 2. Describe emerging new roles and responsibilities for nurses in an era of healthcare reform.

MNL Learning Outcome: 8.1.3. Distinguish the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic musculoskeletal injuries.

Page Number:  8

Question 43

Type: MCMA

The nurse is coordinating care for patients within a patient-centered medical home. Which actions should the nurse prepare to complete when functioning in this role?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Communicate with the patient after discharge.

2. Monitor the implementation of the plan of care.

3. Manage the accuracy, timeliness, and cost of care.

4. Develop the plan of care with the patient and family.

5. Collaborate with the patient to implement the plan of care.

Correct Answer: 1, 2, 3, 5

Rationale 1: The nurse functioning as a care coordinator within a patient-centered medical home will be in contact with the patients after discharge to ensure continuity of care and health maintenance.

Rationale 2: The nurse functioning as a care coordinator within a patient-centered medical home will monitor the implementation of the patients plan of care.

Rationale 3: The nurse functioning as a care coordinator within a patient-centered medical home manages the quality of care provided, including accuracy, timeliness, and cost.

Rationale 4: The patient-centered medical home team is led by the patients primary care provider, who is responsible for leading the development of the plan of care with the patient and the family.

Rationale 5: The nurse functioning as a care coordinator within a patient-centered medical home collaborates with the patient to implement the plan of care.

Global Rationale: The nurse functioning as a care coordinator within a patient-centered medical home will be in contact with the patients after discharge to ensure continuity of care and health maintenance. The nurse will also monitor the implementation of the patients plan of care; manage the quality of care provided, including accuracy, timeliness, and cost; and collaborate with the patient to implement the plan of care. The patient-centered medical home team is led by the patients primary care provider, who is responsible for leading the development of the plan of care with the patient and the family.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: IV.A.1. Describe strategies for learning about the outcomes of care in the setting in which one is engaged in clinical practice

AACN Essentials Competencies: II.11. Employ principles of quality improvement, healthcare policy, and cost-effectiveness to assist in the development and initiation of effective plans for the microsystem and/or system-wide practice improvements that will improve the quality of healthcare delivery

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Practice; conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2. Describe emerging new roles and responsibilities for nurses in an era of healthcare reform.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  1314

Question 44

Type: MCMA

The nursing instructor is planning activities to help students learn clinical decision making. Which activities should the instructor include to help the students develop foundational knowledge?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Time for students to complete a self-assessment tool

2. Access to evidence-based guidelines for assigned patients

3. Expectations for participation in postclinical conferences

4. Office hours and dates when care plans are due for grading

5. Copies of the state practice act and standards of practice

Correct Answer: 1, 2, 5

Rationale 1: Foundational knowledge used in clinical reasoning includes knowing the profession, self, the case, the patient, and the person. Planning time for students to complete a self-assessment tool helps them know the self.

Rationale 2: Foundational knowledge used in clinical reasoning includes knowing the profession, self, the case, the patient, and the person. Providing access to evidence-based guidelines helps the students know the case.

Rationale 3: Foundational knowledge used in clinical reasoning includes knowing the profession, self, the case, the patient, and the person. Stating expectations for participation in postclinical conferences do not help develop foundational knowledge.

Rationale 4: Foundational knowledge used in clinical reasoning includes knowing the profession, self, the case, the patient, and the person. Stating office hours and due dates for work does not help develop foundational knowledge.

Rationale 5: Foundational knowledge used in clinical reasoning includes knowing the profession, self, the case, the patient, and the person. Providing copies of the state practice act and standards of practice helps students know the profession.

Global Rationale: Foundational knowledge used in clinical reasoning includes knowing the profession, self, the case, the patient, and the person. Planning time for students to complete a self-assessment tool helps them know the self. Providing access to evidence-based guidelines helps students know the case. Providing copies of the state practice act and standards of practice helps students know the profession. Stating expectations for participation in postclinical conferences and stating office hours and due dates for work does not help develop foundational knowledge.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

QSEN Competencies: I.A.1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care

AACN Essentials Competencies: I.7. Integrate the knowledge and methods of a variety of disciplines to inform decision making

NLN Competencies: Context and Environment; Knowledge; decision making in uncertainty

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 3. Apply the attitudes, mental habits, and skills necessary for clinical reasoning when using the nursing process in patient care.

MNL Learning Outcome:

Page Number:  4

LeMone/Burke/Bauldoff/Gubrud, Medical-Surgical Nursing 6th Edition Test Bank

Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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