Chapter 9: Politics and Consumer Partnerships My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 9: Politics and Consumer Partnerships

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A staff nurse is speaking with a nurse manager regarding politics and nursing. The nurse manager explains that politics exists in any system where which of the following conditions exists?

a.

Abundant resources

c.

Competing interests for resources

b.

Unlimited control of resources

d.

Unlimited distribution of resources

ANS: C

Politics exists in any system where there are competing interests for resources, resources are scarce, resources are limited, a group of people control more resources than others, and there is control over the distribution of resources.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension REF: INTRODUCTION

2. A beginning college student is exploring career options. The advisor informs the student that opinion polls have consistently shown that which of the following professionals have been rated the number one most trusted professionals?

a.

Firemen

c.

Physicians

b.

Policemen

d.

Nurses

ANS: D

Nurses consistently show up as rated number one in consumer opinion polls about the most trusted professionals.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: INTRODUCTION

3. A nurse intern asks the unit manager how nurses can become more politically involved in the consumer movement in health care to support the advancement of nursing service. The nurse manager responds by saying that the majority of nurses can accomplish this by:

a.

becoming a member of their professional organization.

b.

becoming a lobbyist to interested government agencies.

c.

supporting legislation for more government control.

d.

supporting physicians to direct health care policy.

ANS: A

Nurses can be politically involved by becoming a member of and supporting their professional organization. Becoming a lobbyist is not for the majority. More government control is not supporting the advancement of nursing service. Supporting physicians to direct health care policy does not focus on the needs of nursing as a profession.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: INTRODUCTION

4. According to the Center for Responsive Politics 2010, where did the American Nurses Association rank in the top 20 spenders for lobbying between 1998 and 2010?

a.

Ranked 1st in the top 20

c.

Ranked 12th in the top 20

b.

Ranked 5th in the top 20

d.

Not ranked in the top 20

ANS: D

The American Nurses Association is not ranked in the top 20 spenders for lobbying. The U.S. Chamber of Commerce ranked #1, the American Medical Association was ranked #2, General Electric ranked #3, and Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers ranked #4. Also, the American Hospital Association ranked #6.

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

REF: TABLE 9-1 WASHINGTONS TOP 20 SPENDERS ON LOBBYING FOR ALL YEARS 1998-2010

5. A nurse understands that the experience of health care should be built around consumer:

a.

resources.

c.

values.

b.

perceptions.

d.

needs.

ANS: D

The experience of health care should be built around consumer needs. Resources include people, money, facilities, technology, and rights to properties, services, and technologies. The consumer movement in health care is a political movement about health care resources that reflects consumer perceptions and values.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: STAKEHOLDERS AND HEALTH CARE

6. A nursing student asks the teacher, How will health care be defined in the future? The most appropriate response by the teacher is that Ultimately, health care will be defined and controlled by:

a.

the American Medical Association.

b.

those wielding the most political influence.

c.

consumer activists groups (e.g., AARP).

d.

the National Institutes of Health.

ANS: B

Ultimately, health care will be defined and controlled by those wielding the most political influence. If nurses fail to exert political pressure on the health policymakers, they will lose ground to others who are more politically active.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: THE POLITICS AND ECONOMICS OF HUMAN SERVICES

7. When considering the issue of the politics behind health care in the United States, the nurse identifies one of the third-party payer stakeholders as:

a.

health care provider.

c.

special interest group.

b.

government.

d.

the National Institutes of Health.

ANS: B

The following are considered third-party payer stakeholders: government, business, and health insurance companies. Other politically active stakeholders are health care providers, recipients of federal funding from the NIH, organizations and institutions that employ as well as educate health care providers, and members of special interest groups.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: STAKEHOLDERS AND HEALTH CARE

8. You have been a staff nurse for 5 years. One of your goals has always been to become more politically involved. Which of your roles has had the least impact on your achieving that goal?

a.

Voted and wrote members of congress and state legislators

b.

Participated as a member of a professional nursing organization

c.

Ran for a political office and served society as a whole

d.

Educated patients about their medications before discharge

ANS: D

Educating patients about their medications before discharge is a role of the nurse as an educator, not a political role. All other answers are political roles for nurses, and they come under the categories of nurse as an individual, nurse as a citizen, nurse as an activist, and nurse as a politician.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis REF: TABLE 9-2 POLITICAL ROLES FOR NURSES

9. In the role of patient advocate, you would:

a.

ensure the patient does not make risky health decisions.

b.

interpret the health care environment for culturally diverse patients.

c.

act as a proxy for the patient in understanding and signing important consents.

d.

educate the patient to ensure compliance with the health care organizations goals.

ANS: B

Advocacy can be seen as representing the patient to others in the health care organization, and this has extended into what has been referred to as cultural brokering or interpreting the health care environment for the patient. Ensuring the patient does not make risky health decisions is not giving the patient freedom of choice. Acting as a proxy for understanding and signing consents is not assisting the patient with informed consent and the right to self-determination. Educating the patient to ensure compliance with the organizations goals is not advocating for the patients needs, which may differ from the organizations goals.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: POLITICS AND ADVOCACY

10. According to U.S. Census Bureau (2009b), there are how many uninsured Americans?

a.

10 million

c.

45 million

b.

22 million

d.

86 million

ANS: C

According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2009b), there are more than 45 million uninsured Americans.

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge REF: INTRODUCTION

11. A nurse is interested in creating a small business and is looking for a viable market. One of the issues the nurse is taking into account is that the fastest growing consumer group for years to come includes individuals:

a.

40 years and older.

c.

65 years and older.

b.

50 years and older.

d.

85 years and older.

ANS: C

The fastest growing consumer group for years to come is the elderlypersons 65 and older(U.S. Census Bureau, 2009a). An estimated 76 million Baby Boomers will be turning 65 by 2011. The number of elderly people is growing at an explosive rate and is expected to reach 27 million by 2050 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009a).

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: POLITICS AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE

12. A nurse examining the political processes at different levels of government would recognize which of the following processes as occurring at the state level?

a.

Flu-injections program

c.

Medicare

b.

Nursing licensure

d.

Medicaid

ANS: B

At the state level, policies govern nurses within a state by defining nursing licensure, nursing practice, and nursing education. An example of the political process at the local level is when flu injections are made available to high-risk populations. Federal policies are evident in the rules and regulations governing Medicare and Medicaid funding.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: THE POLITICS AND ECONOMICS OF HUMAN SERVICES

13. The essential dimension of nursing that includes coordinating patient care is the:

a.

definition of nursing.

c.

benefit of services to consumers.

b.

distinctive services nurses provide.

d.

costs of services.

ANS: B

The distinctive services dimension of nursing provides coordination of total patient care. Defining nursing includes attention to the full range of human experiences and responses to health and illness without restriction to a problem-focused orientation. Benefits to consumers include changes in staffing patterns to ensure quality care and changes in politics that affect patient care. Costs of nursing services vary according to the care setting and role of the nurse.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: NURSE AS POLITICAL ACTIVIST

14. A nurse asks a nurse manager why consumer partnerships are formed. The nurse manager explains that consumer partnerships offer which of the following?

a.

Larger voting block representing different political positions

b.

Small funding base of financial support

c.

Increase in voices supporting or opposing an issue

d.

Maintenance of the power base

ANS: C

Consumer partnerships have the following characteristics: an increase in the number of voices supporting or opposing an issue, a larger voting block that represents the same political position, a broader funding base of financial support, and enhancement of power.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: ADVOCACY AND CONSUMER PARTNERSHIPS

15. The local hospital is attempting to establish a partnership with a consumer group. They have begun identifying the purpose of the partnership. The hospital and consumer group are at which step in establishing their partnership?

a.

Listen

c.

Assess

b.

Study

d.

Focus

ANS: D

The focus step includes identifying the purpose and articulating the goals and objectives for the partnership. The listen step includes becoming sensitized to the health care needs and political nature of the potential consumer partner. The study step seeks both representative and opposing perspectives from consumer group meetings, focus groups, relevant literature, and interviews. The assess step determines the need, value, context, and boundaries for establishing the partnership.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: TABLE 9-4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING A PARTNERSHIP WITH A CONSUMER GROUP

16. The local hospital and a consumer group are establishing a partnership. The hospital has been identified as an equal partner with the major responsibility of providing health education classes for the local schools and churches. The hospital and consumer group are at which step in establishing their partnership?

a.

Compromise

c.

Plan

b.

Negotiate

d.

Test

ANS: B

The negotiate step is agreeing on ones position and responsibilities in the partnership. Compromise includes working through nonessential and noncritical points and issues. The plan step is developing a political strategy for achieving the goals and fulfilling the objectives. In the test step, feedback is gathered before taking action.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: TABLE 9-4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING A PARTNERSHIP WITH A CONSUMER GROUP

17. Which step in establishing a partnership with a consumer group includes understanding the bigger picture and concentrating on what can be changed?

a.

Model

c.

Implement

b.

Direct the political action

d.

Network

ANS: B

Direct the political action includes understanding the bigger picture and concentrating on what can be changed. The model step defines the structure for working the political strategy with partners. The implement step lines up political support and takes action. Network includes being committed to the mutually recognized goal and consistently working to have an adequate base of support in terms of people, money, and time.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: TABLE 9-4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING A PARTNERSHIP WITH A CONSUMER GROUP

18. In establishing a political partnership with a consumer group, the nursing staff at the local hospital agrees to participate in local, state, and national policymaking efforts that support the partnership and its political agenda. The purpose of this step is to:

a.

build political credibility.

c.

report, publicize, and lobby.

b.

soothe and bargain.

d.

reaffirm, redefine, or discontinue.

ANS: A

The build political credibility step includes participating in local, state, and national policymaking efforts that support the partnership and its political agenda. Soothe and bargain is to downplay rivalry and address conflict in a timely, constructive manner. Report, publicize, and lobby is the groups political cause. To reaffirm, redefine, or discontinue is to regularly evaluate work with consumer groups.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: TABLE 9-4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING A PARTNERSHIP WITH A CONSUMER GROUP

19. A group of nurses mounting a consumer campaign would most likely consider which of the following as a political strategy?

a.

Encouraging providers to make changes in delivery of services involuntarily

b.

Changing consumer perceptions through distribution of education materials

c.

Monitoring compliance with health care regulations and corrective action

d.

Consulting with consumer groups on routine issues

ANS: B

Political strategies for mounting consumer campaigns include changing consumer perceptions through distribution of educational materials, lobbying at state and federal levels for health care regulations that serve a consumer groups interests, consulting with consumer groups when guidelines are being debated or written, and encouraging providers to make changes in delivery of services voluntarily to meet changing consumer demands.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: THE CONSUMER DEMAND FOR ACCOUNTABILITY

20. Nurses wishing to gain credibility understand that they must possess which of the following characteristics?

a.

Caring

c.

Competence

b.

Empathy

d.

Responsibility

ANS: C

To have credibility, nurses must demonstrate professional competence. Even caring, empathetic, and responsible nurses find themselves in situations where their credibility is questioned.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: CREDIBILITY AND POLITICS

21. A nurse understands that all individuals have particular goals at different times in their lives. While individuals use a variety of methods to achieve their goals, one of the most common methods is through which of the following processes?

a.

Personal politics

c.

Politics

b.

Professional politics

d.

Consumer movement

ANS: C

Politics is predominantly a process by which people use a variety of methods to achieve their goals. The consumer movement in health care is a political movement about health care resources. Personal politics serve the individual first and foremost. Professional politics require a level of service and commitment beyond meeting ones personal goals or needs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: NURSE AS POLITICAL ACTIVIST

22. Control of health care resources is the concern of a number of groups known as which of the following?

a.

Stakeholders

c.

Activists

b.

Politicians

d.

Community leaders

ANS: A

Stakeholders are interest groups who have a vested interest in health care resources. At some level, we are all stakeholder in health care; however, some people are far more politically active about their stake in health care. Many consumer groups represent the customers of the health care system. Nursing and other health professionals are concerned about their profession and the services their profession provides to its customers.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: STAKEHOLDERS AND HEALTH CARE

23. The nurse as a citizen has a primary role in politics by expressing opinions through which of the following processes?

a.

Networking

c.

Volunteering

b.

Voting

d.

Staying employed

ANS: B

A primary role for nurses as citizens is to vote and write to members of the U.S. Congress and state legislatures. While networking and volunteering may be an integral part of the nurses role in being politically active, they are secondary to the nurses responsibility to be a voting citizen.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: TABLE 9-2 POLITICAL ROLES FOR NURSES

24. Studies of voting behaviors of U.S. citizens show that the elderly have no predictable political orientation on anything except obvious threats to their entitlements. The primary example of an entitlement for this group would be which of the following?

a.

Unemployment benefits

c.

Social Security benefits

b.

Homeland Security protection

d.

Medicaid benefits

ANS: C

The most widely recognized entitlement for the elderly is Social Security benefits. Many seniors are joining consumer groups to have a greater voice to influence health policy decisions and ensure that they will receive the health care services they will need for years to come.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis REF: POLITICS AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE

25. You have been politically active during your nursing career. You are involved with several groups committed to a mutually recognized goal, and you consistently work to have an adequate base of support in terms of people, money, and time. Your relationship with these groups would be considered your:

a.

network.

c.

colleagues.

b.

fan club.

d.

assets.

ANS: A

To network is to become committed to a mutually recognized goal and consistently work to have an adequate base of support in terms of people, money, and time.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis

REF: TABLE 9-4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING A PARTNERSHIP WITH A CONSUMER GROUP

26. Two nurses disagree on the Christmas schedule. The nurse manager meets with the nurses and offers one nurse time off at Christmas to be with her family. The second nurse responds, I will be glad to work those 2 days if I can have days off around New Years Eve to be with my fiancee. This interaction is an example of which of the following?

a.

Barter

c.

Control

b.

Plan

d.

Compromise

ANS: D

Compromise is working through nonessential and noncritical points and issues. The solution has provided both nurses with a positive outcome.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis

REF: TABLE 9-4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING A PARTNERSHIP WITH A CONSUMER GROUP

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Which of the following organizations are among the top 20 spenders on lobbying for health care during the years 19982010? Select all that apply.

a.

American Nurses Association

b.

American Medical Association

c.

American Dental Association

d.

American Pharmacists Association

e.

American Hospital Association

f.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing

ANS: B, E

The American Medical Association ranked #2 and the American Hospital Association ranked #6 in spending on lobbying on health care. The other organizations listed did not rank in the top 20 for the years 19982010.

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

REF: TABLE 9-1 WASHINGTONS TOP 20 SPENDERS ON LOBBYING FOR ALL YEARS 1998-2010

2. Collaborative partnerships between nursing and consumer groups gain more political power than each group alone because together they possess which of the following? Select all that apply.

a.

Larger voting block

d.

Stronger political voice

b.

Important political agenda

e.

Mutual respect

c.

Broader funding base

f.

Potential for action

ANS: A, C, D

Collaborative partnerships between nursing and consumer groups gain more political power than each group alone because together they possess a larger voting block, broader funding base, and stronger political voice.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis

REF: ADVOCACY AND CONSUMER PARTNERSHIPS

3. Nurses can make a difference by implementing which of the following political strategies for mounting a consumer campaign? Select all that apply.

a.

Lobbying at state and federal levels for health care regulations and guidelines that serve a consumer groups interest

b.

Monitoring the enforcement of health care regulations and exacting corrective or punitive action when noncompliance occurs

c.

Encouraging all nurses to demand higher salaries and more comfortable lounges to be used during breaks

d.

Consulting with representatives from a consumer group when health care regulations and guidelines are being debated or written

e.

Changing consumer perceptions and behaviors through the distribution of educational materials or other media

f.

Encouraging providers and payers to make changes in delivery of services voluntarily to meet changing consumer demands

ANS: A, B, D, E, F

Each of the strategies listed above would facilitate the nurse in making a difference; however, while encouraging all nurses to demand higher salaries and more comfortable lounges may be nice, it is not appropriate when mounting a consumer campaign.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: TABLE 9-5 POLITICAL STRATEGIES FOR MOUNTING CONSUMER CAMPAIGNS

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