FREE Chapter 02: Health and Wellness My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 02: Health and Wellness

Potter: Essentials for Nursing Practice, 8th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.A nurse is assessing a patients stage of behavioral change. Which statement by the patient will indicate to the nurse that the patient is in the preparation stage?

a.

I started to exercise regularly, but it didnt last long. Ill probably try again in a few weeks.

b.

I have a problem, and I really think I need to work on it.

c.

I am really working hard to stop smoking.

d.

There is nothing that I really need to change.

ANS: A

I started to exercise regularly, but it didnt last long. Ill probably try again in a few weeks is the preparation stage. I have a problem, and I really think I need to work on it is the contemplation stage. I am really working hard to stop smoking is the action stage. There is nothing that I really need to change is the precontemplation stage.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:23

OBJ: Discuss four types of risk factors and the process of risk-factor modification.

TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2.A patient is depressed after a divorce and is not eating. The nurse is using Maslow to prioritize care. Which patient need should the nurse address first?

a.

Nutrition

b.

Emotional safety

c.

Depression

d.

Love and belonging

ANS: A

According to Maslow, individuals have to meet lower-level needs before they are able to satisfy higher-level needs. The lowest level on the hierarchy consists of very basic physiological needs such as oxygen, water, food (nutrition), sleep, and sex. The second level on the hierarchy consists of safety needs. The third level on the hierarchy is love and belongingness, which is a desire to belong to groups. The fourth level deals with the need for self-esteem. Depression is not a lower need but a higher need.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:17-18

OBJiscuss the health belief, health promotion, basic human needs, and holistic health models of health and illness and their relationship to patients attitudes toward health and health practices.TOP:Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Management of Care

3.A nurse is assessing a patients risk factors for heart disease and finds that the patient has several risk factors. How should the nurse interpret this finding?

a.

The patient needs surgery for heart disease.

b.

The patient has a genetic disease.

c.

The patient will develop the disease.

d.

The patient has an increased chance to develop the disease.

ANS: D

The presence of a risk factor does not mean that a disease will develop, but risk factors increase the chances that the individual will experience a particular disease. Although genetics can be a risk factor, it does not mean the patient has a genetic disease. The patient does not need surgery for heart disease because risk factors only increase the probability of the disease occurring.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:21

OBJ: Discuss four types of risk factors and the process of risk-factor modification.

TOP:Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4.To determine a patients external variables for health beliefs and practices, which area should the nurse assess?

a.

Emotional factors

b.

Intellectual background

c.

Developmental stage

d.

Socioeconomic factors

ANS: D

External variables for health beliefs and practices include family practices, socioeconomic factors, and cultural background. Emotional factors, intellectual background, and developmental stage represent internal variables.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:20

OBJ: Describe the variables influencing health beliefs and health practices.

TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5.Which nursing action best represents primary prevention?

a.

Instructing a healthy individual to get a flu shot on a yearly basis

b.

Instructing a patient to take blood pressure medication every day

c.

Instructing a patient to live with a known disability

d.

Instructing a patient to undergo physical therapy following a cerebrovascular accident

ANS: A

A healthy individual getting a flu shot is primary prevention. Primary prevention precedes disease or disability or dysfunction. Primary prevention aimed at health promotion includes health education programs, immunizations, and physical and nutritional fitness activities. Taking blood pressure medication every day is a secondary prevention because the patient is trying to prevent further complications. Physical therapy after a cerebrovascular accident is intended to prevent further complications and deterioration and is tertiary prevention. Instructing a patient to live with a known disability is tertiary prevention.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:21OBJ:Explain the three levels of prevention.

TOP:Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6.A married father of four has recently been diagnosed with emphysema resulting from a long history of smoking. At a family counseling session a nurse helps the family to understand that this diagnosis is classified as a(n):

a.

acute illness.

b.

tertiary prevention.

c.

chronic illness.

d.

internal variable.

ANS: C

Chronic illness is one that lasts more than 6 months. Acute illness is short term and intense but resolves. Tertiary prevention strives to prevent complications and deterioration. Internal variables include a patients developmental stage, and intellectual, emotional, and cultural background.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: 24 OBJ: Explain the impact of illness on a patient and family.

TOP:Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

7.Which information by a patient indicates teaching by the nurse was successful for the best definition of health?

a.

State of complete well-being

b.

Absence of disease

c.

Vital signs within normal range

d.

Maintenance of a normal weight

ANS: A

The World Health Organization defines health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmary. People without disease are not necessarily healthy. Vital signs within normal range and maintenance of a normal weight do not encompass the holistic definition of health.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF: 15-16 OBJ: Describe health promotion and illness prevention activities.

TOP:Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8.A patient with newly diagnosed diabetes is concerned about the risk for developing foot ulcers because the mother had a foot amputated as a result of the disease. This is an example of which of the following?

a.

Health promotion

b.

Health practices

c.

Health beliefs

d.

Holistic health

ANS: C

Health beliefs are a persons ideas and attitudes about health. Health promotion activities such as routine exercise and good nutrition help patients maintain or enhance their present levels of health and reduce their risks for developing certain diseases. Holistic health generally is a comprehensive view of a person as a biopsychosocial and spiritual being. Health practices are activities that individuals perform to care for themselves.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:19

OBJiscuss the health belief, health promotion, basic human needs, and holistic health models of health and illness and their relationship to patients attitudes toward health and health practices.TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9.A patient with diabetes is diligent about testing blood sugar before meals. Which model is the nurse using when the nurse realizes the patient is taking preventative actions for health and represents the third component of this model?

a.

Basic Human Needs

b.

Health Belief

c.

Holistic Health

d.

Tertiary Prevention

ANS: B

The third component of the Health Belief model is the likelihood that a patient will take preventative action. The third component of the Basic Human Needs model (Maslow) is love and belonging. The Holistic Health model focuses on physical, social, psychological, and spiritual health and does not contain distinct components. Tertiary prevention is not a health model.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:16

OBJiscuss the health belief, health promotion, basic human needs, and holistic health models of health and illness and their relationship to patients attitudes toward health and health practices.TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10.Which will best assist a nurse in understanding a patients use of tying a silver dollar to the stomach of a newborn infant to heal an umbilical hernia?

a.

Cultural background

b.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

c.

World Health Organizations definition of health

d.

Primary prevention

ANS: A

Cultural background influences a persons beliefs, values, and customs. It influences personal health practices. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs will not help the nurse to understand the behavior because this is a model to help prioritize care. The definition of health by the WHO will not help the nurse to understand the behavior because it is a definition. Primary prevention occurs before a sickness or dysfunction and includes immunizations.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:20

OBJ: Describe the variables influencing health beliefs and health practices.

TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

11.Upon taking a history of a patient, the nurse learns the patient smokes a pack of cigarettes per day. How should the nurse interpret this finding?

a.

This is an example of a health belief.

b.

This is an example of health promotion.

c.

This is an example of a negative health behavior.

d.

This is an example of a basic physiological human need.

ANS: C

Negative health behaviors include activities that are harmful to health, including smoking. Health beliefs are a persons ideas, convictions, and attitudes about health and illness. Health promotion activities such as routine exercise and good nutrition help patients maintain or enhance their present levels of health and reduce their risks for developing certain diseases. The lowest level of needs on the hierarchy consists of very basic physiological needs such as oxygen, water, food, sleep, and sex.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:16

OBJiscuss the health belief, health promotion, basic human needs, and holistic health models of health and illness and their relationship to patients attitudes toward health and health practices.TOP:Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12.When teaching a 15-year-old patient with diverticulitis about foods that should be avoided, a nurse takes the stage of growth and development into consideration. Which factor or variable did the nurse take into consideration?

a.

Cultural factor

b.

External variable

c.

Socioeconomic factor

d.

Internal variable

ANS: D

Internal variables include a persons stage of growth and development, intellectual background, emotional factors, and spiritual factors. External variables include family practices, socioeconomic factors, and cultural background.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:19-20

OBJ: Describe the variables influencing health beliefs and health practices.

TOP:Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

13.A nurse working in a rural public health clinic is developing a smoking cessation program for patients in the county. This corresponds with Healthy People 2020s efforts to provide direction for health care efforts on what level?

a.

National

b.

Community

c.

Individual

d.

Family

ANS: B

This is an example of a community program because it is for people in the county. Healthy People 2020 includes 600 objectives written in 42 topic areas to provide direction for health care efforts on an individual, community, and national level. National level would be directed at the entire United States. Individual would focus on one person. Family would focus on families.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:19

OBJiscuss the health belief, health promotion, basic human needs, and holistic health models of health and illness and their relationship to patients attitudes toward health and health practices.TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14.The spouse of a patient with terminal cancer is refusing pain medication for the patient because of previous experiences with soldiers who became addicted to pain medication. A nurse will need to focus on which internal variable when approaching this situation?

a.

Developmental stage

b.

Family practices

c.

Intellectual background

d.

Spiritual factors

ANS: C

Intellectual background is a persons beliefs about health shaped in part by knowledge (or misinformation) about body functions and illnesses, educational background, and past experiences. Spirituality is reflected in how a person lives his or her life, including the values and beliefs exercised, the relationships established with family and friends, and the ability to find hope and meaning in life. A persons concept of illness depends on his or her developmental stage but this scenario is focused on misinformation, not the developmental stage. Family practices is an external variable, not an internal variable.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:20

OBJ: Describe the variables influencing health beliefs and health practices.

TOP:Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15.When assessing what influences a patients health beliefs and practices, a nurse should consider both internal and external variables. Which is an example of an external variable?

a.

Intellectual background

b.

Emotional factors

c.

Spiritual factors

d.

Family practices

ANS: D

Family practices is an external variable. Intellectual background, emotion factors, and spiritual factors are internal variable.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:20

OBJ: Describe the variables influencing health beliefs and health practices.

TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16.A nurse should emphasize health promotion, wellness strategies, and illness prevention activities as important forms of health care. Which is considered a health promotion strategy?

a.

Routine exercise

b.

Stress management class

c.

Influenza immunization

d.

Tetanus booster

ANS: A

Routine exercise is done to promote health and is a health promotion strategy. Influenza immunization and tetanus booster are illness prevention strategies, whereas stress management is wellness education.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF: 20 OBJ: Describe health promotion and illness prevention activities.

TOP:Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

17.A nurse who works in an inner-city health clinic is scheduling a day for student nurses to assist with a flu immunization clinic. Which of the following best describes this type of activity?

a.

Primary prevention

b.

Secondary prevention

c.

Tertiary prevention

d.

Health prevention

ANS: A

Primary prevention decreases the vulnerability of an individual (or population) to disease. Secondary prevention focuses on people who are experiencing health problems. Tertiary prevention occurs when a disability is permanent, irreversible, and stabilized. Health prevention is not a concept nurses promote, whereas health promotion or illness prevention are strategies nurses use.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:21OBJ:Explain the three levels of prevention.

TOP:Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

18.A patient is drinking milk that has been fortified with vitamin D. Which type of health promotion strategy is the patient using?

a.

Active

b.

Passive

c.

Environmental

d.

Sociological

ANS: B

With passive strategies of health promotion, individuals gain from the activities of others without acting themselves. For example, the city puts fluoride in the municipal drinking water, or milk manufacturers fortify homogenized milk with vitamin D. With active strategies of health promotion, individuals adopt specific health programs. Weight reduction and smoking cessation programs require patients to be actively involved in measures to improve their present and future levels of wellness while decreasing the risk for disease. Environmental and sociological do not relate to health promotion strategies.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: 20 OBJ: Describe health promotion and illness prevention activities.

TOP:Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

19.A nurse teaches a patient about physiological risk factors. Which information by the patient indicates more teaching is needed?

a.

A physiological risk factor is heredity.

b.

A physiological risk factor is environment.

c.

A physiological risk factor is pregnancy.

d.

A physiological risk factor is obesity.

ANS: B

The environment is not a physiological risk factor; the other options are physiological risk factors. Physiological risk factors involve the physical functioning of the body. For example, physical conditions such as pregnancy or obesity place increased stress on physiological systems. Heredity or genetic predisposition to specific illness is a major physical risk factor.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:21-22

OBJ: Discuss four types of risk factors and the process of risk-factor modification.

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Reduction of Risk Potential

20.Upon taking a health history from a patient, the nurse notices the patient uses positive health behaviors. Which behavior did the nurse find?

a.

Smokes

b.

Eats poorly

c.

Has sedentary lifestyle

d.

Maintains proper sleep patterns

ANS: D

Positive health behaviors are activities related to maintaining, attaining, or regaining good health and preventing illness. Common positive health behaviors include getting immunizations, maintaining proper sleep patterns, getting adequate exercise, and eating healthy foods. Negative health behaviors include activities that are harmful to health such as smoking, abusing drugs or alcohol, following a poor diet, and refusing to take necessary medications.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF: 16 OBJ: Describe health promotion and illness prevention activities.

TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

21.A nurse must take into consideration illness behaviors of patients. Which is an internal variable the nurse should assess?

a.

Social support

b.

Visibility of symptoms

c.

Accessibility of the health care system

d.

Nature of the illness

ANS: D

Internal variables influence the way patients behave when they are ill. These are a patients perceptions of symptoms and the nature of the illness. External variables influencing a patients illness behavior include the visibility of symptoms, social group, cultural background, economic variables, accessibility of the health care system, and social support.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF: 25 OBJ: Describe the variables influencing illness behavior.

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Adaptation

22.A nurse allows a patient to place pictures of the family in the room. Which need is being met?

a.

Basic needs

b.

Physiological needs

c.

Self-actualization

d.

Love and belongingness

ANS: D

In Maslows hierarchy of needs, the third level on the hierarchy is love and belongingness, which is a desire to belong to groups. It consists of the need to feel love by others and to be accepted. The highest level of needs on the hierarchy is self-actualization, which is the desire to become everything that one is capable of becoming. The lowest level of needs on the hierarchy consists of very basic physiological needs such as oxygen, water, food, sleep, and sex.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:18

OBJiscuss the health belief, health promotion, basic human needs, and holistic health models of health and illness and their relationship to patients attitudes toward health and health practices.TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Basic Care and Comfort

23.Which model exemplifies a patient who states the following, I am responsible for my own health and well-being and I will partner with you (my nurse) to make sure I am ready to be discharged after surgery?

a.

Basic Human Needs Model

b.

Absence of Disease Model

c.

Holistic Health Model

d.

Healthy People 2020 Model

ANS: C

The intent of the holistic health model is to empower patients to engage in their own recovery, thereby assuming some responsibility for health maintenance. Basic human needs are related to a hierarchy of needs involving lower needs to self-actualization. Healthy People 2020 provides evidenced-based objectives to: (1) achieve increased quality and years of healthy life, and (2) eliminate health disparities. There is no absence of disease model.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:19

OBJiscuss the health belief, health promotion, basic human needs, and holistic health models of health and illness and their relationship to patients attitudes toward health and health practices.TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

24.A nurse is preparing to help patients with health promotion, wellness education, and illness prevention activities. Which action should the nurse take first?

a.

Explore available support groups.

b.

Identify risk factors.

c.

Provide patient teaching.

d.

Implement risk factor modification.

ANS: B

Identifying risk factors is the first step in health promotion, wellness education, and illness prevention activities. Once you identify risk factors, implement appropriate and relevant health education programs that help a person to change a risky health behavior. Support groups, teaching, and risk factor modification follow after identifying risk factors.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:23

OBJ: Discuss four types of risk factors and the process of risk-factor modification.

TOP:Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

25.A smoker has confided to the nurse that he or she feels like a failure because he or she began smoking again after not having had a cigarette for more than a week. What is the nurses best response?

a.

Lets discuss what triggered you to start smoking again so you can avoid it in the future.

b.

You understand that smoking is the number one cause of death in the United States, correct?

c.

Did you know that your insurance premiums will increase if you continue to smoke?

d.

My mother died last year of lung cancer.

ANS: A

Relapse often feels like a failure, but the person needs to view it as a learning process. Discussing possible triggers will allow learning to take place. What he or she learns from relapse can be applied to the next attempt to change. Saying that smoking is the number one cause of death and insurance premiums will increase do not allow for learning to take place. Saying that your mother died last year of lung cancer does not focus on patient learning, but rather focuses on the nurse, which is inappropriate.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:23-24

OBJ: Discuss four types of risk factors and the process of risk-factor modification.

TOP:Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

26.A nurse is teaching the staff about the stages of change. Which information should the nurse include in the teaching session?

a.

Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance

b.

Contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, postmaintenance

c.

Contemplation, procrastination, preparation, action, maintenance

d.

Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, engagement

ANS: A

Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance are the five phases of change. Postmaintenance, procrastination, and engagement are not included in the five stages of change.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF:23

OBJ: Discuss four types of risk factors and the process of risk-factor modification.

TOP:Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

27.A nurse is caring for a patient who smokes two packs a day. The nurse knows that the patient is in the contemplation stage regarding smoking cessation. What is the nurses best response to help the patient move into the preparation stage?

a.

You need to stop smoking as soon as possible.

b.

Smoking will kill you if you dont stop.

c.

The negative effects of smoking can be reversed.

d.

Tobacco use killed 435,000 people in 2000.

ANS: C

The fact that the negative effects can be reversed may prompt the patient to think about the benefits of quitting and move the patient into the preparation stage of change. You need to stop smoking is a directive and not appropriate. Tobacco use killed 435,000 does not allow the patient to think about quitting; it just relates facts. Giving an ultimatum by saying that smoking will kill you if you dont stop is inappropriate.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: 24 OBJ: Discuss the nurses role in health and illness.

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity

28.Which patient should a nurse consider as being the most ill?

a.

A 25-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis who is attending yoga classes

b.

A 13-year-old adolescent with newly diagnosed diabetes who does not want to check blood sugar at school

c.

A 43-year-old patient with breast cancer who has recently adopted a vegetarian diet

d.

A 77-year-old patient with alcohol hepatitis who attends weekly Alcoholics Anonymous meetings

ANS: B

A 13 year old who does not want to check blood sugar is the most ill out of the patients listed because illness is not synonymous with disease; it includes not only the disease, but also the effects on functioning and well-being in all dimensions. Illness is a state in which a persons physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired compared with previous experience. The 25 year old, the 43 year old, and the 77 year old are taking actions to improve their overall health.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: 24 OBJ: Describe the variables influencing illness behavior.

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Adaptation

29.A registered nurse is working in a community clinic that provides services for chronically ill patients. Which condition would be considered chronic?

a.

Appendicitis

b.

Pneumonia

c.

Flu

d.

Diabetes

ANS: D

A chronic illness usually lasts longer than 6 months; diabetes is a chronic illness. Appendicitis, pneumonia, and the flu are considered acute: The symptoms appear abruptly, are intense, and often subside after a relatively short period.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF: 24 OBJ: Explain the impact of illness on a patient and family.

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Adaptation

30.A nurse is planning to care for a patient with a disease that is a major cause of death and disability in the United States. The nurse is caring for which patient?

a.

One with an acute disease

b.

One with a chronic disease

c.

One with an infectious disease

d.

One with an exotic disease

ANS: B

Because of successes in public health, medicine, and biomedical technology, acute and infectious diseases are no longer major causes of death, disease, and disability in the United States. Many health care analysts believe that the heaviest burden of illness today is caused by chronic diseases. Exotic diseases are rare.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF: 24 OBJ: Explain the impact of illness on a patient and family.

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Adaptation

31.A public health nurse knows that for those patients who already have a chronic disease, the best way to help them manage their illness is to take which action?

a.

Provide holistic patient education.

b.

Consult with a disease specialist.

c.

Review their long-term health insurance policy.

d.

Provide disease-specific patient education.

ANS: A

The nurse should use a holistic approach to patient education to help patients manage their disease. This education enhances wellness and improves quality of life for patients living with chronic illnesses or disabilities. Consulting with a disease specialist, reviewing insurance, and providing disease-specific education are too narrow a focus.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: 24 OBJ: Discuss the nurses role in health and illness.

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Adaptation

32.A registered nurse in a rehabilitative unit is working with a veteran with chronic back pain that was caused as a result of an injury received while in military service in Iraq. The nurses goal is to assist the veteran to learn self-management skills to help promote health. Which statement by the nurse will best support this goal?

a.

Do you have plans to return to active duty?

b.

You need to take your pain medication as prescribed.

c.

Perhaps you need to consider going to a different health care provider.

d.

Why dont you keep a log of what causes the pain to become worse?

ANS: D

Self-management involves learning about responses to illnesses through daily life experiences and as a result of trial and error. Plans to return to active duty and going to a different health care provider do not focus on responses to the illness (chronic back pain). Just focusing on taking pain medication does not focus on the goal of self-management skills.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: 24 OBJ: Discuss the nurses role in health and illness.

TOP:Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

33.A pregnant mother of two children has been experiencing severe morning sickness and fatigue. Friends and family members have been providing her family with meals, and her husband has been taking responsibility for the housework. This is an example of which type of behavior?

a.

Illness

b.

Wellness

c.

Social

d.

Antisocial

ANS: A

Illness behavior often results in patients being released from roles, social expectations, or responsibilities. Wellness behaviors focus on improving health, like jogging. Social behaviors involve groups. Antisocial behavior involves socially unacceptable actions.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)

REF: 24-25 OBJ: Describe the variables influencing illness behavior.

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity

34.A patient states, I will avoid social situations where people are drinking alcohol so I am not tempted to start drinking again. The nurse assesses the patient to be in which stage of change?

a.

Contemplation

b.

Precontemplation

c.

Maintenance

d.

Engagement

ANS: C

Maintenance is the ability for sustained change over time. This stage begins 6 months after action has started and continues indefinitely. It is important to avoid relapse. I have a problem with drinking, and I really think I need to work on it is an example of the

contemplation stage. There is nothing that I really need to change is an example of the precontemplation stage. There is no such stage as engagement.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:23

OBJ: Discuss four types of risk factors and the process of risk-factor modification.

TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

35.Which order should the nurse prioritize care for the patient using Maslows theory from lower-level needs to higher-level needs?

a.   Self-esteem

b.   Physiological needs

c.   Self-actualization

d.   Love and belonging

e.   Safety and security

a.

b, e, d, a, c

b.

d, b, c, a, e

c.

b, e, d, c, a

d.

d, b, a, c, e

ANS: A

Maslows (1987) model describes human needs using a hierarchical pyramid divided into five levels: physiological needs, safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:17-18

OBJiscuss the health belief, health promotion, basic human needs, and holistic health models of health and illness and their relationship to patients attitudes toward health and health practices.TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Management of Care

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1.Using the health promotion model while rendering care enables a nurse to do which of the following? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Help the patient pursue health.

b.

Detect the presence of illness.

c.

Promote health behaviors in a patient.

d.

Assess a familys response to illness.

e.

Plan interventions to achieve self-actualization.

ANS: A, C

The purpose of the health promotion model is to explain the reasons that individuals engage in health activities and is not for use with families or communities. You will use this model to help your patients carry out healthy behaviors in their daily lives. This model helps the patient pursue health. Self-actualization is the final stage in Maslows hierarchy and does not relate to the health promotion model. This model does not focus on illness.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:17

OBJiscuss the health belief, health promotion, basic human needs, and holistic health models of health and illness and their relationship to patients attitudes toward health and health practices.TOP:Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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