CHAPTER 8: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFANT My Nursing Test Banks

CHAPTER 8: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFANT

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.The age range for an infant is defined as which of the following time spans?

a.

newborn to 3 months

c.

1 month to 1 year

b.

newborn to 6 months

d.

3 months to 15 months

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The age range for an infant is not defined as newborn to 3 months.

B

Incorrect. The age range for an infant is not defined as newborn to 6 months.

C

Correct. The age range for an infant is defined as 1 month to 1 year.

D

Incorrect. The age range for an infant is not defined as 3 months to 15 months.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 228 Growth and Development of the Infant

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

2.The most rapid growth period in a persons life is during which of the following periods?

a.

infancy

c.

latency

b.

early childhood

d.

adolescence

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The most rapid growth period in a persons life is during infancy.

B

Incorrect. The most rapid growth period in a persons life is not during early childhood.

C

Incorrect. The most rapid growth period in a persons life is not during latency.

D

Incorrect. The most rapid growth period in a persons life is not during adolescence.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 228 Growth and Development of the Infant

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

3.The approximate weight gain for babies in the first 6 months of life is:

a.

1/2 pound per month

c.

1-1/2 pounds per month

b.

1 pound per month

d.

2 pounds per month

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The approximate weight gain during the first 6 months of life is greater than 1/2 pound per month.

B

Incorrect. The approximate weight gain during the first 6 months of life is greater than 1 pound per month.

C

Correct. The approximate weight gain during the first 6 months of life is about 1 1/2 pounds per month.

D

Incorrect. The approximate weight gain during the first 6 months of life is less than 2 pounds per month.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 228 Growth and Development of the Infant

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

4.The approximate increase in height for babies is how many inches per month in the first 6 months of life?

a.

1/4

c.

1

b.

1/2

d.

1-1/2

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The approximate increase in height during the first 6 months of life for babies is more than 1/4 inch per month.

B

Incorrect. The approximate increase in height during the first 6 months of life for babies is more than 1/2 inch per month.

C

Correct. The approximate increase in height during the first 6 months of life for babies is 1 inch per month.

D

Incorrect. The approximate increase in height during the first 6 months of life for babies is less than 1 1/2 inches per month.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 228 Growth and Development of the Infant

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

5.A mother asks the nurse when a soft spot on the babys head will close. The best response by the nurse is which of the following responses?

a.

It will close in about a year.

b.

There are two soft spots called the anterior and posterior fontanels, which will close by the time the baby is about a year old.

c.

It will close in 6 months.

d.

The soft spot you are talking about will close by 12 to 18 months of age. Another soft spot will close by 2 months.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. There are two soft spots, posterior and anterior; the posterior closes in about 2 months; the anterior closes in 12-18 months.

B

Incorrect. There are two soft spots, posterior and anterior; the posterior closes in about 2 months; the anterior closes in 12-18 months.

C

Incorrect. There are two soft spots, posterior and anterior; the posterior closes in about 2 months; the anterior closes in 12-18 months.

D

Correct. There are two soft spots, posterior and anterior; the posterior closes in about 2 months; the anterior closes in 12-18 months.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 228 Growth and Development of the Infant

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

6.Birth weights differ with ethnic backgrounds. Which of the following babies are typically the largest at birth, compared to the others?

a.

European American

c.

Chinese

b.

Native American

d.

Japanese

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. European American babies do not have the largest birth weights.

B

Correct. Native American infants are often heavier at birth than European American infants.

C

Incorrect. Chinese babies do not have the largest birth weights, and are usually lighter than European American babies.

D

Incorrect. Japanese babies do not have the largest birth weights, and are usually lighter than European American babies.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 228 Growth and Development of the Infant

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

7.A mother asks you when her baby will be able to pick up and hold toys. You would explain to her that in order to be able to willingly grasp an object such as a toy, the baby must first:

a.

have the ability to release the object

c.

lose the involuntary grasp reflex

b.

double the birth weight

d.

be able to sit up

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Though the infant has an involuntary grasp reflex, it can also release the object.

B

Incorrect. The loss of the involuntary grasp reflex occurs within the first month of life; the birth weight takes about 6 months to double.

C

Correct. During the first month of life, a primitive grasp reflex enables the infant to hold objects with a tightly clenched fist. Before the infant is able to willingly grasp a toy, it must first lose the involuntary grasp reflex.

D

Incorrect. The loss of the involuntary grasp reflex occurs within the first month of life; the ability to sit up takes much longer.

PTS:1REF:p. 229 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

8.Gross motor development is best exemplified by the ability to:

a.

use the muscles of the hands to grasp toys

b.

maintain balance, postural control, and locomotion

c.

use the facial muscles to smile, cry, and frown

d.

open the hand, look at the fingers, and place them in the mouth

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Fine motor development includes the ability to use the muscles of the hands to grasp toys.

B

Correct. Gross motor development is best exemplified by the ability to maintain balance, postural control, and locomotion.

C

Incorrect. Gross motor development does not include the facial muscles to smile, cry, and frown.

D

Incorrect. Fine motor development includes the ability to open the hand, look at the fingers, and place them in the mouth.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 228 Growth and Development of the Infant

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

9.The mother asks the nurse when her baby will be able to hold his head up. The best response by the nurse is that the baby will be able to hold his head up at:

a.

3 months

b.

4 months and also use the forearms for support

c.

6 months, if the baby is not overfed and overweight

d.

7 months

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. A baby most likely cannot hold up his head by 3 months.

B

Correct. The best response by the nurse is that the baby will be able to hold his head up at 4 months and also use the forearms for support.

C

Incorrect. At 5 to 6 months of age, the infant has the ability to hold the head, the chest, and abdomen up by bearing weight with the hands, even if overfed and overweight.

D

Incorrect. Between 7 and 8 months the infant is able to sit alone steadily without any support.

PTS:1REF:p. 229 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

10.A mother notices that her 6-month-old child grasps things such as a spoon in her palms. This mother asks when her daughter will be able grasp a spoon between the thumb and fingers. She has been trying to teach the child this skill without success. The best response by the nurse would be:

a.

The pincer grasp will be mastered at about 8 months. It would be best to let the child grasp the spoon with the palm, as it is too early for the pincer grasp.

b.

Have your child play with an older child who uses the pincer grasp, and your baby will likely pick up the skill from the other child in a short while.

c.

Keep working and teaching. The baby will soon pick this skill up if you just keep pushing.

d.

Lets do some developmental testing to see in what other areas your baby is behind in development.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. As the infants fine motor development progresses, the palmar reflex is replaced with a thumb and finger pincer grasp at approximately 8 months of age.

B

Incorrect. The development of the pincer grasp relies upon the infants age and relies upon practice, not imitation to master.

C

Incorrect. The development of the pincer grasp relies upon the infants age and relies upon practice, not the mothers teaching.

D

Incorrect. Developmental testing is not required at 6 months of age, and when the pincer grasp does not normally appear until 8 months of age.

PTS:1REF:p. 231 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

11.In assessing the amount of head lag in an infant, the nurse will:

a.

see how long the infant can hold his or her own head up, measuring the time in seconds

b.

pull the infant up by the arms from a supine to a sitting position

c.

measure the distance from the babys fingertips to the ear

d.

hold the baby upright in the nurses lap and let the head fall back against the nurses chest

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Head lag is not measured by timing the amount of time the infant can hold his or her head up.

B

Correct. In assessing the amount of head lag in an infant, the nurse will pull the infant up by the arms from a supine to a sitting position.

C

Incorrect. Head lag is not measured by measuring the distance from the babys fingertips to the ear.

D

Incorrect. Head lag is not measured by holding the baby upright in the nurses lap and letting the head fall back against the nurses chest.

PTS:1REF:p. 229 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

12.Infant head control is judged by the:

a.

amount of neck wrinkling

c.

presence or absence of head lag

b.

ability to hold head without support

d.

rigidity of the neck and head

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Infant head control is not judged by the amount of neck wrinkling.

B

Incorrect. Infant head control is not judged by the ability to hold head without support.

C

Correct. Infant head control is judged by the presence or absence of head lag.

D

Incorrect. Infant head control is not judged by the rigidity of the neck and head.

PTS:1REF:p. 229 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

13.At how many months of age does the infant have good head control and no head lag while sitting?

a.

2

c.

4

b.

3

d.

6

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. An infant does not have good head control and no head lag at 2 months.

B

Incorrect. An infant does not have good head control and no head lag at 3 months.

C

Correct. An infant does have good head control and no head lag at 4 months.

D

Incorrect. An infant does have good head control and no head lag earlier than 6 months.

PTS:1REF:p. 229 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

14.Locomotion, or the ability to move from place to place without assistance, is dependent on:

a.

developed muscles in the upper arm

b.

head control and sitting without support

c.

leg muscle strength

d.

the ability to roll over

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Locomotion is not dependent upon developed muscles in the upper arm.

B

Correct. Locomotion, the ability to move from place to place without assistance, is dependent on head control and sitting without support.

C

Incorrect. Locomotion is not dependent upon leg muscle strength.

D

Incorrect. Locomotion is not dependent upon the ability to roll over.

PTS:1REF:p. 229 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

15.A mother asks the nurse to tell her what creeping is. She is expecting her baby to crawl any day and another mother says that her baby creeps. The nurse explains that creeping is when the baby:

a.

moves on hands and knees with the abdomen off the floor

b.

crawls using the elbows to scoot across the floor

c.

draws the legs up, stretches out, and repeats the process

d.

stands and walks on the toes with heels off the ground

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Creeping is best described as when the baby moves on hands and knees with the abdomen off the floor.

B

Incorrect. The baby crawls first by pulling self forward with the abdomen touching the floor, the creeps.

C

Incorrect. Creeping is locomotion when the baby is up on hands and knees, not leg extensions.

D

Incorrect. Creeping is locomotion when the baby is up on hands and knees, not standing and walking on the toes with heels off the ground.

PTS:1REF:p. 229 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

16.A mother seems concerned as she asks why her infant is walking sideways while holding onto furniture. The best response by the nurse is:

a.

You need to get a neurological consultation for your baby, to rule out some pathology.

b.

If you hold the babys hands while the baby walks, you can break the baby of this habit.

c.

Infants start walking sideways while holding onto furniture before they walk or stand alone.

d.

You need to make an appointment with your pediatrician and have this problem checked out.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. This is natural, and is not pathology.

B

Incorrect. There is no need to break the habit, this is perfectly natural.

C

Correct. Infants start walking sideways while holding onto furniture before they walk or stand alone.

D

Incorrect. This is natural, and does not require a visit to the pediatrician.

PTS:1REF:p. 229 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

17.The term cruising is best described by which of the following statements?

a.

deliberate steps while holding onto something

b.

going as fast as possible at this age

c.

looking for something to get into while moving

d.

moving while in a battery-powered childs vehicle

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The term cruising is best described as deliberate steps while holding onto something.

B

Incorrect. The term cruising is not best described as going as fast as possible at this age.

C

Incorrect. The term cruising is not best described as looking for something to get into while moving.

D

Incorrect. The term cruising is not best described as moving while in a battery-powered childs vehicle.

PTS:1REF:p. 231 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

18.A mother asks the nurse to explain what fine motor skills are. She has heard that it has something to do with the ability to draw and color within the lines in school-aged children, and she is curious to know what this means in an infant. The nurse would explain that fine motor development is the ability to:

a.

write and draw and that infants do not have any fine motor skills

b.

coordinate hand-to-eye movement in an orderly and progressive manner

c.

pick up items and move them from place to place in a voluntary fashion

d.

use all of the fingers equally well and both hands in a coordinated method

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The nurse would not explain that fine motor development is the ability to write and draw and that infants do not have any fine motor skills.

B

Correct. Fine motor development is the ability to coordinate hand-eye movement in an orderly and progressive manner.

C

Incorrect. The nurse would not explain that fine motor development is the ability to pick up items and move them from place to place in a voluntary fashion.

D

Incorrect. The nurse would not explain that fine motor development is the ability to use all of the fingers equally well and both hands in a coordinated method.

PTS:1REF:p. 231 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

19.The nurse notices a baby in the waiting room. The baby is sitting on the mothers lap and picking up small green peas out of a bowl with a true pincer grasp and eating them unassisted. The nurse knows that this baby is at least how many months old?

a.

4 to 6

c.

10 to 12

b.

7 to 9

d.

13 to 15

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The thumb and pincer grasp does not develop until approximately 8 months, and it is not fine tuned enough to pick out a single green pea until between 10 and 12 months.

B

Incorrect. The thumb and pincer grasp does not develop until approximately 8 months, and it is not fine tuned enough to pick out a single green pea until between 10 and 12 months.

C

Correct. By 10 months of age, the infants pincer grasp is more refined and reflected in the ability to grasp small finger foods such as green peas.

D

Incorrect. By 10 months of age, the infants pincer grasp is more refined and reflected in the ability to grasp small finger foods such as green peas; this development is earlier than 13 to 15 months.

PTS:1REF:p. 231 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

20.The very first sucking by an infant occurs because of:

a.

the mother stroking the cheeks

c.

a purposeful seeking of pleasure

b.

an accidental reflex of rooting

d.

hunger and a message to the brain

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The very first sucking by an infant does not occur because of the mother stroking the cheeks.

B

Correct. The very first sucking by an infant occurs because of an accidental reflex of rooting.

C

Incorrect. The very first sucking by an infant does not occur because of a purposeful seeking of pleasure.

D

Incorrect. The very first sucking by an infant does not occur because of hunger and a message to the brain.

PTS:1REF:p. 233 Psychosexual Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

21.When a mother plays peek-a-boo with a baby, the mother is helping teach the baby which of the following?

a.

object permanence

c.

visual skill

b.

coordination

d.

vocal rhythm

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. When a mother plays peek-a-boo with a baby, the mother is helping teach the baby object permanence.

B

Incorrect. When a mother plays peek-a-boo with a baby, the mother is not helping teach the baby coordination.

C

Incorrect. When a mother plays peek-a-boo with a baby, the mother is not helping teach the baby visual skill.

D

Incorrect. When a mother plays peek-a-boo with a baby, the mother is not helping teach the baby vocal rhythm.

PTS:1REF:p. 234 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

22.Which of the following statements best describes object permanence?

a.

An object is always within eyesight.

b.

Materials do not get eaten or thrown away.

c.

The mother makes certain that favorite toys remain with a child.

d.

The infant realizes an object continues to exist even when out of sight.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Object permanence is not best described as an object is always within eyesight.

B

Incorrect. Object permanence is not best described as materials do not get eaten or thrown away.

C

Incorrect. Object permanence is not best described as the mother makes certain that favorite toys remain with a child.

D

Correct. Object permanence is best described as the infant realizes an object continues to exist even when out of sight.

PTS:1REF:p. 234 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

23.Which of the following behaviors by an infant best exemplifies the beginning of reasoning?

a.

crying for food or attention

b.

moving any obstacles to find a hidden object

c.

saying bye-bye in response to others saying bye-bye

d.

blowing kisses or clapping the hands

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Crying for food or attention is very basic and occurs in Piagets first substage of the sensorimotor stage.

B

Correct. Object permanence is apparent and demonstrated when the infant actively seeks a hidden object. The beginning of reason is evident when the infant moves any obstacle to uncover a hidden object. Occurs in Piagets fourth substage of the sensorimotor stage.

C

Incorrect. Saying bye-bye in response to others saying bye-bye occurs in Piagets second substage of the sensorimotor stage.

D

Incorrect. Blowing kisses or clapping the hands occurs in Piagets second substage of the sensorimotor stage.

PTS:1REF:p. 234 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

24.The nurse is assessing an infant who is 10 months old to determine if the infant is in Piagets fourth substage of sensorimotor development called coordination of secondary schema. Which of the following actions would indicate to the nurse that the infant is indeed in this fourth substage?

a.

banging a toy to produce a sound

b.

looking and grasping for a favorite toy

c.

putting blocks of different shapes into a container with matching holes of varied shapes

d.

putting objects and substances into the mouth and spitting out those that taste bad

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Piagets third stage of sensorimotor development, between 4 and 8 months of age, the infant may repeatedly bang a toy just to produce a different sound.

B

Incorrect. Piagets second stage of sensorimotor development, between 1 and 4 months of age, as objects become more familiar, the infant will look at and grasp a favorite toy as long as it is in view.

C

Correct. Piagets fourth stage of sensorimotor development, between 8 and 12 months of age, is marked by the infants ability to put several events together to accomplish an end result, such as putting blocks of different shapes into a container with matching holes of varied shapes.

D

Incorrect. Piagets first stage of sensorimotor development, between birth to 1 month, the infant will use involuntary reflexes such as rooting, sucking to explore its environment; this will include putting objects and substances into the mouth and spitting out those that taste bad.

PTS:1REF:p. 234 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

25.According to Erikson, the psychosocial development of an infant is centered around the concept of:

a.

trust versus mistrust

c.

growth versus failure to grow

b.

pleasure versus pain

d.

love versus hate

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Eriksons psychosocial development of an infant is centered around the concept of trust versus mistrust.

B

Incorrect. Eriksons psychosocial development of an infant is not centered around the concept of pleasure versus pain.

C

Incorrect. Eriksons psychosocial development of an infant is not centered around the concept of growth versus failure to grow.

D

Incorrect. Eriksons psychosocial development of an infant is not centered around the concept of love versus hate.

PTS:1REF:p. 233 Psychosexual Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

26.The nurse is working with caregivers who are very concerned that their new infant will grow up with a healthy sense of trust. What areas of assessment and teaching would the nurse most focus on in working with these caregivers?

a.

knowledge of the physical development of children in the first 3 years

b.

meeting the infants basic needs and demonstrating caring behaviors

c.

extended family, friends, and other sources of family support

d.

child-rearing philosophies and the educational levels of the caregivers

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. An area of assessment and teaching about developing a healthy sense of trust will not include knowledge of the physical development of children in the first 3 years.

B

Correct. An area of assessment and teaching about developing a healthy sense of trust will focus upon meeting the infants basic needs and demonstrating caring behaviors.

C

Incorrect. An area of assessment and teaching about developing a healthy sense of trust will not include extended family, friends, and other sources of family support.

D

Incorrect. An area of assessment and teaching about developing a healthy sense of trust will not include child-rearing philosophies and the educational levels of the caregivers.

PTS:1REF:p. 233 Psychosexual Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

27.Which of the following behaviors by the caregivers would facilitate a child learning to trust when the child is hospitalized?

a.

having the child stay with a variety of other people soon after discharge from the hospital to help the child overcome anxiety around new people

b.

establishing a solid good-bye routine

c.

letting the child know they will miss him or her

d.

providing a list of the childs usual home routines, cues given when frustrated, response to comforting methods, and favorite games and music to the health team

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Behaviors by the caregivers that would facilitate a child learning to trust when the child is hospitalized will not include having the child stay with a variety of other people soon after discharge from the hospital to help the child overcome anxiety around new people.

B

Incorrect. Behaviors by the caregivers that would facilitate a child learning to trust when the child is hospitalized will not include establishing a solid good-bye routine.

C

Incorrect. Behaviors by the caregivers that would facilitate a child learning to trust when the child is hospitalized will not include letting the child know they will miss him or her.

D

Correct. Behaviors by the caregivers that would facilitate a child learning to trust when the child is hospitalized will focus upon providing a list of the childs usual home routines, cues given when frustrated, response to comforting methods, and favorite games and music to the health team.

PTS:1REF:p. 234 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

28.The parents are interviewing people who have applied to their advertisement for a caregiver for their 6-week-old baby in preparation for the mothers return to work. In addition to asking about the applicants experience, which of the following questions by the parents would most help them assess an applicants ability to provide a trusting environment?

a.

If the baby is fussy, what will you do?

b.

How many children have you cared for at a time?

c.

What is your training in child care?

d.

What was your childhood like?

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. If the baby is fussy, what will you do? is the question asked by parents that would most help them assess an applicants ability to provide a trusting environment.

B

Incorrect. How many children have you cared for at a time? is not the question asked by parents that would most help them assess an applicants ability to provide a trusting environment.

C

Incorrect. What is your training in child care? is not the question asked by parents that would most help them assess an applicants ability to provide a trusting environment.

D

Incorrect. What was your childhood like? is not the question asked by parents that would most help them assess an applicants ability to provide a trusting environment.

PTS:1REF:p. 234 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

29.Which of the following factors is the best indicator of an infants ability to adapt to the changes required in growth and development without creating undue stress on the body?

a.

the infant has been breastfed

c.

the infants health status

b.

the caregivers are older

d.

the presence of siblings

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The fact the infant has been breastfed is not the best indicator of an infants ability to adapt to the changes required in growth and development without creating undue stress on the body.

B

Incorrect. The fact the caregivers are older is not the best indicator of an infants ability to adapt to the changes required in growth and development without creating undue stress on the body.

C

Correct. The infants health status is the best indicator of an infants ability to adapt to the changes required in growth and development without creating undue stress on the body.

D

Incorrect. The presence of siblings is not the best indicator of an infants ability to adapt to the changes required in growth and development without creating undue stress on the body.

PTS:1REF:p. 236 Cognitive Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

30.The nurse would instruct the mother of a baby under 2 months to contact the health care provider if the babys temperature is at which of the following readings or higher?

a.

37.2 degrees C (99.0 degrees F)

c.

37.9 degrees C (100.2 degrees F)

b.

37.6 degrees C (99.6 degrees F)

d.

38.9 degrees C (102 degrees F)

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The nurse would not instruct the mother of a baby under 2 months to call the health care provider if the babys temperature is 37.2 degrees C (99.0 degrees F).

B

Incorrect. The nurse would not instruct the mother of a baby under 2 months to call the health care provider if the babys temperature is 37.6 degrees C (99.6 degrees F).

C

Correct. The nurse would instruct the mother of a baby under 2 months to call the health care provider if the babys temperature is 37.9 degrees C (100.2 degrees F) or higher.

D

Incorrect. The nurse would instruct the mother of a baby under 6 months to call the health care provider if the babys temperature is 38.9 degrees C (102 degrees F) or higher.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 237 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

31.A mother discovers that her baby is suddenly listless. Which of the following actions would best indicate that she understood the information the nurse gave her before she was discharged from the hospital with her baby?

a.

bathing the baby in alcohol

b.

gently shaking the baby and calling the babys name

c.

observing the baby for 2 hours to see if the baby gets better or worse

d.

calling the pediatrician or nurse practitioner immediately

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Discovering the baby is listless, bathing the baby in alcohol is not the desired action by the mother.

B

Incorrect. Discovering the baby is listless, gently shaking the baby and calling the babys name is not the desired action by the mother.

C

Incorrect. Discovering the baby is listless, observing the baby for 2 hours to see if the baby gets better or worse is not the desired action by the mother.

D

Correct. Discovering the baby is listless, calling the pediatrician or nurse practitioner immediately is the desired action by the mother.

PTS:1REF:p. 237 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

32.A father asks when the baby will have to go see the pediatrician. From her reading in the baby book as well as instructions from the nurse, his wife tells him that these visits are normally scheduled at which of the following ages?

a.

2 weeks, and 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months

b.

every month for 1 year

c.

every 2 weeks for 2 months, when monthly

d.

3, 5, 7, and 9 months

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. In the first year, health screening or well-child visits are usually scheduled when the infant is 2 weeks, and 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 months.

B

Incorrect. In the first year, health screening or well-child visits are not usually scheduled every month for 1 year.

C

Incorrect. In the first year, health screening or well-child visits are not usually scheduled every 2 weeks for 2 months, then monthly.

D

Incorrect. In the first year, health screening or well-child visits are not usually scheduled at 3, 5, 7, and 9 months.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 238 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

33.A mother calls the pediatricians office and asks the nurse if she should bring the baby for scheduled immunizations. The baby has a clear nasal discharge and a little cough, and the mother thinks perhaps the baby should not get immunizations if he has a cold. The nurses best response is:

a.

You are correct not to bring the baby to the office and expose other children.

b.

Lets wait until the baby is free of these symptoms. There is no hurry for these immunizations.

c.

Immunizations are not usually contraindicated with a mild illness such as a cold.

d.

Take the babys temperature. If it is not over 38.8 degrees C (101.8 degrees F), we will go ahead with the immunizations.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. You are correct not to bring the baby to the office and expose other children is not the best response when advising a mother about keeping an appointment for scheduled immunizations.

B

Incorrect. Lets wait until the baby is free of these symptoms. There is no hurry for these immunizations. This is not the best response when advising a mother about keeping an appointment for scheduled immunizations.

C

Correct. Immunizations are not usually contraindicated with a mild illness such as a cold is the best response when advising a mother about keeping an appointment for scheduled immunizations.

D

Incorrect. Take the babys temperature. If it is not over 38.8 degrees C (101.8 degrees F), we will go ahead with the immunizations is not the best response when advising a mother about keeping an appointment for scheduled immunizations.

PTS:1REF:p. 238 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

34.Most common reactions to immunizations last how many days?

a.

1 to 2

c.

5 to 6

b.

3 to 4

d.

7 to 8

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Most common reactions to immunizations last 1 to 2 days.

B

Incorrect. Most common reactions to immunizations do not last 3 to 4 days.

C

Incorrect. Most common reactions to immunizations do not last 5 to 6 days.

D

Incorrect. Most common reactions to immunizations do not last 7 to 8 days.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 238 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

35.The general treatment of common reactions to immunizations is:

a.

cool alcohol sponges for 15 minutes of every hour

b.

heat to the injection site

c.

acetaminophen every 4 to 6 hours for a total of 3 doses

d.

Benadryl 50 mg every 4 to 6 hours for a total of 3 doses

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The general treatment of common reactions to immunizations is not cool alcohol sponges for 15 minutes of every hour.

B

Incorrect. The general treatment of common reactions to immunizations is not heat to the injection site.

C

Correct. The general treatment of common reactions to immunizations is acetaminophen every 4 to 6 hours for a total of 3 doses.

D

Incorrect. The general treatment of common reactions to immunizations is not Benadryl 50 mg every 4 to 6 hours for a total of 3 doses.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 239 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

36.The mother asks the nurse to describe the common reactions to immunizations. The nurse tells the mother that they usually consist of redness, swelling, and tenderness at the injection site, along with:

a.

low-grade fever

b.

chills

c.

fever of 38.3-38.9 degrees C (101-102 degrees F)

d.

seizures

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The nurse tells the mother that the common reactions to immunizations are redness, swelling and tenderness at the injection site along with a low grade fever.

B

Incorrect. The nurse tells the mother that the common reactions to immunizations are redness, swelling and tenderness at the injection site but not chills.

C

Incorrect. The nurse tells the mother that the common reactions to immunizations are redness, swelling and tenderness at the injection site but not a fever of 38.3-38.9 degrees C (101-102 degrees F).

D

Incorrect. The nurse tells the mother that the common reactions to immunizations are redness, swelling and tenderness at the injection site but not seizures.

PTS:1REF:p. 239 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

37.Newborns have which of the following visual acuities?

a.

20/100-20/200

c.

20/60-20/200

b.

20/90-20/220

d.

20/20-20/100

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Research has shown that even newborns have full visual array with acuity of 20/100 to 20/200.

B

Incorrect. Research has shown that even newborns have full visual array with acuity of 20/100 to 20/200, not 20/90-20/220.

C

Incorrect. Research has shown that even newborns have full visual array with acuity of 20/100 to 20/200, not 20/60-20/200.

D

Incorrect. Research has shown that even newborns have full visual array with acuity of 20/100 to 20/200, not 20/20-20/100.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 238 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

38.Studies based on attention time given to an image have shown that infants prefer which of the following images?

a.

small animals

c.

geometric shapes

b.

large animals

d.

the human face

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Infants do not prefer images of small animals.

B

Incorrect. Infants do not prefer images of large animals.

C

Incorrect. Infants do not prefer images of geometric shapes.

D

Correct. Infants prefer the human face, demonstrated by visual attentiveness when interacting with the caregiver.

PTS:1REF:p. 240 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

39.The nurse is assessing a small infant and notices that when the childs head is moved to the right or left, the eyes follow and do not lag behind as they normally do in a small infant. The nurse would document this finding as:

a.

bilateral lag syndrome

c.

absence of horizontal vibratory motion

b.

absence of dolls eye reflex

d.

follow-through visual abnormality

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. When the eyes of an infant tracks with the movement of the head, it is not described as bilateral lag syndrome.

B

Correct. When the eyes of an infant tracks with the movement of the head, it is best described as absence of dolls eye reflex.

C

Incorrect. When the eyes of an infant tracks with the movement of the head, it is not described as absence of horizontal vibratory motion.

D

Incorrect. When the eyes of an infant tracks with the movement of the head, it is not described as follow-through visual abnormality.

PTS:1REF:p. 240 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

40.While assessing an infant, the nurse notices that the child does not watch objects when they are dropped. The nurse will most suspect which of the following problems that will be further assessed?

a.

visual problems

c.

decreased energy

b.

absent or diminished hearing

d.

infant depression

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. When the nurse notices that the child does not watch objects when they are dropped, you will suspect visual problems.

B

Incorrect. When the nurse notices that the child does not watch objects when they are dropped, you will not suspect absent or diminished hearing.

C

Incorrect. When the nurse notices that the child does not watch objects when they are dropped, you will not suspect decreased energy.

D

Incorrect. When the nurse notices that the child does not watch objects when they are dropped, you will not suspect infant depression.

PTS:1REF:p. 240 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

41.Who is usually the first to notice that something is wrong with vision or hearing in an infant?

a.

infants caregivers

c.

nurse

b.

pediatrician

d.

relatives

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The infants caregivers are usually the first to notice that something is wrong with vision or hearing in an infant.

B

Incorrect. The pediatrician is not usually the first to notice that something is wrong with vision or hearing in an infant.

C

Incorrect. The nurse is not usually the first to notice that something is wrong with vision or hearing in an infant.

D

Incorrect. The relatives are not usually the first to notice that something is wrong with vision or hearing in an infant.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 240 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

42.The baby teeth or primary teeth of a baby are also called:

a.

cuspids

c.

deciduous

b.

incisors

d.

molars

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The baby teeth or primary teeth of a baby are not also called cuspids.

B

Incorrect. The baby teeth or primary teeth of a baby are not also called incisors.

C

Correct. The baby teeth or primary teeth of a baby are also called deciduous.

D

Incorrect. The baby teeth or primary teeth of a baby are not also called molars.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 241 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

43.The timing of the eruption of teeth may vary, but it usually begins around which of the following ages?

a.

3 to 4 months

c.

1 year

b.

6 to 8 months

d.

1-1/2 years

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The eruption of teeth varies among children, but the teething process typically begins around 3-4 months of age.

B

Incorrect. The eruption of teeth varies among children, but the teething process typically begins earlier than 6 to 8 months of age.

C

Incorrect. The eruption of teeth varies among children, but the teething process typically begins earlier than 1 year of age.

D

Incorrect. The eruption of teeth varies among children, but the teething process typically begins earlier than 1-1/2 years of age.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 241 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

44.According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the use of fluoride supplements to babies whose home drinking water does not contain at least 0.3 parts per million (ppm) concentration should begin at which of the following ages?

a.

3 months

c.

1 year

b.

6 months

d.

2 years

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the use of fluoride supplements, but not at 3 months.

B

Correct. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the use of fluoride supplements beginning at 6 months, but only if the home drinking water does not contain at least 0.3 parts per million (ppm) concentration.

C

Incorrect. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the use of fluoride supplements, but not as late as 1 year of age.

D

Incorrect. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the use of fluoride supplements, but not at late as 2 years of age.

PTS:1REF:p. 242 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

45.A type of dental caries that is seen in infants who drink a bottle of formula or juice at nap time or bedtime, or in infants who breastfeed for prolonged times, is called:

a.

rapid deciduous tooth decay

c.

sleep-time dental caries

b.

nursing or bottle-mouth caries

d.

sugar-source mouth caries

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The type of dental caries seen in infants who drink a bottle of formula or juice at nap time or bed time is not called rapid deciduous tooth decay.

B

Correct. The type of dental caries seen in infants who drink a bottle of formula or juice at nap time or bed time is called nursing or bottle-mouth caries.

C

Incorrect. The type of dental caries seen in infants who drink a bottle of formula or juice at nap time or bed time is not called sleep-time dental caries.

D

Incorrect. The type of dental caries seen in infants who drink a bottle of formula or juice at nap time or bed time is not called sugar-source mouth caries.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 242 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

46.A caregiver calls the pediatricians office and is desperate to talk with the pediatrician or the nurse. The baby has red swollen gums and is teething and fussy. The caregiver wants to know what intervention to take to soothe the irritable baby. The nurse will most likely suggest:

a.

applying a small heated pad to the face

b.

chewing on ice chips

c.

applying an alcohol rub to the gums

d.

giving an ice cube in a washcloth or zwieback toast

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. When a baby has red swollen gums and is teething and fussy, the nurse will not most likely suggest applying a small heated pad to the face.

B

Incorrect. When a baby has red swollen gums and is teething and fussy, the nurse will not more likely suggest chewing on ice chips.

C

Incorrect. When a baby has red swollen gums and is teething and fussy, the nurse will not more likely suggest applying an alcohol rub to the gums.

D

Correct. When a baby has red swollen gums and is teething and fussy, the nurse will more likely suggest giving an ice cube in a washcloth or zwieback toast.

PTS:1REF:p. 243 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

47.How many kilocalories per ounce do breast milk and most formulas provide?

a.

10

c.

30

b.

20

d.

40

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Breast milk and most formulas provide more than 10 kilocalories per ounce.

B

Correct. Breast milk and most formulas provide 20 kilocalories per ounce.

C

Incorrect. Breast milk and most formulas provide less than 30 kilocalories per ounce.

D

Incorrect. Breast milk and most formulas provide less than 40 kilocalories per ounce.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 244 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

48.The nutritional requirements of a newborn are how many kilocalories per kilogram per day?

a.

90

c.

110

b.

100

d.

120

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The newborn requires more than 90 kilocalories per kilogram per day.

B

Incorrect. The newborn requires more than 100 kilocalories per kilogram per day.

C

Incorrect. The newborn requires more than 110 kilocalories per kilogram per day.

D

Correct. The newborn requires 120 kilocalories per kilogram per day.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 244 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

49.You are to determine how many kilocalories per day (kcal/day) an infant who weighs 4.5 kilograms needs. The number of kcal/day would be which of the following?

a.

310

c.

540

b.

420

d.

660

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. An infant requiring 310 kilocalories per day will weigh 2.583 kilograms (310/120=2.583)

B

Incorrect. An infant requiring 420 kilocalories per day will weigh 3.5 kilograms (420/120=3.5)

C

Correct. An infant requiring 540 kilocalories per day will weigh 4.5 kilograms (540/120=4.5)

D

Incorrect. An infant requiring 660 kilocalories per day will weigh 5.5 kilograms (660/120=5.5)

PTS:1REF:p. 245 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

50.A caregiver asks the nurse when his baby can have semisolid foods like infant cereal and applesauce. The nurse replies that the introduction of semisolid foods usually occurs between:

a.

1 and 2 months

c.

7 and 9 months

b.

4 and 6 months

d.

10 and 11 months

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The nurse will not recommend the introduction of semisolid foods at 1 to 2 months of age.

B

Correct. The nurse will recommend the introduction of semisolid foods at 4 to 6 months of age.

C

Incorrect. The nurse will recommend the introduction prior to 7 and 9 months of age.

D

Incorrect. The nurse will recommend the introduction prior to 10 and 11 months of age.

PTS:1REF:p. 245 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

51.The pediatrician suggests that the caregivers begin to introduce iron-fortified rice cereal as the first solid food to their baby. The mother later asks the nurse why the health care practitioner wants her to give the baby iron-fortified rice cereal instead of some other food. The nurses best response to this question is that this particular cereal:

a.

is the easiest to digest and least likely to cause allergies

b.

does not have many calories and wont decrease the babys milk intake

c.

is an important bulk to help the baby have semisolid bowel movements

d.

is inexpensive and high in vitamins and minerals

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. If the mother is asking why the nurse recommends iron-fortified rice cereal, the nurses best response to this question: it is the easiest to digest and least likely to cause allergies.

B

Incorrect. If the mother is asking why the nurse recommends iron-fortified rice cereal, the nurses best response to this question is not that it does not have many calories and wont decrease the babys milk intake.

C

Incorrect. If the mother is asking why the nurse recommends iron-fortified rice cereal, the nurses best response to this question is not that it is an important bulk to help the baby have semisolid bowel movements.

D

Incorrect. If the mother is asking why the nurse recommends iron-fortified rice cereal, the nurses best response to this question is not that it is inexpensive and high in vitamins and minerals.

PTS:1REF:p. 245 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

52.The nurse is talking with caregivers regarding the introduction of new foods to their baby, who has been on cereals and is now ready to start on vegetables and fruits. The most important advice the nurse will give the caregivers is to:

a.

place up to three foods on the spoon at one time with an old favorite on the front of the spoon

b.

introduce vegetables first, introduce one new vegetable per day until all vegetables are introduced, and then introduce fruits

c.

start feeding fruits and vegetables very slowly, one spoon per day

d.

introduce one new food at a time at 4- to 7-day intervals

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Regarding the introduction of new foods to the baby, the most important advice the nurse will give the caregivers is not to place up to three foods on the spoon at one time with an old favorite on the front of the spoon.

B

Incorrect. Regarding the introduction of new foods to the baby, the most important advice the nurse will give the caregivers is not to introduce vegetables first, introduce one new vegetable per day until all vegetables are introduced, and then introduce fruits.

C

Incorrect. Regarding the introduction of new foods to the baby, the most important advice the nurse will give the caregivers is not to start feeding fruits and vegetables very slowly, one spoon per day.

D

Correct. Regarding the introduction of new foods to the baby, the most important advice the nurse will give the caregivers is to introduce one new food at a time at 4- to 7-day intervals.

PTS:1REF:p. 245 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

53.Unless there is some contraindication, the nurse knows to check with the caregivers to be certain that most fruits and vegetables have been added, as well as strained meats, by the time that the infant is how many months old?

a.

5 to 7

c.

11 to 13

b.

8 to 10

d.

14 to 16

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The nurse knows to check with the caregivers to be certain that most fruits, vegetables and strained meats have been added to the infants diet later than 5 to 7 months.

B

Correct. The nurse knows to check with the caregivers to be certain that most fruits, vegetables and strained meats have been added to the infants diet at about 8 to 10 months.

C

Incorrect. The nurse knows to check with the caregivers to be certain that most fruits, vegetables and strained meats have been added to the infants diet earlier than 11 to 13 months.

D

Incorrect. The nurse knows to check with the caregivers to be certain that most fruits, vegetables and strained meats have been added to the infants diet earlier than 14 to 16 months.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 245 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

54.The nurse advises the mother to give fruit juices along with fruit during the babys feedings. The purpose of this fruit juice is mainly to:

a.

prevent constipation

b.

hydrate the baby

c.

enhance absorption of iron in the cereal

d.

minimize leaching of calcium from the body

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The nurse does not advise the mother to give fruit juices along with fruit to prevent constipation.

B

Incorrect. The nurse does not advise the mother to give fruit juices along with fruit to hydrate the baby

C

Correct. The nurse does advise the mother to give fruit juices along with fruit to enhance absorption of iron in the cereal.

D

Incorrect. The nurse does not advise the mother to give fruit juices along with fruit to minimize leaching of calcium from the body.

PTS:1REF:p. 246 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

55.The mother asks the nurse if she can stop giving the baby iron-fortified rice cereal at age 13 months, as the baby prefers other foods. The best response by the nurse would be which of the following?

a.

Yes, that is not a problem, as your baby is now producing enough iron.

b.

Due to the babys need for iron, you need to continue this cereal until the baby is 18 months old.

c.

You could substitute potatoes for the iron-fortified rice cereal.

d.

Give the baby whatever the baby prefers, as calories are more important than content at this age.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. If the mother asks the nurse if she can stop giving the baby iron-fortified rice cereal at 13 month, the best response by the nurse would not be: Yes, that is not a problem, as your baby is now producing enough iron.

B

Correct. If the mother asks the nurse if she can stop giving the baby iron-fortified rice cereal at 13 month, the best response by the nurse would be: Due to the babys need for iron, you need to continue this cereal until the baby is 18 months old.

C

Incorrect. If the mother asks the nurse if she can stop giving the baby iron-fortified rice cereal at 13 month, the best response by the nurse would not be: You could substitute potatoes for the iron-fortified rice cereal.

D

Incorrect. If the mother asks the nurse if she can stop giving the baby iron-fortified rice cereal at 13 month, the best response by the nurse would not be: Give the baby whatever the baby prefers, as calories are more important than content at this age.

PTS:1REF:p. 245 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

56.The mother of an 8-month-old infant tells the nurse that the baby is eating almost no baby cereal or baby food but nurses very well. The nurse would advise the mother to:

a.

not worry, as this is perfectly normal with a breastfed baby

b.

remove the breast halfway through the feeding, give semisolid foods, then resume breastfeeding

c.

feed the baby the baby food when the infant is hungry and follow this with breastfeeding

d.

gradually decrease breastfeeding in number and length of time until the baby is eating sufficient baby food and cereal

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. If a mother of an 8-month-old infant tells the nurse the baby nurses well but doesnt eat baby cereal or other baby food, the nurse would not advise the mother to not worry, as this is perfectly normal with a breastfed baby.

B

Incorrect. If a mother of an 8-month-old infant tells the nurse the baby nurses well but doesnt eat baby cereal or other baby food, the nurse would not advise the mother to remove the breast halfway through the feeding, give semisolid foods, then resume breastfeeding.

C

Correct. If a mother of an 8-month-old infant tells the nurse the baby nurses well but doesnt eat baby cereal or other baby food, the nurse would not advise the mother to feed the baby the baby food when the infant is hungry and follow this with breastfeeding.

D

Incorrect. If a mother of an 8-month-old infant tells the nurse the baby nurses well but doesnt eat baby cereal or other baby food, the nurse would not advise the mother to gradually decrease breastfeeding in number and length of time until the baby is eating sufficient baby food and cereal.

PTS:1REF:p. 246 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

57.When teaching the caregivers about the selection of a babys semisolid food, the nurse would tell them to:

a.

select jars of baby food with salt content under 400 micrograms (mcg) per jar

b.

add a little regular refined white sugar to the baby food, as babies prefer sweet-tasting foods

c.

buy baby foods with added artificial sweetener or add one packet per jar

d.

do not add sugar or salt to a babys food and select products preferably with no added salt or sugar

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. When teaching about the selection of a babys semisolid food, the nurse would not tell them to select jars of baby food with salt content under 400 micrograms (mcg) per jar.

B

Incorrect. When teaching about the selection of a babys semisolid food, the nurse would not tell them to add a little regular refined white sugar to the baby food, as babies prefer sweet-tasting foods.

C

Incorrect. When teaching about the selection of a babys semisolid food, the nurse would not tell them to buy baby foods with added artificial sweetener or add one packet per jar.

D

Correct. When teaching about the selection of a babys semisolid food, the nurse would not tell them: do not add sugar or salt to a babys food and select products preferably with no added salt or sugar.

PTS:1REF:p. 245 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

58.The nurse is working with the caregivers of a 6-month-old baby. Both caregivers are extremely neat and have talked about the difficult adjustment to changes the baby has brought to their orderly and scheduled lives. In giving anticipatory guidance, at some appropriate point, the nurse will talk about what it will be like when the child wants to eat semisolid foods. The nurses most important focus in this anticipatory guidance will be:

a.

how messy the baby will be during feeding time

b.

ways to keep the mealtime messes to a minimum

c.

the caregivers psychological needs and support of each other during this time

d.

the babys need to increase autonomy and to explore the texture and smell of food

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. In giving anticipatory guidance to a couple who have spoken of issues about neatness in preparation for the introduction of semisolid foods to the 6-month-old baby, the most important focus will not be how messy the baby will be during feeding time.

B

Incorrect. In giving anticipatory guidance to a couple who have spoken of issues about neatness in preparation for the introduction of semisolid foods to the 6-month-old baby, the most important focus will not be ways to keep the mealtime messes to a minimum.

C

Incorrect. In giving anticipatory guidance to a couple who have spoken of issues about neatness in preparation for the introduction of semisolid foods to the 6-month-old baby, the most important focus will not be the caregivers psychological needs and support of each other during this time.

D

Correct. In giving anticipatory guidance to a couple who have spoken of issues about neatness in preparation for the introduction of semisolid foods to the 6-month-old baby, the most important focus will be the babys need to increase autonomy and to explore the texture and smell of food.

PTS:1REF:p. 245 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

59.In giving anticipatory guidance to caregivers about infant self-feeding, the nurse would suggest that the caregivers do which of the following things?

a.

Place the high chair in an area that is carpeted.

b.

Hold the baby on the lap during feedings.

c.

Place the high chair on a washable surface.

d.

Put off self-feeding as long as possible.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. In giving anticipatory guidance to caregivers about infant self-feeding, the nurse would not suggest that the caregivers place the high chair in an area that is carpeted.

B

Incorrect. In giving anticipatory guidance to caregivers about infant self-feeding, the nurse would not suggest that the caregivers hold the baby on the lap during feedings.

C

Correct. In giving anticipatory guidance to caregivers about infant self-feeding, the nurse would suggest that the caregivers place the high chair on a washable surface.

D

Incorrect. In giving anticipatory guidance to caregivers about infant self-feeding, the nurse would not suggest that the caregivers put off self-feeding as long as possible.

PTS:1REF:p. 245 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

60.If a baby is weaned too soon, which of the following problems is most likely to develop?

a.

weight loss

c.

vitamin D deficiency

b.

iron-deficiency anemia

d.

delayed mobility

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. If a baby is weaned too soon, weight loss is not the most likely problem to develop.

B

Correct. If a baby is weaned too soon, iron-deficiency anemia is the most likely problem to develop.

C

Incorrect. If a baby is weaned too soon, vitamin D deficiency is not the most likely problem to develop.

D

Incorrect. If a baby is weaned too soon, delayed mobility is not the most likely problem to develop.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 246 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

61.According to La Leche League International, what can happen if a pacifier is introduced before the nursing relationship has been established?

a.

nipple confusion or refusal to breastfeed

b.

pacifier may choke the infant

c.

continued use of the pacifier into grade school

d.

reliance on the pacifier for soothing instead of the breast

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. According to La Leche League International, nipple confusion or refusal to breastfeed can happen if a pacifier is introduced before the nursing relationship has been established

B

Incorrect. La Leche League International is concerned with failure to breastfeed, not that the infant may choke on the pacifier.

C

Incorrect. La Leche League International is concerned with failure to breastfeed, not the continued use of the pacifier into grade school.

D

Incorrect. La Leche League International is concerned with failure to breastfeed, not reliance on the pacifier for soothing instead of the breast.

PTS:1REF:p. 247 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

62.It is important for the nurse to encourage caregivers to do which of the following while changing, feeding, or interacting with a baby?

a.

Talk softly in baby talk.

c.

Play music.

b.

Provide a quiet time without talk.

d.

Talk to the baby in adult talk.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The nurse does not need to encourage caregivers to talk softly in baby talk while changing, feeding, or interacting with a baby.

B

Incorrect. The nurse does not need to encourage caregivers to provide a quiet time without talk while changing, feeding, or interacting with a baby.

C

Incorrect. The nurse does not need to encourage caregivers to play music while changing, feeding, or interacting with a baby.

D

Correct. The nurse does not need to encourage caregivers to talk to the baby in adult talk while changing, feeding, or interacting with a baby.

PTS:1REF:p. 247 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

63.How can the nurse best assess the infants language development and detect any potential problems?

a.

Teach caregivers to do the word count test.

b.

Use the Denver II Screening Test.

c.

Have simple observational periods.

d.

Use the Minnesota Multiphasic Test.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The best assessment of the infants language development to detect any potential problems is not to teach the caregivers to do the word count test.

B

Correct. The best assessment of the infants language development to detect any potential problems is to use the Denver II Screening Test.

C

Incorrect. The best assessment of the infants language development to detect any potential problems is not to have simple observational periods.

D

Incorrect. The best assessment of the infants language development to detect any potential problems is not to use the Minnesota Multiphasic Test.

PTS:1REF:p. 247 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

64.The way a child behaviorally interacts with the surrounding environment is called by which of the following terms?

a.

introvert or extrovert

c.

risk seeking

b.

temperament

d.

environmental interest

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Introvert of extrovert is not the way a child interacts with the surrounding environment.

B

Correct. Temperament is the way a child interacts with the surrounding environment.

C

Incorrect. Risk seeking is not the way a child interacts with the surrounding environment.

D

Incorrect. Environmental interest is not the way a child interacts with the surrounding environment.

PTS:1REF:p. 249 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

65.The nurse can help caregivers understand the uniqueness of a childs personality and provide a guide for child-rearing techniques by assessing and explaining the:

a.

nine attributes of temperament and the characteristics of the personality type

b.

caregivers personalities and identifying any underlying pathology

c.

ten personality traits associated with the introvert-extrovert scale

d.

wake-sleep pattern and percentage of time a child spends without crying

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The nurse can help caregivers understand the uniqueness of a childs personality and provide a guide for child-rearing techniques by assessing and explaining the nine attributes of temperament and the characteristics of the personality type.

B

Incorrect. The nurse will not help caregivers understand the uniqueness of a childs personality and provide a guide for child-rearing techniques by assessing and explaining the caregivers personalities and identifying any underlying pathology.

C

Incorrect. The nurse will not help caregivers understand the uniqueness of a childs personality and provide a guide for child-rearing techniques by assessing and explaining the ten personality traits associated with the introvert-extrovert scale.

D

Incorrect. The nurse can help caregivers understand the uniqueness of a childs personality and provide a guide for child-rearing techniques by assessing and explaining the wake-sleep pattern and percentage of time a child spends without crying.

PTS:1REF:p. 249 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

66.A 2-week-old babys caregivers seek help from the nurse in understanding the babys recent unexplained episodes of crying and inability to be consoled, no matter what they try. The nurse explains that this is probably colic. The caregivers ask: What causes colic? Have we been doing something wrong? The nurses best response is:

a.

In most cases we dont really know what causes colic, so dont blame yourselves. We will do some checking to see if it might be an infection.

b.

I dont know if you have been doing something wrong or not. Lets look at what routines you have and your parenting practices.

c.

Do you think you have been doing anything wrong?

d.

What have you been feeding this baby, and how much at a time?

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. When the caregivers ask: What causes colic? Have we been doing something wrong? The nurses best response is: In most cases we dont really know what causes colic, so dont blame yourselves. We will do some checking to see if it might be an infection.

B

Incorrect. When the caregivers ask: What causes colic? Have we been doing something wrong? The nurses best response is not: I dont know if you have been doing something wrong or not. Lets look at what routines you have and your parenting practices.

C

Incorrect. When the caregivers ask: What causes colic? Have we been doing something wrong? The nurses best response is not: Do you think you have been doing anything wrong?

D

Incorrect. When the caregivers ask: What causes colic? Have we been doing something wrong? The nurses best response is not: What have you been feeding this baby, and how much at a time?

PTS:1REF:p. 250 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

67.The caregivers of a colicky baby tell the nurse that they are getting exhausted trying to calm their baby and get the baby to stop crying. They ask the nurse when all this colicky behavior will stop. The best answer by the nurse is that colic stops at approximately:

a.

6 weeks

c.

10 weeks

b.

8 weeks

d.

16 weeks

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The best answer the nurse can give caregivers about when colicky behavior might stop is not about 6 weeks of age.

B

Incorrect. The best answer the nurse can give caregivers about when colicky behavior might stop is not about 8 weeks of age.

C

Incorrect. The best answer the nurse can give caregivers about when colicky behavior might stop is not about 10 weeks of age.

D

Correct. The best answer the nurse can give caregivers about when colicky behavior might stop is about 16 weeks of age.

PTS:1REF:p. 250 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

68.The nurse teaches the caregivers of a colicky baby some comfort measures. Which of the following measures would the nurse most likely teach them to use?

a.

Place a garlic-and-oil potion around the infants neck, to be worn 24 hours a day.

b.

Use a front carrier and white noise and swaddle the baby, or take the baby for a car ride.

c.

Place the infant on the stomach (prone) to sleep as long as it has the symptoms of colic.

d.

Keep the infants stomach full at all times so there is no room for any gas to form.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Comfort measures for a colicky baby do not include placing a garlic-and-oil potion around the infants neck, to be worn 24 hours a day.

B

Correct. Comfort measures for a colicky baby include the use of a front carrier and white noise and swaddle the baby, or take the baby for a car ride.

C

Incorrect. Comfort measures for a colicky baby do not include placing the infant on the stomach (prone) to sleep as long as it has the symptoms of colic.

D

Incorrect. Comfort measures for a colicky baby do not include keeping the infants stomach full at all times so there is no room for any gas to form.

PTS:1REF:p. 250 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

69.The best way for the nurse to help caregivers prevent sleep problems in a baby is to:

a.

advise caregivers to cosleep (have the baby sleep with caregivers)

b.

tell caregivers to respond immediately if baby awakes and begins to cry

c.

assist caregiver to understand the infants individual needs

d.

limit napping during the day and keep the baby up later at night

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The best way for the nurse not to help caregivers prevent sleep problems in a baby is to

B

Incorrect. The best way for the nurse not to help caregivers prevent sleep problems in a baby is to tell caregivers to respond immediately if baby awakes and begins to cry.

C

Correct. The best way to prevent sleep problems is to assist the caregiver in understanding the infants individual needs.

D

Incorrect. The best way for the nurse not to help caregivers prevent sleep problems in a baby is to limit napping during the day and keep the baby up later at night.

PTS:1REF:p. 252 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

70.Based on a recommendation from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the nurse will advise the caregivers to do which of the following to help prevent sudden infant death syndrome?

a.

Have the baby sleep in a prone position.

b.

Have the baby sleep in a supine or side-lying position.

c.

Provide hourly checks while the baby is sleeping.

d.

Avoid the use of a pacifier at night.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Sudden infant death syndrome has been associated with prone sleeping position, and is to be avoided.

B

Correct. To help prevent sudden infant death syndrome, The American Academy of Pediatrics would recommend that the nurse will advise the caregivers to have the baby sleep in a supine or side-lying position.

C

Incorrect. Sudden infant death syndrome has been associated with prone sleeping position; hourly checks will not help.

D

Incorrect. Sudden infant death syndrome has been associated with prone sleeping position; avoidance of the use of a pacifier at night.

PTS:1REF:p. 252 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

71.Which of the following infants is at greatest risk of sudden infant death syndrome?

a.

male, full-term, 7 months old

c.

male twin, premature, 4 months old

b.

female, full-term, 8 months old

d.

female, single birth, 4 months old

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. A male infant 7 months old who was carried to full term has only one risk factor associated with sudden infant death syndrome: maleness.

B

Incorrect. A female infant 8 months old who was carried to full term has zero risk factors associated with sudden infant death syndrome.

C

Correct. A male twin born prematurely 4 months of age has four risk factors associated with sudden infant death syndrome: maleness, a twin, born prematurely and under 6 months of age.

D

Incorrect. A female infant without a twin 4 months old has only one risk factor associated with sudden infant death syndrome: age under 6 months.

PTS:1REF:p. 253 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

72.The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome is highest in which of the following groups of people?

a.

Hispanics

b.

Northern Europeans

c.

Canadians and first-generation Asian-Americans

d.

American Indians and African Americans

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome is not highest among Hispanics.

B

Incorrect. The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome is not highest among Northern Europeans.

C

Incorrect. The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome is not highest among Canadians and first-generation Asian-Americans.

D

Correct. The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome is highest among American Indians and African Americans.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 253 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

COMPLETION

1.The infant will need ____________________ kilocalories per day.

ANS:

540

Caloric needs are calculated by using the equation 120 kcal/kg/day. 120 kcal x 4.5 kg = 540 kcal/day.

PTS:1REF:p. 245 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

2.After the nurse has identified the infants caloric needs for the day, the nurse is concerned about how much fluid the same infant will need for the day. The infant will require ____________________ to 810 milliliters (mL) of fluid per day.

ANS:

540

Fluid needs are calculated using the following equation: 1 to 1.5 mL per kilocalorie (kcal) per day. Because the infant requires 540 kcal per day, 540 kcal/day x 1 mL/kcal = 540 mL/day, or 540 kcal x 1.5 mL = 810 mL/day. Therefore, the infant will need between 540 and 810 mL/day.

PTS:1REF:p. 245 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1.A nurse is educating the parents of a 3-month-old infant as to what symptoms should prompt them to contact their health care provider. Which of the following clinical presentations should the nurse suggest be called to the attention of the health care provider? Select all that apply.

a.

temperature of 37.9 degrees C (100.2 degrees F)

b.

inconsolable crying

c.

increased activity and alertness

d.

vomiting

ANS: A, D

Feedback

Correct

For the 3-month-old infant, it would be necessary to contact the health care provider if the infant presents with inconsolable crying

For the 3-month-old infant, it would be necessary to contact the health care provider if the infant presents with vomiting.

Incorrect

A temperature of 37.9 degrees C (100.2 degrees F) or greater should be called in to the health care provider for a 3-6 month old infant.

The parents should be most concerned with decreased activity and level of alertness, rather than increased activity and alertness.

PTS:1REF:p. 237 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

2.A nurse is educating the parents of a child who just received the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccination. The nurse informs the parents that which of the following common reactions are to be expected for the next 1 to 2 days? Select all that apply.

a.

irritability

b.

temperature of 38.9 degrees C (102 degrees F) or greater

c.

redness, tenderness, and swelling at the injection site

d.

mild loss of appetite

ANS: A, C, D

Feedback

Correct

Following the administration of immunizations, common reactions lasting 1 to 2 days include irritability.

Following the administration of immunizations, common reactions lasting 1 to 2 days include redness, tenderness, and swelling at the injection site.

Following the administration of immunizations, common reactions lasting 1 to 2 days include mild loss of appetite.

Incorrect

While a low-grade fever is common, the fever should not be greater than 38.9 degrees C (102 degrees F).

PTS:1REF:p. 239 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

3.A nurse has instructed the parents of an infant to introduce solid foods one at a time, while carefully observing for signs of food allergies. Which of the following signs and symptoms may be suggestive of food allergies? Select all that apply.

a.

diarrhea

c.

congestion

b.

abdominal pain

d.

rashes

ANS: A, B, C, D

Feedback

Correct

Common food allergy reactions include diarrhea.

Common food allergy reactions include abdominal pain.

Common food allergy reactions include congestion.

Common food allergy reactions include rashes.

Incorrect

All answers are correct.

PTS:1REF:p. 239 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

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