Chapter_31-_Mechanisms_of_Endocrine_Control My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

Hormones are chemical messengers that:

A)

regulate body functions.

B)

initiate immune reactions.

C)

transport fatty acids and lipids.

D)

cause one specific tissue effect.

2.

The release of insulin from the pancreatic beta cells can inhibit its further release from the same cells. This is an example of _______ hormone action.

A)

retinoid

B)

autocrine

C)

juxtaposed

D)

arachidonic

3.

Several hormones, including steroids and thyroid hormone, are bound to and carried by:

A)

proteins.

B)

target cells.

C)

cholesterol.

D)

prohormones.

4.

Hormones exert their action by binding to high-affinity receptors on the surface or inside of the target cell. The response of the target cell varies with the _____ and _____ of the receptors present.

A)

numbers; affinity

B)

hormone size; location

C)

permeability; ionization

D)

saturation level; rate

5.

Release and synthesis of anterior pituitary hormones are mainly regulated by the inhibiting or releasing actions of the:

A)

cell receptors.

B)

thymus gland.

C)

hypothalamus.

D)

adrenal gland.

6.

When sensors detect a change in a hormone level, the hormonal response is regulated by _________ mechanisms that will return the level to within normal range.

A)

metabolic

B)

feedback

C)

production

D)

action potential

7.

When hypofunction of an endocrine organ is suspected, a hormone ____________ test can be administered to measure and assess target gland response.

A)

stimulation

B)

24-hour urine

C)

agglutination

D)

antibody-binding

8.

Hormones are usually divided into four categories according to their:

A)

function.

B)

precursor.

C)

structure.

D)

receptor.

9.

Although both autocrine and paracrine hormonal actions occur without entering the blood stream, paracrine actions differ because they affect ______ cells.

A)

self-

B)

local

C)

stored

D)

target

10.

As part of maintaining homeostasis, hormones secreted by endocrine cells are inactivated continuously to:

A)

free receptor sites.

B)

stimulate production.

C)

prevent accumulation.

D)

absorb metabolic waste.

11.

Hormones that cause the subsequent stimulation or release of another hormone, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone, typically belong to which of the following structural classifications?

A)

Amines and amino acids

B)

Peptides and proteins

C)

Steroids

D)

Fatty acid derivatives

12.

Paracrine action involves which of the following characteristics?

A)

Action on a distant target cell

B)

Autoregulation

C)

Action on the same cells that produced the hormone

D)

Action on nearby target cells

13.

A hormone has been synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of an endocrine cell after which it has moved into the Golgi complex, been packaged in a vesicle, and been released into circulation. What hormone is synthesized and released in this manner?

A)

Insulin

B)

Cortisol

C)

Testosterone

D)

Estrogen

14.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) performs which of the following roles in the functioning of the endocrine system?

A)

Mediating hormone synthesis by nonvesicle-mediated pathways

B)

Acting as a high-affinity receptor on the surface of target cells

C)

Inactivating hormones to prevent excess accumulation

D)

Acting as a second messenger to mediate hormone action on target cells

15.

Which of the following statement best describes the relationship between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary in the normal functioning of the endocrine system?

A)

Posterior pituitary hormones are constituted from components of both the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland itself.

B)

The posterior pituitary gland regulates the release of hypothalamic hormones.

C)

Posterior pituitary hormones are produced in the hypothalamus but released from the pituitary gland.

D)

The hypothalamus regulates the production and release of posterior pituitary hormones by the pituitary gland.

16.

Which of the following structures controls the functions of the greatest number of target glands and cells?

A)

Thyroid gland

B)

Pituitary gland

C)

Adrenal cortex

D)

Pancreas

17.

Which of the following physiologic processes best exemplifies a positive feedback mechanism?

A)

The increase in prolactin secretion that occurs with more frequent breast-feeding

B)

The regulation of blood glucose levels by insulin

C)

The release of parathyroid hormone in response to decreased serum calcium levels

D)

The release of antidiuretic hormone when sodium levels are higher than normal

18.

A patient has received an injection containing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and is now being assessed for levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This patient has undergone which of the following diagnostic tests?

A)

Suppression testing

B)

Radioimmunoassay (RIA)

C)

Autoantibody testing

D)

Stimulation testing

19.

Thyroid and steroid hormones, which exert their effect on target cells by way of nuclear receptors, have which of the following characteristics?

A)

The selective use of a second messenger

B)

The ability to cross the cell membrane of target cells

C)

The ability to regulate surface receptor affinity

D)

Both lipid-solubility and water-solubility

20.

Which of the following hormones is produced by the anterior pituitary gland?

A)

Growth hormone (GH)

B)

Oxytocin

C)

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

D)

Norepinephrine

Answer Key

1.

A

2.

B

3.

A

4.

A

5.

C

6.

B

7.

A

8.

C

9.

B

10.

C

11.

B

12.

C

13.

A

14.

D

15.

C

16.

B

17.

A

18.

D

19.

B

20.

A

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