Chapter 9 Biotechnology and DNA Technology My Nursing Test Banks

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e, (Tortora)

Chapter 9   Biotechnology and DNA Technology

9.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

1) The following are steps used to make DNA fingerprints. What is the third step?

A) Collect DNA.

B) Digest with a restriction enzyme.

C) Perform electrophoresis.

D) Lyse cells.

E) Add stain.

Answer:  B

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  9.18

Figure 9.1

2) How many pieces will EcoRI produce from the plasmid shown in Figure 9.1?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) 5

Answer:  B

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.4

Global Outcome:  2

3) In Figure 9.1, after digestion with the appropriate restriction enzyme, what is the smallest piece containing the entire ampicillin-resistance (amp) gene?

A) 0.17 kbp

B) 0.25 kbp

C) 1.08 kbp

D) 1.50 kbp

E) 3.00 kbp

Answer:  D

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.4

Global Outcome:  2

Figure 9.2

4) In Figure 9.2, the enzyme in step 1 is

A) DNA polymerase.

B) DNA ligase.

C) RNA polymerase.

D) reverse transcriptase.

E) spliceosome.

Answer:  C

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.2

Learning Outcome:  9.10

5) In Figure 9.2, the enzyme in step 2 is

A) DNA polymerase.

B) DNA ligase.

C) RNA polymerase.

D) reverse transcriptase.

E) spliceosome.

Answer:  A

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.10

6) The reaction catalyzed by reverse transcriptase is

A) DNA mRNA.

B) mRNA cDNA.

C) mRNA protein.

D) DNA DNA.

E) tRNA mRNA.

Answer:  B

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.10

7) Which of the following is an advantage of using E. coli to make a human gene product?

A) Endotoxin may be in the product.

B) It does not secrete most proteins.

C) Its genes are well known.

D) It cannot process introns.

E) Endotoxin may be in the product and it does not secrete most proteins.

Answer:  C

Section:  9.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.1

Global Outcome:  5

8) Which of the following is NOT an agricultural product made by DNA techniques?

A) frost retardant

B) Bacillus thuringiensis insecticide

C) nitrogenase (nitrogen fixation)

D) glyphosate-resistant crops

E) pectinase

Answer:  E

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.13

Global Outcome:  5

9) If you have inserted a gene in the Ti plasmid, the next step in genetic engineering is

A) transformation of E. coli with Ti plasmid.

B) splicing T DNA into a plasmid.

C) transformation of an animal cell.

D) inserting the Ti plasmid into Agrobacterium.

E) inserting the Ti plasmid into a plant cell.

Answer:  D

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.19

10) Biotechnology involves the

A) use of microorganisms to make desired products.

B) use of animal cells to make vaccines.

C) development of disease-resistant crop plants.

D) use of microorganisms to make desired products and the use of animal cells to make vaccines.

E) use of microorganisms to make desired products, the use of animal cells to make vaccines, and the development of disease-resistant crop plants.

Answer:  E

Section:  9.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.1

Global Outcome:  5

11) Figure 9.3

The figure at the left in Figure 9.3 shows a gene identified by Southern blotting. What will a Southern blot of the same gene look like after PCR?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

Answer:  D

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  9.17

Global Outcome:  3

12) Which of the following is NOT a desired characteristic of DNA vectors used in gene cloning procedures?

A) self-replication

B) large size

C) has a selectable marker

D) circular form of DNA or integrates into the host chromosome

E) may replicate in several species

Answer:  B

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.5

13) Figure 9.4

In Figure 9.4, the bacteria transformed with the recombinant plasmid and plated on media containing ampicillin and X-gal will

A) form blue, ampicillin-resistant colonies.

B) form blue, ampicillin-sensitive colonies.

C) form white, ampicillin-resistant colonies.

D) form white, ampicillin-sensitive colonies.

E) not grow.

Answer:  C

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.11

14) An advantage of synthetic DNA over genomic or cDNA is the ability to

A) insert desired restriction sites into the DNA sequence.

B) isolate unknown genes.

C) make DNA from cellular RNA and the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

D) obtain genes that lack introns.

E) obtain genes that lack exons.

Answer:  A

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.10

15) An advantage of cDNA over genomic DNA is that it

A) lacks exons.

B) lacks introns.

C) contains selectable markers.

D) can form very large DNA segments.

E) is very easy to isolate.

Answer:  B

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.10

16) The restriction enzyme EcoRI recognizes the sequence GAATTC. Which of the following is TRUE of DNA after it is treated with EcoRI?

A) All of the DNA fragments will have single-stranded regions ending in AA.

B) All of the DNA fragments will have single-stranded regions ending in G.

C) Some of the DNA will have single-stranded regions ending in AA and others will end in G.

D) All of the DNA will have blunt ends.

E) All of the DNA will be circular.

Answer:  A

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.4

17) Which enzyme would cut this strand of DNA?

GCATGGATCCCAATGC

A) Enzyme Recognition

     BamHI GGATCC

CCCTAGG

B) Enzyme Recognition

     EcoRI GAATTC

CTTAAG

C) Enzyme Recognition

     HaeIII GGCC

CCGG

D) Enzyme Recognition

     HindIII AAGCTT

TTCGAA

E) Enzyme Recognition

     Pst ICTGCG

GACGTC

Answer:  A

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.4

Global Outcome:  3

18) Pieces of DNA stored in yeast cells are called a

A) library.

B) clone.

C) vector.

D) Southern blot.

E) PCR.

Answer:  A

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.9

19) A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid is called a

A) library.

B) clone.

C) vector.

D) Southern blot.

E) PCR.

Answer:  B

Section:  9.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.2

20) Self-replicating DNA used to transmit a gene from one organism to another is a

A) library.

B) clone.

C) vector.

D) Southern blot.

E) PCR.

Answer:  C

Section:  9.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.2

21) The Human Genome Project, which was completed in 2003, was focused on

A) identifying all of the genes in the human genome.

B) determining the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome.

C) determining all of the proteins encoded by the human genome.

D) finding a cure for all human genetic disorders.

E) cloning all of the genes of the human genome.

Answer:  B

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  9.15

Global Outcome:  5

22) A colleague has used computer modeling to design an improved enzyme. To produce this enzyme, the next step is to

A) look for a bacterium that makes the improved enzyme.

B) mutate bacteria until one makes the improved enzyme.

C) determine the nucleotide sequence for the improved enzyme.

D) synthesize the gene for the improved enzyme.

E) use siRNA to produce the enzyme.

Answer:  C

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  9.16

Global Outcome:  2

23) You have a small gene that you wish replicated by PCR. After 3 replication cycles, how many double-stranded DNA molecules do you have?

A) 2

B) 4

C) 8

D) 16

E) thousands

Answer:  C

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  9.7

Global Outcome:  4

24) Which of the following places the steps in the PCR procedure in the correct order?

1) Incubate at 94C to denature DNA strands;

2) Incubate at 72C for DNA synthesis;

3) Incubate at 60C for primer hybridization.

A) 1, 2, 3

B) 3, 2, 1

C) 1, 3, 2

D) 2; 1; 3

E) 3; 1; 2

Answer:  C

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  9.7

25) Which of the following are used to silence specific genes and hold promise for treating cancer or viral diseases, such as hepatitis B?

A) RNA interference (RNAi)

B) complementary DNA (cDNA)

C) reverse transcriptase PCR (rtPCR)

D) tumor-inducing plasmids (Ti plasmids)

E) DNA fingerprinting

Answer:  A

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.3

Learning Outcome:  9.14

Global Outcome:  5

26) Which of the following techniques is NOT used to introduce recombinant DNA into plants?

A) gene guns

B) protoplast fusion

C) Ti plasmids and Agrobacterium

D) microinjection

E) electroporation

Answer:  D

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.8

Global Outcome:  5

Figure 9.5

27) In Figure 9.5, the marker genes used for selecting recombinant DNA are

A) HindIII, BamHI, and EcoRI.

B) ampR and lacZ.

C) ori.

D) ampR and ori.

E) lacZ and ori.

Answer:  B

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.5

28) In Figure 9.5, the gene that allows the plasmid to be self-replicating is

A) HindIII.

B) ampR.

C) ori.

D) EcoRI.

E) lacZ.

Answer:  C

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.5

29) Which of the following methods would be used to introduce the plasmid shown in Figure 9.5 into E. coli?

A) microinjection

B) transformation

C) gene guns

D) Ti plasmids and Agrobacterium

Answer:  B

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.8

30) A source of heat-stable DNA polymerase is

A) Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

B) Thermus aquaticus.

C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

D) Bacillus thuringiensis.

E) Pseudomonas.

Answer:  B

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.3

Learning Outcome:  9.7

31) The Pap test for cervical cancer involves microscopic examination of cervical cells for cancerous cells. A new, rapid diagnostic test to detect human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA before cancer develops is done without microscopic exam. The steps involved in this FastHPV test are listed below. What is the second step?

A) Add an RNA probe for HPV DNA.

B) Lyse human cells.

C) Add enzyme-linked antibodies against DNA-RNA.

D) Add enzyme substrate.

E) The order is unimportant.

Answer:  A

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  9.13

Global Outcome:  5

32) Gene silencing involves all of the following EXCEPT

A) small interfering RNAs.

B) production of double stranded RNAs.

C) small interfering RNA binding to a gene promoter.

D) Dicer.

E) RNA-induced silencing complex.

Answer:  C

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.3

Learning Outcome:  9.14

33) You want to determine whether a person has a certain mutant gene. The process involves using a primer and a heat-stable DNA polymerase. This process is

A) translation.

B) restriction mapping.

C) transformation.

D) PCR.

E) site-directed mutagenesis.

Answer:  D

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  9.7

Global Outcome:  5

34) Which of the following are used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to track outbreaks of foodborne disease?

A) DNA fingerprints

B) restriction fragment length polymorphisms

C) reverse-transcriptase PCR (rtPCR)

D) DNA fingerprints and restriction fragment length polymorphisms

E) DNA fingerprints, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and reverse-transcriptase PCR(rtPCR)

Answer:  E

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  9.13

Global Outcome:  5

35) Assume you have discovered a cell that produces a lipase that works in cold water for a laundry additive. You can increase the efficiency of this enzyme by changing one amino acid. This is done by

A) irradiating the cells.

B) site-directed mutagenesis.

C) enrichment.

D) selective breeding.

E) selection.

Answer:  B

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.3

Global Outcome:  5

36) The use of an antibiotic-resistance gene on a plasmid used in genetic engineering makes

A) replica plating possible.

B) direct selection possible.

C) the recombinant cell dangerous.

D) the recombinant cell unable to survive.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  B

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.11

37) The following steps must be performed to make a bacterium produce human protein X.

1-Translation

2-Restriction enzyme

3-Prokaryotic transcription

4-DNA ligase

5-Transformation

6-Eukaryotic transcription

7-Reverse transcription

Which of the following places the steps in the correct order?

A) 5, 2, 3, 4, 7, 6, 1

B) 1, 2, 3, 5, 4, 7, 6

C) 6, 7, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1

D) 6, 7, 2, 4, 5, 3, 1

E) 6, 2, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7

Answer:  D

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.8

Global Outcome:  5

38) The use of suicide genes in genetically modified organisms is designed to

A) prevent the growth of the modified organisms in the environment.

B) kill the modified organisms before they are released in the environment.

C) delete genes necessary for modified organisms growth.

D) provide for resistance of the modified organisms to pesticides.

E) provide a means to eliminate non-modified organisms.

Answer:  A

Section:  9.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.20

Global Outcome:  5

39) A restriction fragment is

A) a gene.

B) a segment of DNA.

C) a segment of mRNA.

D) a segment of tRNA.

E) cDNA.

Answer:  B

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  9.4

40) In the Southern blot technique, which of the following is NOT required?

A) transfer of DNA to nitrocellulose

B) addition of a labeled probe to identify the gene of interest

C) restriction enzyme digestion of DNA

D) electrophoresis to separate fragments

E) addition of heat-stable DNA polymerase to amplify DNA

Answer:  E

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  9.17

41) Which of the following processes is NOT involved in making cDNA?

A) reverse transcription

B) RNA processing to remove introns

C) transcription

D) translation

Answer:  D

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.10

42) PCR can be used to identify an unknown bacterium because

A) the RNA primer is specific.

B) DNA polymerase will replicate DNA.

C) DNA can be electrophoresed.

D) all cells have DNA.

E) all cells have RNA.

Answer:  A

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  9.7

43) The random shotgun method is used in

A) amplification of unknown DNA.

B) transforming plant cells with recombinant DNA.

C) genome sequencing.

D) RFLP analysis.

E) forensic microbiology.

Answer:  C

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  9.16

44) Restriction enzymes are

A) bacterial enzymes that splice DNA.

B) bacterial enzymes that destroy phage DNA.

C) animal enzymes that splice RNA.

D) viral enzymes that destroy host DNA.

Answer:  B

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  9.4

45) The study of genetic material taken directly from the environment is

A) bioinformatics.

B) proteomics.

C) reverse genetics.

D) forensic microbiology.

E) metagenomics.

Answer:  E

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  9.15

9.2   True/False Questions

1) The term biotechnology refers exclusively to the use of genetically engineered organisms for the production of desired products.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  9.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  9.1

2) In recombinant DNA technology, a vector is a self-replicating segment of DNA, such as a plasmid or viral genome.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  9.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  9.2

3) The practice of breeding plants and animals for desirable traits, such as high crop yield, is called natural selection.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  9.3

4) A shuttle vector is a plasmid that is used to move pieces of DNA among organisms, such as bacterial, fungal, and plant cells.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  9.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  9.6

5) Nearly all cells, including E. coli and yeast, naturally take up DNA from their surroundings without chemical treatment.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.8

6) The disadvantage of genomic libraries over cDNA libraries is that genomic libraries contain gene introns.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.2

Learning Outcome:  9.9

7) One of the first commercial successes of recombinant DNA technology was the production of human insulin using genetically engineered E. coli.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.13

Global Outcome:  5

8) Bioinformatics is the use of computer technology to compare and analyze genome sequence.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  9.16

9) The Ti plasmid isolated from Agrobacterium can be used to insert DNA into any type of plant.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.19

10) The Bt toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis has been introduced into some crop plants to make them resistant to insect destruction.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  9.13

Global Outcome:  5

9.3   Essay Questions

1) The local public health agency has received reports of an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis among attendees at a city-sponsored chili cook-off. What techniques from recombinant DNA technology would the agency likely use to investigate this outbreak? Describe the expected results from these techniques.

Section:  9.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  9.13

Global Outcome:  8

2) Pseudomonas syringae is found naturally in the soil. Sold as Snomax, it is used to make snow at ski resorts. The same bacterium with a gene deletion (Ice-minus) is used to prevent ice formation on plants. Should Snomax and Ice-minus be considered modified organisms and subject to precautions of releasing genetically modified organisms? Explain why or why not.

Section:  9.4; 9.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  9.20

Global Outcome:  8

3) Your research group is investigating the possible use of genetically-engineered cells to produce a vaccine for malaria. List the pros and cons of using E. coli, Saccharomyces, and animal cells to produce the vaccine.

Section:  9.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.12

Global Outcome:  8

4) The development of DNA technology is bringing profound changes to science, agriculture and healthcare.  Provide one example of a DNA technology and provide at least one advantage and one example of a concern or problem associated with its use.

Section:  9.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.5

Learning Outcome:  9.12

Global Outcome:  8

Leave a Reply