Chapter_24-_Structure_and_Function_of_the_Kidney My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

When the kidneys have decreased perfusion or increased sympathetic nervous system stimulation, renal blood flow goes mainly to the medulla in order to decrease ______ while maintaining the ______ of urine.

A)

pressure; adequate output

B)

electrolyte loss; acidic pH

C)

filtration rate; concentration

D)

buffer loss; glucose level

2.

Although an average of ____ glomerular filtrate is formed each minute, only _____ is excreted as urine and the rest is reabsorbed in the tubules.

A)

250 mL; 15 mL

B)

125 mL; 1 mL

C)

200 mL; 5 mL

D)

175 mL; 10 mL

3.

Alterations in the structure and function of the glomerular _________ are responsible for protein and blood cell leakage into the filtrate that occurs in many forms of glomerular disease.

A)

renal corpuscle

B)

Bowmans capsule

C)

peritubular network

D)

basement membrane

4.

When the glomerular transport maximum for a substance such as blood glucose is exceeded and its renal threshold has been reached, the substance will:

A)

reabsorb quickly.

B)

spill into the urine.

C)

counter-transport sodium.

D)

attach to protein carriers.

5.

In contrast to the descending limb, the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is impermeable to _____ and the tubular filtrate becomes more _____ as a result.

A)

potassium; acidic

B)

water; hypoosmolar

C)

sodium; concentrated

D)

chloride; reabsorbed

6.

The major sites of aldosterone action on sodium and potassium, potassium regulation, and the final concentration of sodium in urine are the _______ tubule and the _________ tubule.

A)

late distal; cortical collecting

B)

thin ascending; thick ascending

C)

proximal; thin descending segment

D)

juxtamedullary; elbow diluting segment

7.

Only the kidneys can eliminate ____ from the body as a means of regulating body acid-base balance, when urine buffers are present.

A)

hydrogen (H+)

B)

potassium (K+)

C)

ammonia (NH3)

D)

phosphate (HPO4)

8.

The kidney assists in blood pressure regulation by releasing_______ from the juxtaglomerular cells in response to decreased renal blood flow, resulting in efferent arteriole vasoconstriction.

A)

renin

B)

angiotensin II

C)

aldosterone

D)

angiotensin I

9.

In addition to regulating body fluids and electrolytes, the kidneys function in maintaining bone calcium levels by:

A)

activating vitamin D.

B)

excreting bicarbonate.

C)

stimulating bone marrow.

D)

synthesizing erythropoietin.

10.

Which one of the following blood tests reflects the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and is used to estimate renal function?

A)

Blood protein

B)

Serum creatinine

C)

Serum ammonia

D)

Blood urea nitrogen

11.

As glomerular filtrate exits Bowmans capsule, it will enter the ___________, followed by the ___________ and then the _______________.

A)

Proximal tubule; loop of Henle; distal tubule

B)

Ascending limb of the loop of Henle; descending limb of the loop of Henle; distal tubule

C)

Glomerulus; proximal tubule; distal tubule

D)

Collecting tubule; distal tubule; loop of Henle

12.

Reabsorption of electrolytes such as Na+, K+, Cl, and bicarbonate (HCO3) from glomerular filtrate takes place primarily in which of the following locations?

A)

Descending limb of the loop of Henle

B)

Ascending limb of the loop of Henle

C)

Bowmans capsule

D)

Proximal convoluted tubule

13.

An athlete has become dehydrated during a long race in hot weather. Which of the following physiologic processes will occur in an attempt to protect the athletes extracellular fluid volume?

A)

Dilation of the afferent and efferent arterioles

B)

Release of ADH from the posterior pituitary

C)

Increased water reabsorption in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle

D)

Increased water reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule

14.

A patients most recent blood work reveals a blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level of 36 mg/dL (normal range 8 to 25 mg/dL). Which of the following factors may have contributed to this finding?

A)

Increased salt intake

B)

Action of ADH

C)

Dehydration

D)

Parasympathetic nervous stimulation

15.

Which of the following physiologic processes is performed by the kidneys and contributes to increased blood pressure?

A)

Catalysis of the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II

B)

Production and release of renin

C)

Secretion of aldosterone

D)

Conversion of aldosterone to angiotensin

16.

A patient has a diagnosis of chronic renal failure secondary to diabetic nephropathy. Which of the following hematologic changes may result from this patients kidney disorder?

A)

Anemia

B)

Leukocytosis

C)

Thrombocytopenia

D)

Leukopenia

17.

A patient has provided a routine urine sample during a scheduled visit to his primary care provider. Which of the following results is an expected finding in a healthy individual?

A)

Low to moderate amount of glucose in the urine

B)

Urine specific gravity of 1.020

C)

Presence of moderate amounts of albumin with the absence of other proteins

D)

Presence of urinary casts

18.

Which of the following factors is likely to result in decreased renal blood flow?

A)

Action of dopamine

B)

Release of nitric oxide

C)

Action of prostaglandins

D)

Sympathetic nervous stimulation

19.

Which of the following aspects of kidney function is performed by the juxtaglomerular complex?

A)

Regulating urine concentration

B)

Facilitating active transport to reabsorb electrolytes

C)

Regulating sodium and potassium elimination

D)

Matching changes in GFR with renal blood flow

20.

Which of the following components of glomerular filtrate can cross the tubular epithelial cell membrane passively?

A)

Sodium

B)

Potassium

C)

Urea

D)

Glucose

Answer Key

1.

C

2.

B

3.

D

4.

B

5.

B

6.

A

7.

A

8.

A

9.

A

10.

B

11.

A

12.

D

13.

B

14.

C

15.

B

16.

A

17.

B

18.

D

19.

D

20.

C

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