Chapter_16-_Disorders_of_the_Immune_Response My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

The mediators involved in type I hypersensitivity allergic responses are released from:

A)

mast cells.

B)

plasma cells.

C)

monocytes.

D)

arachidonic acid.

2.

A genetically determined hypersensitivity to common environmental allergens causes ___________ reactions, such as:

A)

atopic; urticaria.

B)

autoimmune; diarrhea.

C)

IgM-mediated; infections.

D)

delayed; poison ivy rash:

3.

Mismatched blood transfusion reaction with hemolysis of blood cells is an example of type II, _____ mediated hypersensitivity reaction.

A)

T-cell

B)

antibody

C)

leukotriene

D)

complement

4.

Type III hypersensitivity immune responses can be harmful when immune complex deposits in tissue activate ___________ that can directly damage area tissues.

A)

inflammation

B)

autoantibodies

C)

cytotoxic cells

D)

immunoglobulins

5.

The mechanism by which humans recognize self-cells from non-self (antigens)-cells is _________.

A)

autoimmunity

B)

self-tolerance

C)

non-self anergy

D)

immunocompatibility

6.

Organ rejection is a complication of organ transplantation caused by recipient immune cells:

A)

destroying the host T cells.

B)

attack on the donor cells.

C)

combining with grafts HLA.

D)

being recognized as foreign.

7.

The leading cause of death for people with HIV is opportunistic ____________.

A)

leukemia

B)

tuberculosis

C)

pneumonia

D)

toxoplasmosis

8.

Wasting syndrome, an AIDS-defining illness, is characterized by involuntary weight loss of at least 10% of baseline body weight in the presence of:

A)

diarrhea.

B)

hypermetabolism.

C)

weakness and fever.

D)

glucose intolerance.

9.

The window period of HIV infection refers to the period of time between infection and:

A)

transmission.

B)

seroconversion.

C)

initial symptoms.

D)

antibody screening.

10.

HIV-positive persons that display manifestations of laboratory category 3 or clinical category C are considered to have:

A)

zero viral load.

B)

seroconversion.

C)

complete remission.

D)

AIDS-defining illnesses.

11.

Contact with poison ivy has resulted in intense pruritus, erythema, and weeping on a patients forearm. Which of the following processes resulted in the patients signs and symptoms?

A)

IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation

B)

Formation of antigen-antibody complexes

C)

Cytokine release by sensitized T cells

D)

Formation of antibodies against cell surface antigens

12.

A patient with a long history of hay fever has recently begun a series of immunotherapy (allergy shots). How will this treatment potentially achieve a therapeutic effect?

A)

By blocking cytokine release from sensitized mast cells

B)

By preventing mast cells from becoming sensitized

C)

By causing T cells to be sequestered in the thymus for longer periods

D)

By stimulating production of IgG to combine with antigens

13.

A patient with a diagnosis of cirrhosis has experienced an acute rejection of a donor liver. Which of the following cells is central to the rejection of the patients transplanted organ?

A)

Natural killer cells

B)

Mast cells

C)

T cells

D)

Neutrophils

14.

A patient with a diagnosis of aplastic anemia has undergone allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Which of the following signs and symptoms would most clearly suggest the existence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)?

A)

Shortness of breath, audible crackles, and decreasing PaO2

B)

Presence of a pruritic rash that has begun to slough off

C)

Development of metabolic acidosis

D)

Diaphoresis, fever, and anxiety

15.

A patient has developed pericarditis after developing acute glomerulonephritis, a development that may be attributable to the presence of similar epitopes on group A, b-hemolytic streptococci and the antigens in the patients heart tissue. Which of the following has most likely accounted for this patients autoimmune response?

A)

Breakdown of T-cell anergy

B)

Release of sequestered antigens

C)

Superantigens

D)

Molecular mimicry

16.

A 70-year-old female patient has had her mobility and independence significantly reduced by rheumatoid arthritis. Which of the following processes likely contributed to the development of her health problem?

A)

Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction

B)

Proliferation of cytotoxic T cells

C)

Failure of normal self-tolerance

D)

Deletion of autoreactive B cells

17.

Which of the following would constitute a normal assessment finding in a neonate?

A)

Minimal or absent levels of IgA and IgM

B)

Absence of plasma cells in the lymph nodes and spleen

C)

Undetectable levels of all immunoglobulins

D)

Absence of mature B cells with normal T-cell levels and function

18.

A patient was diagnosed as HIV positive several years ago. Which of the following blood tests is most clinically useful for determining the stage and severity of her disease?

A)

Plasma levels

B)

CD4+ cell counts

C)

Viral load

D)

White blood cell count with differential

19.

A patient has been admitted to the hospital for the treatment of HIV infection, which has recently progressed to overt AIDS. Which of the following nursing actions should the nurse prioritize when providing care for this patient?

A)

Frequent neurologic vital signs and thorough skin care

B)

Hemodynamic monitoring and physical therapy

C)

Careful monitoring of fluid balance and neurologic status

D)

Astute infection control and respiratory assessments

20.

Shortly after being diagnosed with HIV, a patient has begun highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). What is the primary goal of the patients drug regimen?

A)

To limit the latent period of HIV

B)

To slow the progression of the disease

C)

To minimize opportunities for transmission

D)

To prevent seroconversion

Answer Key

1.

A

2.

A

3.

B

4.

A

5.

B

6.

B

7.

B

8.

A

9.

B

10.

D

11.

C

12.

D

13.

C

14.

B

15.

D

16.

C

17.

A

18.

B

19.

D

20.

B

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