Chapter_42-_Structure_and_Function_of_the_Skeletal_System My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

Skeletal tissue contains intercellular collagen fibers that provide ______ for tendons and ligaments.

A)

elastic recoil

B)

shape flexibility

C)

tensile strength

D)

inorganic calcium

2.

Cartilage is a firm but flexible type of connective tissue that is essential for:

A)

calcium salt storage.

B)

growth of long bones.

C)

bone surface perfusion.

D)

reduced friction on tendons.

3.

Whereas PTH increases blood calcium levels, the hormone _____ lowers blood calcium levels and decreases bone resorption.

A)

vitamin D

B)

calcitonin

C)

prolactin

D)

phosphate

4.

Cancellous bone is relatively light, but its lattice-like structure gives it:

A)

rigidity.

B)

thickness.

C)

a growth plate.

D)

tensile strength.

5.

To maintain adequate serum calcium levels, parathyroid hormone reduces:

A)

activation of vitamin D.

B)

serum phosphate levels.

C)

calcium release from bone.

D)

intestinal absorption of calcium.

6.

In contrast to synarthroses joints, synovial joints are linked to the bone by:

A)

a joint capsule.

B)

hyaline cartilage.

C)

connective tissue.

D)

interosseous ligaments.

7.

The joint capsule consists of an outer fibrous layer and an inner synovium, which ______ to facilitate movement.

A)

senses position

B)

connects to tendons

C)

secretes synovial fluid

D)

covers articular cartilage

8.

The tendons and ligaments of the joint capsule are sensitive to position and movement as a result of having _______ to help maintain muscle support.

A)

autonomic nerve fibers

B)

supporting bursa sacs

C)

reflexive proprioception

D)

elastic articular cartilage

9.

In growing bone, severe vitamin C deficiency slows bone growth by impairing:

A)

organic matrix formation.

B)

calcification of new bone.

C)

growth plate separation.

D)

widening of the cortex.

10.

Bones are covered, except at their articular ends, by a ______ membrane.

A)

canaliculi

B)

endosteum

C)

synovial

D)

periosteum

11.

Which of the following is the primary role of fibrocartilage?

A)

Absorption of physical shock

B)

Provision of flexibility

C)

Facilitation of long bone growth

D)

Tissue hydration

12.

Which of the following characteristics differentiates cartilage from bone?

A)

Secretion of an extracellular matrix

B)

Avascularity

C)

Low tensile strength

D)

Rapid healing

13.

A long bone, such as the humerus of the upper arm, has which of the following structural characteristics?

A)

A perichondrium that overlies most of the bone surface

B)

A durable outer shell made of cancellous bone

C)

A diaphysis at each end

D)

An endosteum composed of osteogenic cells

14.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the anatomy and physiology of the bone marrow?

A)

Hematopoiesis takes place in red bone marrow.

B)

Yellow bone marrow predominates in infants.

C)

By adulthood, all red bone marrow has been replaced by yellow bone marrow.

D)

Yellow bone marrow is hematopoietically active in infants, but not in adults.

15.

What role do osteoblasts play in the physiology of bone tissue?

A)

Differentiation into mature bone cells

B)

Synthesis and secretion of bone matrix

C)

Maintenance of calcium balance

D)

Resorption of the bone matrix

16.

An increase in the level of RANKL would result in:

A)

fusing of the epiphysis and metaphysic in long bones.

B)

changes in the rate of bone remodeling.

C)

decreased production of PTH.

D)

increased vitamin D activation.

17.

How are the oxygenation needs of the articulating areas in a synovial joint met?

A)

Capillaries release oxygenated blood into the synovial cavity at a controlled rate.

B)

The cartilage of the articulating areas uses anaerobic metabolism exclusively.

C)

Oxygen is provided to the articulating areas by synovial fluid rather than by blood.

D)

The epiphyses of long bones provide oxygen to the articulating areas.

18.

Magnetic resonance imaging of a patients knee has revealed the presence of bursitis. What is the primary purpose of bursae?

A)

To maintain close articulation between the two long bones at a synovial joint

B)

To strengthen the attachment between skeletal muscles and bones

C)

To strengthen the integrity of the articulating capsule

D)

To prevent friction at a tendon in a synovial joint

19.

A basketball player fell awkwardly when attempting to claim a rebound, a mishap that resulted in a tear to the anterior cruciate ligament of his left knee. What characteristic of ligaments makes them particularly susceptible to injury?

A)

Ligaments are incapable of accommodating lateral movement.

B)

Ligaments are exclusive to the knee, which is the most frequently injured joint.

C)

Ligaments are superficial to the synovial capsule and are consequently vulnerable to impacts.

D)

Ligaments are incapable of stretching when exposed to unusual stress.

20.

Which of the following joints is classified as a synarthrosis?

A)

The joint between two vertebrae

B)

The joint between the femur and the pelvis

C)

The joint between the humerus and the radius and ulna

D)

An interphalangeal joint of the hand (knuckle)

Answer Key

1.

C

2.

B

3.

B

4.

D

5.

B

6.

A

7.

C

8.

C

9.

A

10.

D

11.

A

12.

B

13.

D

14.

A

15.

B

16.

B

17.

C

18.

D

19.

D

20.

A

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