Chapter_08-_Disorders_of_Fluid,_Electrolyte,_and_Acid-Base_Balance My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

An injured patient develops interstitial edema as a result of decreased:

A)

vascular volume.

B)

hydrostatic pressure.

C)

capillary permeability.

D)

colloidal osmotic pressure.

2.

The most reliable method for measuring body water or fluid volume increase is by assessing:

A)

tissue turgor.

B)

intake and output.

C)

body weight change.

D)

serum sodium levels.

3.

The syndrome of inappropriate ADH is characterized by:

A)

increased osmolality.

B)

excessive water thirst.

C)

copious dilute urination.

D)

dilutional hyponatremia.

4.

In isotonic fluid volume deficit, changes in total body water are accompanied by:

A)

intravascular hypotonicity.

B)

increased intravascular water.

C)

increases in intracellular sodium.

D)

proportionate losses of sodium.

5.

Hyponatremia can be caused by ______and manifested by _______.

A)

hypovolemia; dehydration

B)

third spacing; hypertonicity

C)

water retention; hypotonicity

D)

aldosterone excess; low ADH

6.

One of the major causes of hyperkalemia is ____________, which alters potassium elimination.

A)

renal dysfunction

B)

aldosterone excess

C)

metabolic alkalosis

D)

plasma albumin deficit

7.

Hypoparathyroidism causes hypocalcemia by:

A)

increasing serum magnesium.

B)

increasing phosphate excretion.

C)

blocking bone release of calcium.

D)

blocking action of intestinal vitamin D.

8.

Magnesium is important for the overall function of the body because of its direct role in:

A)

cell membrane permeability.

B)

somatic cell growth control.

C)

sodium and tonicity regulation.

D)

DNA replication and transcription.

9.

A patient has acidosis that is suspected to be respiratory in etiology. Which of the following is the major cause of acute primary respiratory acidosis?

A)

Decreased CO2 retention

B)

Increased metabolic acids

C)

Renal bicarbonate retention

D)

Impaired alveolar ventilation

10.

As other mechanisms prepare to respond to a pH imbalance, immediate buffering is a result of increased:

A)

intracellular albumin.

B)

hydrogen/potassium binding.

C)

sodium/phosphate anion absorption.

D)

bicarbonate/carbonic acid regulation.

11.

A patient with a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis secondary to alcohol use has a distended abdomen as a result of fluid accumulation in his peritoneal cavity (ascites). Which of the following pathophysiologic processes contributes to this third spacing?

A)

Abnormal increase in transcellular fluid volume

B)

Increased capillary colloidal osmotic pressure

C)

Polydipsia

D)

Impaired hormonal control of fluid volume

12.

A patient has been receiving intravenous normal saline at a rate of 125 mL per hour since her surgery 2 days earlier. As a result of her consequent increase in vascular volume, she has become edematous. Which of the following phenomena accounts for this patients edema?

A)

Obstruction of lymph flow

B)

Increased capillary permeability

C)

Decreased capillary colloidal osmotic pressure

D)

Increased capillary filtration pressure

13.

A patient with a diagnosis of schizophrenia has been admitted to the emergency department after ingesting more than 2 gallons of water. Which of the following pathophysiologic processes may result from the sudden water gain?

A)

Hypernatremia

B)

Water movement from the extracellular to intracellular compartment

C)

Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH)

D)

Isotonic fluid excess in the extracellular fluid compartment

14.

Which of the following patients would likely be at highest risk of developing hyperkalemia?

A)

A patient who has been admitted for the treatment of acute renal failure following a drug overdose

B)

A patient who has experienced an ischemic stroke with multiple sensory and motor losses

C)

An elderly patient who is experiencing vomiting and diarrhea as a result of influenza

D)

A patient whose thyroidectomy resulted in the loss of his parathyroid gland

15.

A female patient with a history of chronic renal failure has developed hypocalcemia. Which of the following assessment findings would provide potential confirmation of this diagnosis?

A)

The patient experiences shortness of breath on exertion with decreased oxygen saturation levels.

B)

The patient is difficult to rouse and is disoriented to time and place.

C)

The patients heart rate is 120 beats per minute and she is diaphoretic (sweaty).

D)

The patient has muscle spasms and complains of numbness around her mouth.

16.

Which of the following assessments should be prioritized in the care of a patient who is being treated for hypokalemia?

A)

Detailed fluid balance monitoring

B)

Arterial blood gases

C)

Cardiac monitoring

D)

Monitoring of hemoglobin levels and oxygen saturation

17.

Magnesium is an important component of which of the following processes that are integral to the maintenance of homeostasis? Select all that apply.

A)

Intracellular and extracellular buffering

B)

Cellular energy metabolism

C)

Function of the sodium-potassium pump

D)

Nerve conduction

E)

Cell membrane function

18.

A 77-year-old woman has been brought to the emergency department by her daughter because of a sudden and unprecedented onset of confusion. The patient admits to ingesting large amounts of baking soda since the morning in an effort to treat indigestion. How will the womans body attempt to resolve this disruption in acid-base balance?

A)

Hyperventilation

B)

Increasing renal H+ excretion

C)

Increased renal HCO3 reabsorption

D)

Hypoventilation

19.

Arterial blood gases of a patient with a diagnosis of acute renal failure reveal a pH of 7.25 (low), HCO3-of 21 mEq/L (low), decreased PCO2 accompanied by a respiratory rate of 32 (high). What disorder of acid-base balance is the patient most likely experiencing?

A)

Metabolic acidosis

B)

Metabolic alkalosis

C)

Respiratory acidosis

D)

Respiratory alkalosis

20.

A nurse who is providing care for a patient with a diagnosis of diabetes insipidus should prioritize the close monitoring of serum levels of which of the following electrolytes?

A)

Potassium

B)

Sodium

C)

Magnesium

D)

Calcium

Answer Key

1.

D

2.

C

3.

D

4.

D

5.

C

6.

A

7.

C

8.

D

9.

D

10.

D

11.

A

12.

D

13.

B

14.

A

15.

D

16.

C

17.

B, C, D, E

18.

D

19.

A

20.

B

Page 1

Leave a Reply