Concept 43: Safety My Nursing Test Banks

Concept 43: Safety

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A sentinel event refers to an event that

a.

could have harmed a patient, but serious harm didnt occur because of chance.

b.

harms a patient as a result of underlying disease or condition.

c.

harms a patient by omission or commission, not an underlying disease or condition.

d.

signals the need for immediate investigation and response.

ANS: D

A sentinel event is an unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychologic injury or the risk thereof called sentinel, because they signal the need for immediate investigation and response. A near-miss refers to an error or commission or omission that could have harmed the patient, but serious harm did not occur as a result of chance. Harm that relates to an underlying disease or condition provides the rationale for the close monitoring and supervision provided in a health care setting. An adverse event is one that results in unintended harm because of the commission or omission of an act.

REF: 435

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

2. The nurse is caring for a patient experiencing an allergic reaction to a bee sting who has an order for BenaDRYL. The only medication in the patients medication bin is labeled BenaZEPRIL. The nurse contacts the pharmacy for the correct medication to avoid what type of error?

a.

Communication

b.

Diagnostic

c.

Preventive

d.

Treatment

ANS: D

The nurse avoided a treatment error, giving the wrong medication. Benazepril is an ace inhibitor used to treat blood pressure. According to Leape, treatment errors occur in the performance of an operation, procedure, or test; in administering a treatment; in the dose or method of administering a drug; or in avoidable delay in treatment or in responding to an abnormal test. Communication errors refer to those that occur from a failure to communicate. Diagnostic errors are the result of a delay in diagnosis, failure to employ indicated tests, use of outmoded tests, or failure to act on results of monitoring or testing. Preventive errors occur when there is inadequate monitoring or failure to provide prophylactic treatment or follow-up of treatment.

REF: 435

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control and Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

3. The strategy to avoid medication errors endorsed by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) to differentiate products with look-alike names is referred to as

a.

automatic alerts.

b.

bar coding.

c.

computer order entry.

d.

tallman lettering.

ANS: D

Tallman lettering is a term coined by ISMP to describe the practice of using unique letter characteristics of similar drug names known to have been confused with one another. Tallman lettering is used to differentiate products with look-alike names such as BenaDRYL (antihistamine) and BenaZEPRIL (ace inhibitor). The other options are examples of safety-enhancing technologies strategies designed to minimize drug errors, but they are not directed at look-alike medications. Automatic alerts are computer-generated alarms that can be programmed to occur with such things as allergies and incompatible medications. Bar coding is used with medication administration systems that can be programmed to match patient identification bracelets with documentation. Computer order entry systems are designed to include components of a standard medication order.

REF: 441

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control and Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

4. Prior to drug administration the nurse reviews the seven rights, which include right patient, right medication, right time, right dose, right education, right documentation, and right

a.

room.

b.

route.

c.

physician.

d.

manufacturer.

ANS: B

The right route (e.g., oral or intramuscular) is an essential component to verify prior to the administration of any drug. The patient does not need to be in a specific location. There may be a number of physicians caring for a patient who prescribe medications for any given patient. A similar drug may be made by a number of different companies, and checking the manufacturer is not considered one of the seven rights. However, the nurse will want to be aware of a difference, because different companies prepare the same medication in different ways with different inactive ingredients, which can affect patient response.

REF: 441

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control and Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

5. Essential elements of a standard order set to verify a medication order include

a.

volume only.

b.

number of tablets.

c.

metric dose/strength.

d.

hour of administration.

ANS: C

The ISMP recommendations for standardized medication order sets include such elements as the drug name (generic followed by brand when appropriate), metric dose/strength, frequency and duration, route, and indication. Although a prescription may include volume or number of tablets, the essential component is dose or strength, because the volume or number of tablets may vary by manufacturer. The exact hour of administration can be based on factors such as the frequency, agency protocols, and patient preferences.

REF: 441

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control and Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

6. To promote safety, the nurse manager sensitive to point of care (sharp end) and systems level (blunt end) exemplars works closely with staff to address the point of care exemplars such as

a.

care coordination.

b.

documentation.

c.

electronic records.

d.

fall prevention.

ANS: D

The most common safety issues at the sharp end include prevention of decubitus ulcers, medication administration, fall prevention, invasive procedures, diagnostic workup, recognition of/action on adverse events, and communication. These are the most common issues the staff nurse providing direct patient care encounters. Each of the other options are classified as systems level exemplars.

REF: 441

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

7. Aspects of safety culture that contribute to a culture of safety in a health care organization include

a.

communication.

b.

fear of punishment.

c.

malpractice implications.

d.

team nursing.

ANS: A

Aspects that contribute to a culture of safety include leadership, teamwork, an evidence base, communication, learning, a just culture, and patient-centered care. Fear of professional or personal punishment and concern about malpractice implications are considered barriers to a culture of safety. No model of nursing care has been related to a culture of safety.

REF: 436

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

8. A staff nurse reports a medication error, failure to administer a medication at the scheduled time. An appropriate response of the charge nurse would be

a.

Well do a root cause analysis.

b.

That means youll have to do continuing education.

c.

Why did you let that happen?

d.

Youll need to tell the patient and family.

ANS: A

In a just culture the nurse is accountable for their actions and practice, but people are not punished for flawed systems. Through a strategy such as root cause analysis the reasons for errors in medication administration can be identified and strategies developed to minimize future occurrences. Requiring continued education may be an appropriate recommendation but not until data is collected about the event. Telling the patient is part of transparency and the sharing and disclosure among stakeholders, but it is generally the role of risk management staff, not the staff nurse.

REF: 436

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

9. To promote a safety culture, the nurse manager preparing the staff schedule considers the anticipated census in planning the number and experience of staff on any given shift. The human factor primarily addressed with this consideration is/are

a.

available supplies.

b.

interdisciplinary communication.

c.

interruptions in work.

d.

workload fluctuations.

ANS: D

Including an adequate number of staff members with experience caring for anticipated patients is a strategy to manage the workload and potential fluctuations. A safety culture requires organizational leadership (e.g., the nurse manager) that gives attention to human factors such as managing workload fluctuations. This strategy also applies principles of crew resource management in that it addresses workload distribution. Lack of supplies can create a challenge for safe care but could not be addressed with the schedule. Concerns with communication and coordination across disciplines, including power gradients, and excessive professional courtesy can create hazards but would not be the best answer. Strategies to minimize interruptions in work are essential but would not be the best answer in this situation.

REF: 436

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

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