Chapter_28-_Structure_and_Function_of_the_Gastrointestinal_System My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

Bile and pancreatic juices enter the ______ through the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct.

A)

ileum

B)

antrum

C)

jejunum

D)

duodenum

2.

The digestive tract is a four-layered tube. Which layer consists of connective tissue and contains nerves, blood vessels, and structures for secreting the digestive juices?

A)

Mucosal

B)

Peritoneum

C)

Submucosal

D)

Circular muscle

3.

What body part is the largest serous membrane in the body, constitutes the outer wall of the intestine, and contains a serous fluid between its two layers?

A)

Mesentery

B)

Omentum

C)

Haustration

D)

Peritoneum

4.

Motility along the length of the gut, control of function, and communication of each segment are innervated by the ______ neurons of the enteric nervous system.

A)

intramural

B)

vasovagal

C)

sympathetic

D)

preganglionic

5.

The patient chews an apple and starts the three phases of swallowing. As food enters the patients esophagus, stretching and _____ nerve impulses initiate _______ that are controlled by the swallowing center.

A)

phrenic; gag reflexes

B)

vagus; peristaltic waves

C)

hypoglossal; contractions

D)

trigeminal; tactile receptors

6.

In the stomach, chyme is churned by peristalsis into the antrum, which contracts, reverses the flow, and allows more churning. Because the pylorus is contracted during antral contraction, gastric content empties into the duodenum:

A)

during bile secretion.

B)

between contractions.

C)

with a mucosal surface.

D)

under gaseous pressure.

7.

Because intestinal secretions are mainly ______ and are derived from the extracellular fluid, excessive secretion or impaired absorption can lead to extracellular _____.

A)

nitrogen; acidosis

B)

water; dehydration

C)

anaerobic; hypotonicity

D)

electrolytes; hypervolemia

8.

The stomach is the source of two hormones produced by the gastrointestinal tract: gastrin and ghrelin. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the mucosal layer that has an important role in regulation of ________ secretion.

A)

gastric acid fluid

B)

growth hormone

C)

biliary bicarbonate

D)

pancreatic enzyme

9.

In addition to mucus, the intestinal mucosa produces two other types of secretions. Copious amounts of the serous type fluid are secreted to act as a:

A)

vehicle for absorption.

B)

enzyme that splits sugars.

C)

protection from acid content.

D)

parasympathetic stimulation.

10.

The intestinal absorption of glucose and amino acids is facilitated by a ________ transport system.

A)

bile-salt micelles

B)

fat emulsification

C)

sodium-dependent

D)

brush border enzyme

11.

Parasympathetic stimulation results in which of the following gastrointestinal effects?

A)

Increase in smooth muscle tone

B)

Enhancement of sphincter function

C)

Decrease in gastrointestinal motility

D)

Increase in enteric nervous system activity

12.

Which of the following functions is performed by saliva?

A)

Antimicrobial protection

B)

Promotion of intestinal flora

C)

Buffering of gastric secretions

D)

Catalysis of brush border enzymes

13.

Gastrin production, a task that is performed by the stomach, results in which of the following effects?

A)

Simulation of pancreatic enzyme secretions

B)

Stimulation of HCl secretions by parietal cells

C)

Conversion of polysaccharides to monosaccharides

D)

Release of insulin in response to glucose load

14.

A patient who is quadriplegic following a motor vehicle accident adheres to a bowel protocol to promote regular bowel movements and prevent constipation. Which of the following actions performed by the patients caregiver is likely to promote defecation?

A)

Digital stimulation of the patients rectum

B)

Massage of the patients abdomen

C)

Seating the patient in an upright position

D)

Administration of large amounts of free water

15.

Which of the following patients likely faces the greatest risk of a gastrointestinal bleed?

A)

A man whose hypertension requires him to take a diuretic, an ACE inhibitor, and a b-adrenergic blocker

B)

A patient who is taking a broad-spectrum antibiotic to treat a urinary tract infection

C)

A patient with a history of anxiety who takes benzodiazepines several times daily

D)

A patient who takes aspirin with each meal to control symptoms of osteoarthritis

16.

A patients complex and worsening pressure ulcer has necessitated the use of numerous antibiotics over the last several months. Which of the following consequences may result from this patients medication regimen?

A)

Impaired mucus production

B)

Vitamin K deficiency

C)

Impaired protein metabolism

D)

Excessive release of pepsin

17.

Which of the following aspects of gastrointestinal function is performed by the brush border enzymes of the villus structures?

A)

Fat metabolism

B)

Vitamin A synthesis

C)

Digestion of carbohydrates

D)

Maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance

18.

A patient has been diagnosed with cholecystitis (gall bladder inflammation) that has impaired the normal release of bile. Which of the following gastrointestinal consequences is this patient likely to experience?

A)

Incomplete digestion of starches

B)

Impaired glucose metabolism

C)

Inadequate gastric acid production

D)

Impaired digestion of fats

19.

A child who is experiencing the signs and symptoms of influenza has vomited frequently over the last 24 hours. Vomiting results from stimulation of what site in the neurologic system?

A)

Myenteric plexus

B)

Intramural plexus

C)

Vagus nerve

D)

Chemoreceptor trigger zone

20.

A patient has been diagnosed with an incompetent pyloric sphincter. This patient will experience abnormal communication between which of the following components of the gastrointestinal tract?

A)

Stomach and duodenum

B)

Esophagus and stomach

C)

Rectum and anus

D)

Small intestine and colon

Answer Key

1.

D

2.

A

3.

D

4.

A

5.

B

6.

B

7.

B

8.

B

9.

A

10.

C

11.

D

12.

A

13.

B

14.

A

15.

D

16.

B

17.

C

18.

D

19.

D

20.

A

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