Chapter_27-_Disorders_of_the_Bladder_and_Lower_Urinary_Tract My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

Although urinary obstruction and urinary incontinence have almost opposite effects on urination, they can both result from:

A)

bladder structure changes.

B)

bladder wall atrophy.

C)

micturition reflex spasms.

D)

bladder distensibility loss.

2.

The body compensates for obstructed urine outflow. Compensatory changes to chronic obstruction include:

A)

bladder spasms.

B)

urinary frequency.

C)

high residual volume.

D)

overflow incontinence.

3.

A patient fell off a ladder and sustained a spinal cord injury that has resulted in bladder dysfunction. During the period immediately after the spinal injury, spinal shock develops and the bladder has ____ function.

A)

atonic

B)

spasmodic

C)

uninhibited

D)

hyperactive

4.

In men, the condition of nonrelaxing external sphincter with urine retention is commonly caused by:

A)

psychosocial disorders.

B)

prostate enlargement.

C)

chronic stress response.

D)

pelvic inflammatory disease.

5.

In women, pelvic floor weakness may cause which type of incontinence?

A)

Urge

B)

Stress

C)

Overflow

D)

Overactive

6.

Many factors contribute to the incontinence that is common among the elderly. A major factor is increased:

A)

detrusor muscle function.

B)

intake of liquids and water.

C)

urethral closing pressure.

D)

use of multiple medications.

7.

Dysfunction of the _____ muscle contraction can disrupt the ability to expel urine from the bladder.

A)

trigone

B)

sphincter

C)

detrusor

D)

trabeculae

8.

Neurologic control of bladder function consists of three main levels or centers. The lower motor neuron spinal cord centers control micturition:

A)

reflexes.

B)

backflow.

C)

inhibition.

D)

coordination.

9.

Prolonged urethral outlet obstruction causes chronic high bladder pressure and overdistension, resulting in the formation of:

A)

detrusor dyssynergia.

B)

cellules.

C)

interstitial cystitis.

D)

sphincter dystonia.

10.

The most common sign of epithelial cell bladder cancer is:

A)

severe oliguria.

B)

hyperproteinuria.

C)

hyperphosphaturia.

D)

painless hematuria.

11.

Most common uncomplicated urinary tract infections are caused by ____ that enter through the urethra.

A)

Pseudomonas

B)

Escherichia coli

C)

Staphylococcus aureus

D)

Group B Streptococcus

12.

Although the distal portion of the urethra often contains pathogens, the urine formed in the kidney and found in the bladder is sterile because of the:

A)

alkaline urine.

B)

glomerular filtering.

C)

warm temperature.

D)

washout phenomenon.

13.

An elderly patient who experiences chronic pain takes opioid analgesics on a regular basis, a practice that has resulted in frequent constipation and occasional bowel obstructions. Which of the following problems may directly result from these gastrointestinal disorders?

A)

Urinary tract infections

B)

Overflow urinary incontinence

C)

Bladder cancer

D)

Neurogenic bladder

14.

After reviewing the 24-hour intake and output of a hospital patient, the nurse suspects that the patient may be experiencing flaccid bladder dysfunction. Which of the following diagnostic methods is most likely to confirm or rule out whether the patient is retaining urine?

A)

Blood test for creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and glomerular filtration rate

B)

Urine test for culture and sensitivity

C)

Routine urinalysis

D)

Measurement of postvoid residual (PVR) by ultrasound

15.

A pregnant woman who is beginning her third trimester has been diagnosed with a urinary tract infection (UTI). Which of the following factors most likely predisposed this patient to the development of a UTI?

A)

Increased urine alkalinity during pregnancy

B)

Hypertrophy of the bladder wall

C)

Dilation of the upper urinary structures

D)

Spastic peristalsis of the ureters

16.

Which of the following signs and symptoms in a 2-year-old child should prompt assessment for a urinary tract infection?

A)

Unexplained fever and anorexia

B)

Decreased urine output and irritability

C)

Production of concentrated urine and recurrent nausea

D)

Frank hematuria

17.

Which of the following patients is likely at the greatest risk of developing a urinary tract infection?

A)

A pregnant woman who has been experiencing urinary frequency

B)

A patient with a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease who requires regular hemodialysis

C)

A 79-year-old patient with an indwelling catheter

D)

A confused, 81-year-old patient who is incontinent of urine

18.

A woman has sought care because of recurrent urinary tract infections, which have been increasing in both frequency and severity. Which of the following factors is likely to contribute to recurrent UTIs?

A)

Reflux flow of urine

B)

Fluctuations in urine pH

C)

Urethral trauma

D)

Inadequate fluid intake

19.

A public health nurse is conducting a health promotion class for a group of older adults. Which of the participants following statements demonstrates an accurate understanding of the risk factors for bladder cancer?

A)

I suppose I should listen to my doctor and drink more cranberry juice.

B)

More than ever, I guess it would worthwhile for me to quit smoking.

C)

I can see that preventing bladder cancer is one more benefit of a healthy diet.

D)

I think I should be okay because theres no history or bladder cancer in my family that Im aware of.

20.

Which of the following events would suggest that an individuals physiologic response to an obstruction has progressed beyond the compensatory stage and is now in the decompensatory stage?

A)

The bladder muscle hypertrophies.

B)

The detrusor loses its power of contraction.

C)

The ability to suppress urination is diminished.

D)

The individual experiences urgency.

Answer Key

1.

A

2.

B

3.

A

4.

B

5.

B

6.

D

7.

C

8.

A

9.

B

10.

D

11.

B

12.

D

13.

B

14.

D

15.

C

16.

A

17.

C

18.

A

19.

B

20.

B

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