Chapter_15-_Innate_and_Adaptive_Immunity My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

Innate immunity, also called natural or native immunity, consists of mechanisms that respond specifically to:

A)

self-cells.

B)

microbes.

C)

antibodies.

D)

inflammation.

2.

Adaptive immune responses, also called acquired or specific immunity, are composed of _____________ and their products.

A)

granulocytes

B)

lymphocytes

C)

epithelial cells

D)

Toll-like receptors

3.

The effector cells of the immune system have the primary function of:

A)

activating phagocytic cells.

B)

eliminating the antigens.

C)

processing antigen into epitopes.

D)

controlling the immune response.

4.

Activation of lymphocytes is dependent upon the ________ and ________ of the antigens by macrophages.

A)

memory; clustering

B)

capture; destruction

C)

recognition; grouping

D)

processing; presentation

5.

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, with human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), are markers on all nucleated cells and have an important role in:

A)

identifying blood types.

B)

cell membrane transport.

C)

suppressing viral replication.

D)

avoiding transplant rejections.

6.

Dendritic cells, found in skin tissues and lymphoid tissues, are important for:

A)

initiation of adaptive immunity.

B)

deep-tissue phagocytosis.

C)

disposal of dead cells.

D)

delaying inflammation.

7.

Once T helper cells are activated, they secrete ____________ that activate and regulate nearly all of the other cells of the immune system.

A)

complement proteins

B)

cytokines

C)

leukotrienes

D)

bradykinins

8.

The first circulating immunoglobulin to appear in response to a new antigen is:

A)

IgG.

B)

IgM.

C)

IgA.

D)

IgD.

9.

The effector function of activated members of the complement system includes all of the following EXCEPT:

A)

chemotaxis.

B)

opsonization.

C)

pathogen lysis.

D)

phagocytosis.

10.

During the latent period before antibodies are detected in the humoral immune response, B cells differentiate into ________ cells.

A)

plasma

B)

cytotoxic

C)

stem

D)

helper

11.

Which of the following would participate in the innate immune response to an infectious microorganism?

A)

T lymphocytes

B)

Antibodies

C)

B lymphocytes

D)

Neutrophils

12.

A patient has recently received a pneumococcal vaccine and the patients B cells are consequently producing antibodies. Which of the following cells may enhance this production of antibodies?

A)

Helper T cells

B)

Regulatory T cells

C)

Cytotoxic T cells

D)

Natural killer cells

13.

A childs thymus gland is fully formed and proportionately larger than an adults. Which of the following processes that contribute to immunity takes place in the thymus gland?

A)

Differentiation of B cells

B)

Production of natural killer (NK) cells

C)

Proliferation of T cells

D)

Filtration of antigens from the blood

14.

A patients exposure to an antibiotic-resistant microorganism while in the hospital has initiated an immune response, a process that is mediated and regulated by cytokines. Which of the following statements is true of cytokines?

A)

They are stored in the peripheral lymphoid tissues until required.

B)

They have a long half-life that contributes to an ongoing immune response.

C)

They are normally released at cell-to-cell interfaces, binding to specific receptors.

D)

They are capable of performing phagocytosis in the response to viral invasion.

15.

The entrance of a microbe into an individuals vascular space has initiated opsonization. Which of the following processes is involved in opsonization?

A)

Stimulation of B cells by helper T cells

B)

Coating of a microbe to aid phagocyte recognition

C)

Release of proteins that stimulate cell production by the bone marrow

D)

Lysis of intracellular microbes by cytotoxic T cells

16.

Bacteria on a sliver in a boys finger have initiated an adaptive immune response. The boys lymphocytes and antibodies recognize immunologically active sites on the bacterial surfaces known as:

A)

Toll-like receptors.

B)

opsonins.

C)

chemokines.

D)

epitopes.

17.

Histocompatability molecules are of primary importance to which of the following aspects of immunity?

A)

Induction of T-cell immunity

B)

T-cell maturation

C)

NK cell activation

D)

Phagocytosis by neutrophils

18.

Prior to leaving on a backpacking trip to Southeast Asia, a college student has received a tetanus booster shot. This immunization confers protection by way of what immune process?

A)

Secondary humoral response

B)

Cell-mediated immune response

C)

Primary humoral response

D)

Innate immunity

19.

A patients cell-mediated immune response has resulted in the release of regulator T cells. These cells will perform which of the following roles?

A)

Suppressing the immune response to limit proliferation of potentially harmful lymphocytes

B)

Presenting antigens to B cells to facilitate the production of antibodies

C)

Differentiating into subpopulations of helper T cells

D)

Destroying target cells by releasing cytolytic enzymes and other toxins

20.

A 1-day-old infant was exposed to an infectious microorganism prior to discharge home from the hospital, but was able to effect a sufficient immune response in the hours and days following exposure. This immune response may have been due to the presence of which of the following immunoglobulins from the infants mother?

A)

IgA

B)

IgG

C)

IgM

D)

IgD

Answer Key

1.

B

2.

B

3.

B

4.

D

5.

D

6.

A

7.

B

8.

B

9.

D

10.

A

11.

D

12.

A

13.

B

14.

C

15.

B

16.

D

17.

A

18.

A

19.

A

20.

B

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