Concept 26: Pain My Nursing Test Banks

Concept 26: Pain

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Understanding classifications of pain helps nurses develop a plan of care. A 62-year-old male has fallen while trimming tree branches sustaining tissue injury. He describes his condition as an aching, throbbing back. This is characteristic of

a.

neuropathic pain.

b.

nociceptive pain.

c.

chronic pain.

d.

mixed pain syndrome.

ANS: B

Nociceptive pain refers to the normal functioning of physiological systems that leads to the perception of noxious stimuli (tissue injury) as being painful. Patients describe this type of pain as aching, cramping, or throbbing. Neuropathic pain is pathologic and results from abnormal processing of sensory input by the nervous system as a result of damage to the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves. Patients describe this type of pain as burning, sharp, and shooting. Chronic pain is constant and unrelenting such as pain associated with cancer. Mixed pain syndrome is not easily recognized, is unique with multiple underlying and poorly understood mechanisms like fibromyalgia and low back pain.

REF: 270

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

2. A 19-year-old male has sustained a transaction of C-7 in an MVA rendering him a quadriplegic. He describes his pain as burning, sharp, and shooting. This is characteristic of

a.

neuropathic pain.

b.

ghost pain.

c.

mixed pain syndrome.

d.

nociceptive pain.

ANS: A

Neuropathic pain results from the abnormal processing of sensory input by the nervous system as a result of damage to the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves. Simply put, neuropathic pain is pathologic. Examples of neuropathic pain include postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, phantom pain, and post stroke pain syndrome. Patients with neuropathic pain use very distinctive words to describe their pain, such as burning, sharp, and shooting. Ghost pain is pain associated with loss of a limb or digit. Mixed pain syndrome is not easily recognized, is unique with multiple underlying and poorly understood mechanisms like fibromyalgia and low back pain. Nociceptive pain refers to the normal functioning of physiological systems that leads to the perception of noxious stimuli (tissue injury) as being painful. Patients describe this type of pain as aching, cramping, or throbbing. Neuropathic pain is pathologic and results from abnormal processing of sensory input by the nervous system as a result of damage to the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves. Patients describe this type of pain as burning, sharp, and shooting.

REF: 270

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

3. Controlling pain is important to promoting wellness. Unrelieved pain has been associated with

a.

prolonged stress response and a cascade of harmful effects system-wide.

b.

large tidal volumes and decreased lung capacity.

c.

decreased tumor growth and longevity.

d.

decreased carbohydrate, protein, and fat destruction.

ANS: A

Pain triggers a number of physiologic stress responses in the human body. Unrelieved pain can prolong the stress response and produce a cascade of harmful effects in all body systems. The stress response causes the endocrine system to release excessive amounts of hormones, such as cortisol, catecholamines, and glucagon. Insulin and testosterone levels decrease. Increased endocrine activity in turn initiates a number of metabolic processes, in particular, accelerated carbohydrate, protein, and fat destruction, which can result in weight loss, tachycardia, increased respiratory rate, shock, and even death. The immune system is also affected by pain as demonstrated by research showing a link between unrelieved pain and a higher incidence of nosocomial infections and increased tumor growth. Large tidal volumes are not associated with pain while decreased lung capacity is associated with unrelieved pain. Decreased tumor growth and longevity are not associated with unrelieved pain. Decreased carbohydrate, protein, and fat are not associated with pain or stress response.

REF: 271

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

4. An elderly Chinese woman is interested in biologically based therapies to relieve osteoarthritis pain (OA). You are preparing a plan of care for her OA. Options most conducive to her expressed wishes may include

a.

Pilates, breathing exercises, and aloe vera.

b.

guided imagery, relaxation breathing, and meditation.

c.

herbs, vitamins, and tai chi.

d.

alternating ice and heat to relieve pain and inflammation.

ANS: C

Nonpharmacologic strategies encompass a wide variety of nondrug treatments that may contribute to comfort and pain relief. These include the body-based (physical) modalities, such as massage, acupuncture, and application of heat and cold, and the mind-body methods, such as guided imagery, relaxation breathing, and meditation. There are also biologically based therapies which involve the use of herbs and vitamins, and energy therapies such as reiki and tai chi. Pilates, breathing exercises, aloe vera, guided imagery, relaxation breathing, meditation, and alternating ice and heat are multimodal therapies for pain management. They are not exclusively biologically based, which involves the use of herbs and vitamins.

REF: 275

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

5. Jan is a 70-year-old retired nurse who is interested in nondrug, mind-body therapies, self-management, and alternative strategies to deal with joint discomfort from rheumatoid arthritis. What options should you consider in her plan of care considering her expressed wishes?

a.

Stationary exercise bicycle, free weights, and spinning class

b.

Mind-body therapies such as music therapy, distraction techniques, meditation, prayer, hypnosis, guided imagery, relaxation techniques, and pet therapy

c.

Chamomile tea and IcyHot gel

d.

Acupuncture and attending church services

ANS: B

Mind-body therapies are designed to enhance the minds capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms and include music therapy, distraction techniques, meditation, prayer, hypnosis, guided imagery, relaxation techniques, and pet therapy, among many others. Stationary exercise bicycle, free weights, and spinning are not mind-body therapies. They are classified as exercise therapies. Chamomile tea and IcyHot gel are not mid-body therapies per se. They are classified as herbal and topical thermal treatments. Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese complementary therapy, while attending church services is a religious prayer mind-body therapy capable of enhancing the minds capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms.

REF: 275 OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

6. Alan is a 30-year-old male admitted to the hospital with acute pancreatitis. He is in acute pain described as a 10/10, which is localized to the abdomen, periumbilical area, and some radiation to his back. The abdomen is grossly distended so it is difficult to assess. He is restless and agitated, with elevated pulse and blood pressure. An appropriate pain management plan of care may include

a.

IV Dilaudid q 4 hours prn, hydrocodone 5/500 PO q 6 hours prn, and acetaminophen.

b.

Norco 5/500 q 4 hours PO and Benadryl 25 mg PO q 6 hours.

c.

Phenergan 25 mg IM q 6 hours.

d.

Tylenol 325 mg q 6 hours.

ANS: A

A variety of routes of administration are used to deliver analgesics. A principle of pain management is to use the oral route of administration whenever feasible. All of the first-line analgesics used to manage pain are available in short-acting and long-acting formulations. For patients who have continuous pain, a long-acting analgesic, such as modified-release oral morphine, oxycodone, or hydromorphone, or transdermal fentanyl, is used to treat the persistent baseline pain. A fast-onset, short-acting analgesic (usually the same drug as the long-acting) is used to treat breakthrough pain if it occurs. When the oral route is not possible, such as in patients who cannot swallow or are NPO or nauseated, other routes of administration are used, including intravenous (IV), subcutaneous, transdermal, and rectal. Norco, Benadryl, Phenergan, and Tylenol are not appropriate solo choices for acute pancreatitis with pain reported as 10/10.

REF: 274-275

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

7. An 80-year-old male patient is in the ICU status fractured femur and MVA. You are making rounds and notice he is somnolent, with no response to verbal or physical stimulation. He has been on round the clock opioids doses q 4 hours. The best immediate course of nursing action is to

a.

call a Code Blue.

b.

stop opioid; consider administering naloxone, call Rapid Response Team (Code Blue); stay with patient, stimulate, and support respiration as indicated by patient status.

c.

call the primary hospitalist in charge of patient.

d.

call the anesthesia provider on call.

ANS: B

Stop opioid; consider administering naloxone; call Rapid Response Team (Code Blue); stay with patient, stimulate, and support respiration as indicated by patient status; notify primary or anesthesia provider; and monitor respiratory status and sedation level closely until sedation level is stable at less than 3 and respiratory status is satisfactory. Calling a Code Blue solely for a somnolent patient is not indicated as a solitary response. Calling the hospitalist assigned to the patient is an option only after the immediate treatment plan is enacted to reverse the opioid. Calling anesthesia is appropriate after stopping the opioid first.

REF: 273

OBJ: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

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