Chapter 8: Health Promotion for the School-Age Child My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 8: Health Promotion for the School-Age Child

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which statement made by a mother of a school-age boy indicates a need for further teaching?

a.

My child is playing soccer this year.

b.

He is always busy with his friends playing games. He is very active.

c.

I limit his television watching to about 2 hours a day.

d.

I am glad his coach is a good role model. He emphasizes the importance of winning in todays society. The kids really are disciplined.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Team sports such as soccer are appropriate for exercise and refinement of motor skills.

B

School-age children need to participate in physical activities, which contribute to their physical fitness skills and well-being.

C

Limiting television to 2 hours a day is an appropriate restriction. School-age children should be encouraged to participate in physical activities.

D

Team sports are important for the development of sportsmanship and teamwork and for exercise and refinement of motor skills. A coach who emphasizes winning and strict discipline is not appropriate for children in this age-group.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 147

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. Which behavior is not demonstrated in the 8-year-old child?

a.

Understands that his or her point of view is not the only one

b.

Enjoys telling riddles and silly jokes

c.

Understands that pouring liquid from a small to large container does not change the amount

d.

Engages in fantasy and magical thinking

ANS: D

Feedback

A

School-age children enter the stage of concrete operations. They learn that their point of view is not the only one.

B

The school-age child has a sense of humor. The childs increased language mastery and increased logic allow for appreciation of plays on words, jokes, and incongruities.

C

The school-age child understands that properties of objects do not change when their order, form, or appearance does.

D

The preschool-age child engages in fantasy and magical thinking. The school-age child moves away from this type of thinking and becomes more skeptical and logical. Belief in Santa Claus or the Easter Bunny ends in this period of development.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 148

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. The ability to mentally understand that 1 + 3 = 4 and 4 1 = 3 occurs in which stage of cognitive development?

a.

Concrete operations

b.

Formal operations

c.

Intuitive thought

d.

Preoperations

ANS: A

Feedback

A

By 7 to 8 years of age, the child is able to retrace a process (reversibility) and has the skills necessary for solving mathematical problems. This stage is called concrete operations.

B

The formal operations stage deals with abstract reasoning and does not occur until adolescence.

C

Thinking in the intuitive stage is based on immediate perceptions. A child in this stage often solves problems by random guessing.

D

In preoperational thinking, the child is usually able to add 1 + 3 = 4 but is unable to retrace the process.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 148

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. Which activity is most appropriate for developing fine motor skills in the school-age child?

a.

Drawing

b.

Singing

c.

Soccer

d.

Swimming

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Activities such as drawing, building models, and playing a musical instrument increase the school-age childs fine motor skills.

B

Singing is an appropriate activity for the school-age child, but it does not increase fine motor skills.

C

The school-age child needs to participate in group activities to increase both gross motor skills and social skills, but group activities do not increase fine motor skills.

D

Swimming is an activity that also increases gross motor skills.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 148

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. A school nurse is teaching a health class for 5th grade children. The nurse plans to include which statement to best describe growth in the early school-age period?

a.

Boys grow faster than girls.

b.

Puberty occurs earlier in boys than in girls.

c.

Puberty occurs at the same age for all races and ethnicities.

d.

It is a period of rapid physical growth.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

During the school-age developmental period, boys are approximately 1 inch taller and 2 pounds heavier than girls.

B

Puberty occurs 1 1/2 to 2 years later in boys, which is developmentally later than puberty in girls (not unusual in 9- or 10-year-old girls).

C

Puberty occurs approximately 1 year earlier in African-American girls than in white girls.

D

Physical growth is slow and steady during the school-age years.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 144

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. Which comment is most developmentally typical of a 7-year-old boy?

a.

I am a Power Ranger, so dont make me angry.

b.

I dont know whether I like Mary or Joan better.

c.

My mom is my favorite person in the world.

d.

Jimmy is my best friend.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Magical thinking is developmentally appropriate for the preschooler.

B

Opposite-sex friendships are not typical for the 7-year-old child.

C

Seven-year-old children socialize with their peers, not their parents.

D

School-age children form friendships with peers of the same sex, those who live nearby, and other children who have toys that they enjoy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 149

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

7. A school nurse is conducting a class on safety for a group of school-age children. Which statement indicates that the children may need further teaching?

a.

My sister and I know two different ways to get out of the house.

b.

I can dial 911 if there is a fire or a burglar in the house.

c.

My mother has told us that if we have a fire, we have to meet at the neighbors house.

d.

If there is a fire I will have to go back in for my cat Fluffy because she will be scared.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

All children should know two different escape routes from the house, in case one is blocked.

B

It is important for children to be taught how to call 911 in an emergency.

C

All families should have a predetermined meeting place away from the house.

D

Children should be taught never to return to a burning house, not even for a pet.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 155

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. Which statement is the most accurate about moral development in the 9-year-old school-age child?

a.

Right and wrong are based on physical consequences of behavior.

b.

The child obeys parents because of fear of punishment.

c.

The school-age child conforms to rules to please others.

d.

Parents are the determiners of right and wrong for the school-age child.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Children 4 to 7 years of age base right and wrong on consequences.

B

Consequences are the most important consideration for the child between 4 and 7 years of age.

C

The 7- to 12-year-old child bases right and wrong on a good-boy or good-girl orientation in which the child conforms to rules to please others and avoid disapproval.

D

Parents determine right and wrong for the child younger than 4 years of age.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 150

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. In providing anticipatory guidance to parents, which parental behavior is the most important in fostering moral development?

a.

Telling the child what is right and wrong

b.

Vigilantly monitoring the child and her peers

c.

Weekly family meetings to discuss behavior

d.

Living as the parents say they believe

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Telling the child what is right and wrong is not effective unless the child has experienced what she hears. Parents need to live according to the values they are teaching to their children.

B

Vigilant monitoring of the child and her peers is an inappropriate action for the parent to initiate. It does not foster moral development and reasoning in the child.

C

Weekly family meetings to discuss behaviors may or may not be helpful in the development of moral reasoning.

D

Parents living what they believe gives nonambivalent messages and fosters the childs moral development and reasoning.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 150

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. Which behavior by parents or teachers will best assist the child in negotiating the developmental task of industry?

a.

Identifying failures immediately and asking the childs peers for feedback

b.

Structuring the environment so that the child can master tasks

c.

Completing homework for children who are having difficulty in completing assignments

d.

Decreasing expectations to eliminate potential failures

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Asking peers for feedback reinforces the childs feelings of failure.

B

The task of the caring teacher or parent is to identify areas in which a child is competent and to build on successful experiences to foster feelings of mastery and success. Structuring the environment to enhance self-confidence and to provide the opportunity to solve increasingly more complex problems will promote a sense of mastery.

C

When teachers or parents complete childrens homework for them, it sends the message that you do not trust them to do a good job. Providing assistance and suggestions and praising their best efforts are more appropriate.

D

Decreasing expectations to eliminate failures will not promote a sense of achievement or mastery.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 149

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

11. A nurse is assessing an older school-age child recently admitted to the hospital. Which assessment indicates that the child is in an appropriate stage of cognitive development?

a.

The childs addition and subtraction ability

b.

The childs ability to classify

c.

The childs vocabulary

d.

The childs play activity

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Subtraction and addition are appropriate cognitive activities for the young school-age child.

B

The ability to classify things from simple to complex and the ability to identify differences and similarities are cognitive skills of the older school-age child; this demonstrates use of classification and logical thought processes.

C

Vocabulary is not as valid an assessment of cognitive ability as is the childs ability to classify.

D

Play activity is not as valid an assessment of cognitive function as is the childs ability to classify.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 148

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12. Which is an appropriate disciplinary intervention for the school-age child?

a.

Using time-out periods

b.

Using a consequence that is consistent with the inappropriate behavior

c.

Using physical punishment

d.

Using lengthy dialog about inappropriate behavior

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Time-out periods are more appropriate for younger children.

B

A consequence that is related to the inappropriate behavior is the recommended discipline.

C

Physical intervention is an inappropriate form of discipline. It does not connect the discipline with the childs inappropriate behavior.

D

Lengthy discussions typically are not helpful.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 154

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

13. In general, the earliest age at which puberty begins is ____ years in girls and _____ years in boys.

a.

13; 13

b.

11; 11

c.

10; 12

d.

12; 10

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Girls and boys do not usually begin puberty at the same age; girls usually begin earlier than boys.

B

Girls and boys do not usually begin puberty at the same age; girls usually begin earlier than boys.

C

Puberty signals the beginning of the development of secondary sex characteristics. This begins in girls earlier than in boys. Usually, there is a 2-year difference in the age at onset.

D

Girls and boys do not usually begin puberty at the same age; girls usually begin earlier than boys.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 145-146

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. An 8-year-old girl tells the nurse that she has cancer because God is punishing her for being bad. She shares her concern that if she dies, she will go to hell. The nurse should interpret this as being

a.

A belief common at this age

b.

A belief that forms the basis for most religions

c.

Suggestive of excessive family pressure

d.

Suggestive of a failure to develop a conscience

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Children at this age may view illness or injury as a punishment for a real or imagined mystique.

B

The belief in divine punishment is common at this age.

C

The belief in divine punishment is common at this age.

D

The belief in divine punishment is common at this age.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 151

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

15. A group of boys ages 9 and 10 years have formed a boys-only club that is open to neighborhood and school friends who have skateboards. This should be interpreted as

a.

Behavior that encourages bullying and sexism

b.

Behavior that reinforces poor peer relationships

c.

Characteristic of social development of this age

d.

Characteristic of children who later are at risk for membership in gangs

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Peer-group identification and association are essential to a childs socialization. Poor relationships with peers and a lack of group identification can contribute to bullying.

B

Peer-group identification and association are essential to a childs socialization. Poor relationships with peers and a lack of group identification can contribute to bullying.

C

One of the outstanding characteristics of middle childhood is the creation of formalized groups or clubs.

D

A boys-only club does not have a direct correlation with later gang activity.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 150

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. A 9-year-old girl often comes to the school nurse complaining of stomach pains. Her teacher says she is completing her schoolwork satisfactorily, but lately she has been somewhat aggressive and stubborn in the classroom. The school nurse should recognize this as

a.

Signs of stress

b.

Developmental delay

c.

Physical problem causing emotional stress

d.

Lack of adjustment to school environment

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Signs of stress include stomach pains or headache, sleep problems, bedwetting, changes in eating habits, aggressive or stubborn behavior, reluctance to participate, or regression to early behaviors.

B

This child is exhibiting signs of stress.

C

This child is exhibiting signs of stress.

D

This child is exhibiting signs of stress.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 161 | Box 8-2

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychological Integrity

17. The school nurse has been asked to begin teaching sex education in the 5th grade. The nurse should recognize that

a.

Children in 5th grade are too young for sex education.

b.

Children should be discouraged from asking too many questions.

c.

Correct terminology should be reserved for children who are older.

d.

Sex can be presented as a normal part of growth and development.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Fifth graders are usually 10 to 11 years old. This age is not too young to speak about physiologic changes in their bodies.

B

They should be encouraged to ask questions.

C

Preadolescents need precise and concrete information.

D

When sexual information is presented to school-age children, sex should be treated as a normal part of growth and development.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 146

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

18. An important consideration for the school nurse who is planning a class on bicycle safety is

a.

Most bicycle injuries involve collision with an automobile.

b.

Head injuries are the major causes of bicycle-related fatalities.

c.

Children should wear bicycle helmets if they ride on paved streets.

d.

Children should not ride double unless the bicycle has an extra-large seat.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Although motor vehicle collisions do cause injuries to bicyclists, most injuries result from falls.

B

The most important aspect of bicycle safety is to encourage the rider to use a protective helmet. Head injuries are the major cause of bicycle-related fatalities.

C

The child should always wear a properly fitted helmet approved by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

D

Children should not ride double.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 155

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Which demonstrates the school-age childs developing logic in the stage of concrete operations? Select all that apply.

a.

The school-age child is able to recognize that 1 lb of feathers is equal to 1 lb of metal.

b.

The school-age child is able to recognize that he can be a son, brother, or nephew at the same time.

c.

The school-age child understands the principles of adding, subtracting, and reversibility.

d.

The school-age child has thinking that is characterized by egocentrism, animism, and centration.

ANS: A, B, C

Feedback

Correct

The school-age child understands that the properties of objects do not change when their order, form, or appearance does. Conservation occurs in the concrete operations stage. Comprehension of class inclusion occurs as the school-age childs logic increases. The child begins to understand that a person can be in more than one class at the same time. This is characteristic of concrete thinking and logical reasoning. The school-age child is able to understand principles of adding and subtracting, as well as the process of reversibility, which occurs in the stage of concrete operations.

Incorrect

This type of thinking occurs in the intuitive thought stage, not the concrete operations stage of development.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 148

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. Which interventions are appropriate for preventing childhood obesity? Select all that apply.

a.

Establish consistent times for meals and snacks.

b.

Eliminate all snacks. Eat three nutritious meals a day.

c.

Teach the family and child how to select foods and prepare foods.

d.

Encourage schools to provide snack machines with popcorn, cookies, and diet soda.

e.

Limit computer and television time.

ANS: A, C, E

Feedback

Correct

Preventing obesity includes encouraging families to establish consistent times for meals and snacks and discouraging between-meal eating. Parents and children also need to be taught how to select and prepare healthful foods. Because snacks are an important aspect in childhood nutrition, nutritious snacks should be identified. School-age children usually require a healthful snack after school and in the evening. A child who spends time with social media has less interest in physical activity and going outdoors.

Incorrect

Snacks are an important aspect in childhood nutrition. Nutritious snacks should be identified, not eliminated. Healthy snack options include fruit, popcorn, nuts, and yogurt, not cookies and diet soda. In schools with snack machines, children may use their lunch money to purchase high-calorie snacks versus a nutritious lunch.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 159

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. Which strategies can a nurse teach to parents of a child experiencing uncomplicated school refusal? Select all that apply.

a.

The child should be allowed to stay home until the anxiety about going to school is resolved.

b.

Parents should be empathetic yet firm in their insistence that the child attends school.

c.

A modified school attendance may be necessary.

d.

Parents need to pick the child up at school whenever the child wants to come home.

e.

Parents need to communicate with the teachers about the situation.

ANS: B, C, E

Feedback

Correct

In uncomplicated cases of school refusal, the parent needs to return the child to school as soon as possible. If symptoms are severe, a limited period of part-time or modified school attendance may be necessary. For example, part of the day may be spent in the counselors or school nurses office, with assignments obtained from the teacher. Parents should be empathetic yet firm and consistent in their insistence that the child attend school.

Incorrect

Parents should not pick the child up at school once the child is there. The principal and teacher should be told about the situation so that they can cooperate with the treatment plan.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 158

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. Peer victimization is becoming a significant problem for school-age children and adolescents in the United States. Parents should be educated regarding signs that a child is being bullied. These might include (select all that apply)

a.

The child spends an inordinate amount of time in the nurses office.

b.

Belongings frequently go missing or are damaged.

c.

The child wants to be driven to school.

d.

School performance improves.

e.

The child freely talks about his day.

ANS: A, B, C

Feedback

Correct

Signs that may indicate a child is being bullied are similar to signs of other types of stress and include nonspecific illness or complaints, withdrawal, depression, school refusal, and decreased school performance. Children express fear of going to school or riding the school bus. Very often, children will not talk about what is happening to them.

Incorrect

These are not indications of bullying.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Planning REF: p. 163

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

COMPLETION

1. ____________________ is the leading cause of death in children of every age-group beyond 1 year of age.

ANS: Unintentional injury

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 159

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. Children have a total of __________ primary (deciduous) teeth that they begin to lose when they are school age.

ANS:

20

twenty

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 154

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. Primary (deciduous) teeth are replaced by permanent teeth. By adulthood the child will have __________ permanent teeth.

ANS:

32

thirty-two

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 145

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

SHORT ANSWER

1. A nurse is planning a class for school-age children on obesity. Which percentile does the body mass index (BMI) need to exceed for a child to be assessed as obese?

ANS:

95

95th

When intake of food exceeds expenditure, the excess is stored as fat. Obesity is an excessive accumulation of fat in the body and is assessed in children as a BMI that exceeds the 95th percentile for age.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 145

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

TRUE/FALSE

1. The number of hours spent sleeping decreases as the child grows older. Children ages 6 and 7 years require approximately 9 or 10 hours of sleep per night. Is this statement true or false?

ANS: F

Children ages 6 and 7 actually need approximately 12 hours of sleep per night. Some children also continue to need an afternoon nap or quiet time to restore energy levels. The 12-year-old needs approximately 9 to 10 hours of sleep at night. Adequate sleep is important for school performance and physical growth. Inadequate sleep can cause irritability, inability to concentrate, and poor school performance.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 152

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

Leave a Reply