Chapter_37-_Disorders_of_Brain_Function My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

The intracranial volume that is most capable of compensating for increasing intracranial pressure is the:

A)

brain cell tissue.

B)

intravascular blood.

C)

surface sulci fluid.

D)

cerebrospinal fluid.

2.

A late indicator of increased intracranial pressure is:

A)

tachycardia.

B)

right-sided heart failure.

C)

narrow pulse pressure.

D)

high mean arterial pressure.

3.

Extreme cerebral edema may cause the brain to herniate into another compartment. Upward herniation from the infratentorial compartment against the aqueduct of Sylvius causes:

A)

hydrocephalus.

B)

cardiac arrest.

C)

tissue infarction.

D)

intracranial bleeding.

4.

Coup and contrecoup cerebral contusion caused by blunt head trauma against a fixed object results in:

A)

diffuse axonal injuries.

B)

cerebrovascular infarction.

C)

momentary unconsciousness.

D)

permanent brain tissue damage.

5.

An intracranial epidural hematoma causes focal symptoms that can include:

A)

ipsilateral pupil dilation.

B)

ipsilateral hemiparesis.

C)

diffuse venous bleeding.

D)

commuting hydrocephalus.

6.

The earliest signs of decreased level of consciousness include:

A)

stupor.

B)

lethargy.

C)

delirium.

D)

inattention.

7.

Metabolic factors that increase cerebral blood flow include:

A)

increased oxygen saturation.

B)

increased carbon dioxide level.

C)

decreased serum sodium level.

D)

decreased hydrogen ion concentration.

8.

Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) are characterized by ischemic cerebral neurologic deficits that:

A)

indicate aneurysm leakage.

B)

cause minor residual deficits.

C)

affect diffuse cerebral functions.

D)

resolve within one hour of onset.

9.

Common manifestations of acute meningococcal meningitis, a highly contagious and lethal form of meningitis, include:

A)

diplopia.

B)

petechiae.

C)

papilledema.

D)

focal paralysis.

10.

The moderate stage of the progressive degenerative Alzheimer-type dementia is manifested by behaviors that include:

A)

confusion.

B)

incontinence.

C)

decreased level of consciousness.

D)

social withdrawal.

11.

A patients recent computed tomography (CT) scan has revealed the presence of hydrocephalus. Which of the following treatment measures is most likely to resolve this health problem?

A)

Aggressive diuresis

B)

Placement of a shunt

C)

Administration of hypertonic intravenous solution

D)

Lumbar puncture

12.

A high school senior sustained a concussion during a football game. Which of the following signs and symptoms would indicate the presence of postconcussion syndrome in the days and weeks following his injury?

A)

Headaches and memory lapses

B)

Recurrent nosebleeds and hypersomnia

C)

Unilateral weakness and decreased coordination

D)

Neck pain and decreased neck range of motion

13.

An elderly male patient has been brought to the emergency department after experiencing stroke-like symptoms a few hours ago, and has been subsequently diagnosed with an ischemic stroke. The care team is eager to restore cerebral perfusion despite the likely death of the brain cells directly affected by the stroke. What is the rationale for the care teams emphasis on restoring circulation?

A)

Failure to restore blood flow creates a severe risk for future transient ischemic attacks.

B)

Necrosis will continue unabated throughout the brain unless blood flow is restored.

C)

Cells of the penumbra may be saved from hypoxic damage if blood flow is promptly restored.

D)

Unless blood flow is restored, the patient faces the risk of progressing to hemorrhagic stroke.

14.

A patients emergency magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been examined by the physician and tPA has been administered to the patient. What was this patients most likely diagnosis?

A)

Status epilepticus

B)

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

C)

Ischemic stroke

D)

Encephalitis

15.

A patient has been diagnosed with a cerebral aneurysm and placed under close observation before treatment commences. Which of the following pathophysiologic conditions has contributed to this patients diagnosis?

A)

Weakness in the muscular wall of an artery

B)

Impaired synthesis of clotting factors

C)

Deficits in the autonomic control of blood pressure

D)

Increased levels of cerebrospinal fluid

16.

Which of the following pathophysiologic processes occurs in cases of bacterial meningitis?

A)

Infection in the cerebrospinal fluid causes vasoconstriction and cerebral hypoxia.

B)

Trauma introduces skin-borne pathogens to the cerebrospinal fluid.

C)

Infection in the cerebrospinal fluid causes spinal cord compression and neurologic deficits.

D)

Inflammation allows pathogens to cross into the cerebrospinal fluid.

17.

Which of the following individuals has the highest chance of having a medulloblastoma?

A)

An 88-year-old man who has begun displaying signs and symptoms of increased ICP

B)

A 60-year-old woman who is soon to begin radiation therapy for the treatment of breast cancer

C)

A 4-year-old child who has become uncoordinated in recent months

D)

A 68-year-old man who is a smoker and has a family history of cancer

18.

A patient with a history of a seizure disorder has been observed suddenly and repetitively patting his knee. After stopping this repetitive action, the patient appears confused and is oriented to person and place but not time. What type of seizure did this patient most likely experience?

A)

Simple partial seizure

B)

Atonic seizure

C)

Myoclonic seizure

D)

Complex partial seizure

19.

A patient with a long history of cigarette smoking and poorly controlled hypertension has experienced recent psychomotor deficits as a result of hemorrhagic brain damage. The patients psychomotor deficits are likely the result of:

A)

Alzheimer disease.

B)

frontotemporal dementia (FTD).

C)

vascular dementia.

D)

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

20.

Which of the following statements by the husband of a patient with Alzheimer disease demonstrates an accurate understanding of his wifes medication regimen?

A)

Im really hoping these medications will slow down her mental losses.

B)

Were both holding out hope that this medication will cure her Alzheimers.

C)

I know that this wont cure her, but we learned that it might prevent a bodily decline while she declines mentally.

D)

I learned that if we are vigilant about her medication schedule, she may not experience the physical effects of her disease.

Answer Key

1.

D

2.

D

3.

A

4.

D

5.

A

6.

D

7.

B

8.

D

9.

B

10.

A

11.

B

12.

A

13.

C

14.

C

15.

A

16.

D

17.

C

18.

D

19.

C

20.

A

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