Chapter 7: The Education of Nurses: On the Leading Edge of Transformation My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 7: The Education of Nurses: On the Leading Edge of Transformation

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. In 1900, the primary reason for hospital-based nursing education programs was to

a.

educate nurses to care for patients in hospitals.

b.

provide educational opportunities for women.

c.

staff the hospitals that operated the education programs.

d.

provide standardized preparation for nurses.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Most nurses worked in homes and very few worked in hospitals.

B

The education for women was not a value of society at the time.

C

In the hospitals there were few paid staff nurses, and most of the care was provided by the nursing students.

D

The programs of study varied in length, and each school set its standards and requirements.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 131

2. Which of the following nursing leaders is credited with being one of the earliest nursing educators in the world?

a.

Isabel Hampton Robb

b.

Mary Adelaide Nutting

c.

Melinda Anne Richards

d.

Annie W. Goodrich

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Robb studied nursing education.

B

Mary Adelaide Nutting was a professor at Teachers College in 1907, and she was also the first nursing professor.

C

Richards was the first trained nurse educated in the United States.

D

Goodrich became the first dean of the Yale School of Nursing in 1924.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 133

3. The Goldmark Report focused on what aspect of nursing?

a.

Consistency in length of nursing education programs

b.

Consistency in theory content across diploma programs

c.

Desirability of establishing schools of nursing within academic settings

d.

Increasing numbers of physicians teaching in nursing programs

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Consistency in length of programs was not an issue.

B

Content was not the issue.

C

The Goldmark Report focused on clinical learning experiences of students, hospital control of schools of nursing, desirability of establishing schools of nursing in universities, lack of funding for nursing education, and lack of qualified faculty.

D

Nursing curriculum with instruction by physicians was not encouraged.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 134

4. Which American university opened the first nursing school as a separate department within the university?

a.

Harvard

b.

Teachers College

c.

Columbia

d.

Yale

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Harvard was not the first American university to open a nursing school as its own department.

B

Teachers College was not the first American university to open a nursing school as its own department.

C

Columbia was not the first American university to open a nursing school as its own department.

D

In 1924, Yale University was the first American university to open a school of nursing as its own department.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 134

5. Which of the following recommendations resulting from the 1934 study Nursing Schools Today and Tomorrow still has relevance today?

a.

Nursing students should be trained on the job.

b.

Nursing students should be used to staff hospitals on the weekends.

c.

Nurses should be highly educated.

d.

Nurses with highly developed instincts do not require standards of practice.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Nurses should be highly educated in a university setting.

B

Students should not be used to staff hospitals.

C

The study made five recommendations: nursing education should be established within higher education; nurses should be highly educated; students should not be used to staff hospitals; standards of practice should be established; and students should meet minimal qualifications for graduation.

D

Standards of practice should be established.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 134

6. The earliest type of formal nursing education program was the

a.

diploma program.

b.

associate degree program.

c.

bachelors degree program.

d.

grandfathered acceptance as registered nurse (RN).

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Diploma programs of nursing began in the late 1800s and were the earliest form of nursing education.

B

Associate nursing degree programs began in 1952.

C

Bachelors degree programs began in 1909 but became commonplace only in the mid-1900s.

D

Nurses are not grandfathered into licensure.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 134

7. The single most important reason for the decline in the number of hospital-based diploma programs was

a.

shift in hospital occupancy from acute care to home care.

b.

increase in hospital-based medical residency programs competing for educational dollars.

c.

beginning of associate degree programs that were shorter in length.

d.

diploma educations position outside the mainstream of higher education.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The increase in complexity of health care led to the need for more advanced educational preparation for nurses.

B

Although it became more difficult for hospitals to fund diploma programs, this was not the most important reason for their decline.

C

The advent of associate degree programs led to the decline in diploma programs, because associate degree programs are located in academic settings.

D

The movement of nursing education into the educational mainstream, that is, colleges and universities, was responsible for the rapid decrease in diploma programs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 135

8. Which of the following is a primary reason for the initial slow growth of bachelors degree nursing programs in the United States?

a.

Belief that hands-on training received in hospital-based diploma programs was superior to the theoretical-focused content in bachelors degree programs

b.

Belief that hospital-based diploma programs were more scientifically based

c.

Belief that students prepared in hospital-based diploma programs were more compassionate caregivers

d.

Belief that hospital-based education programs facilitated career mobility

ANS: A

Feedback

A

There was a great deal of acceptance of the hands-on teaching received in diploma programs.

B

Bachelors degree programs are more theoretically focused.

C

There is no difference in perception of caring between the programs.

D

Bachelors degree education facilitates career mobility.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 135

9. The 1948 Brown Report recommended which of the following?

a.

Limit enrollment of men and minorities in nursing programs.

b.

Students admitted to nursing programs should not be required to meet admission requirements of the university.

c.

Schools of nursing should be associated with teaching hospitals.

d.

Schools of nursing should be located in institutions of higher learning.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The Brown Report recommended that more men and minorities be recruited into nursing.

B

The Brown Report recommendations did not address admission requirements of universities.

C

The Brown Report recommended moving nursing education into academic settings.

D

The Brown Report recommended that schools of nursing be moved to institutions of higher learning.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 135

10. Which of the following is true about bachelors of science in nursing (BSN) education?

a.

Faculty must be BSN prepared.

b.

It is recommended by professional organizations as preparation for entry into practice.

c.

It requires 3 years to complete.

d.

Faculty are not given full faculty status in the university.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Faculty in BSN programs have masters or doctorate degrees.

B

Many nursing organizations have advocated for the BSN as the beginning educational preparation for the profession of nursing.

C

The BSN degree requires 4 years to complete.

D

Faculty in nursing now have full faculty status.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 136

11. Which recommendation made by the 1965 American Nurses Association (ANA) position paper and other position papers of national nursing organizations is still an issue today?

a.

Education for nursing should take place in hospital-based programs.

b.

Minimum preparation for professional nursing practice should be the BSN degree.

c.

Minimum preparation for technical nursing practice should be the licensed practical/vocation nurse (LPN/LVN) diploma.

d.

Education for nursing must be evidence-based.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The ANA position paper advocated for education in colleges and universities.

B

The issue of minimum educational requirement for entry into practice is not likely to change until there are safeguards in place that ensure that all nurses currently in practice continue to feel that they are valued members of the profession. This provision continues to be controversial today.

C

The technical level of nursing was supported in community and junior colleges.

D

There is little evidence to support traditional educational methods used in nursing education.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 136

12. Which type of basic nursing education program graduates the largest number of RNs in the United States today?

a.

Diploma programs

b.

Associate degree programs

c.

BSN programs

d.

Nurse practitioner programs

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Diploma programs are on the decline in enrollment and number of programs operating.

B

Associate degree programs graduate the most nurses today.

C

BSN program enrollments have increased but are still lower than associate degree program enrollments.

D

Nurse practitioner programs are advanced practice masters-level programs. The question refers to basic RN preparation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 137

13. Who is credited with developing the model of associate degree nursing education?

a.

Esther Lucille Brown

b.

Annie W. Goodrich

c.

Mildred Montag

d.

National League for Nursing

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Esther Lucille Brown wrote the Brown Report.

B

Annie W. Goodrich was the first dean of nursing.

C

Mildred Montag developed a model of associate degree nursing.

D

The National League for Nursing did not develop the model of associate degree nursing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 139

14. What is the purpose of articulated models or systems for nursing education?

a.

Increasing curriculum similarities in nursing programs

b.

Allowing nurses to work in nursing as they gain additional education

c.

Increasing the numbers of nursing education programs

d.

Facilitating opportunities for nurses to move up the educational ladder with ease

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Articulation has not made the programs more similar.

B

Although articulation models allow a person to move with greater ease from one level to another with less repetition of coursework, articulation systems do not address the ability to work and attend school simultaneously any more than any other nursing education program.

C

Articulation model educational programs have been slow to develop because of the work required to keep all the courses congruent with each other, and increased educational programs have not resulted.

D

Articulated models allow a nursing student/nurse to enter and leave at different points. Articulated systems provide flexibility for the nurse to gain more education.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 140

15. Which of the following is an important advantage of distance learning?

a.

It allows access to adult learners who are geographically unable to participate in a traditional classroom setting.

b.

It allows students to set their own learning objectives.

c.

It allows a student to take courses without clinical components.

d.

It allows universities to offer more classes with fewer faculty.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Distance education allows flexibility, particularly for working people in locations where there is no campus, and enables them to return to school.

B

The requirements are just as stringent as traditional courses, but the method of participation is flexible.

C

Distance learning does not negate the need for clinical components of courses.

D

Faculty requirements are the same.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 142

16. All levels of nursing educational programs can be accredited by which organization?

a.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)

b.

Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE)

c.

National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC)

d.

National League for Nursing Councils of Education Programs (NLNCEP)

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The AACN does not accredit educational programs.

B

Although the CCNE accredits educational programs, it only accredits bachelors and higher degree programs.

C

The NLNAC accredits LPN/LVN, associate degree, BSN, and MSN programs.

D

The NLNCEP develops accreditation programs and criteria for different levels of education but does not carry out the accreditation process.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 143

17. Which of the following is a part of the history of doctoral education in nursing?

a.

The nurse scientist program was discontinued after more universities began offering doctoral programs in nursing.

b.

The first doctoral degree (PhD) was offered at the University of Pittsburgh.

c.

The number of doctoral programs in nursing has doubled since 1990.

d.

The largest numbers of doctoral programs are practice-focused.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

In the 1970s, there was a major increase in doctoral programs in nursing. This provided an education in nursing that developed research skills and provided nursing faculty. Therefore, the nurse scientist program was discontinued in 1975.

B

The first doctoral degree in nursing (PhD) was offered at New York University in 1934. Teachers College at Columbia had offered a degree in nursing education (EdD).

C

In 1990, there were 48 doctoral programs in nursing, and by 2007 there were 166, actually more than tripling the number.

D

Sixty-eight percent of the doctoral programs are research-focused, while 32% are practice-focused.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 145

18. In 2004, the AACN proposed a new doctoral degree, the doctor of nursing practice (DNP). What is the focus of the DNP degree in nursing?

a.

Nursing research

b.

Nursing quality improvement

c.

Advanced clinical practice

d.

Nursing theory development

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The research degree is the PhD.

B

There is not a nursing doctoral degree designed specifically to address quality improvement.

C

The DNP degree is designed to be a clinical practice degree. It would replace the masters degree for nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives, placing them on equal footing with other disciplines.

D

The PhD degree is most appropriate for theory development and advancement.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 145

19. Which of the following is the primary distinction between licensure and certification?

a.

Certification is required to practice nursing.

b.

Licensure is granted automatically on completion of an accredited nursing program.

c.

Certification validates a high level of proficiency.

d.

Licensure is voluntary.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Licensure, not certification, is required to practice nursing.

B

Licensure is not automatically granted on completion of a nursing program.

C

Certification validates a high level of proficiency and knowledge.

D

The NCLEX examination must be completed successfully. Certification is voluntary, but licensure is not.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 145

20. The purpose of mandatory continuing education for license renewal is to

a.

ensure that nurses remain up to date in knowledge.

b.

ensure that nurses remain competent in psychomotor skills.

c.

ensure that nurses attend regular staff development meetings.

d.

ensure consistency between states regarding continuing education requirements.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Mandatory continuing education is a state governments way of ensuring that nurses remain up to date.

B

Ensuring that nurses remain competent in psychomotor skills is not a test of psychomotor competency.

C

Staff development deals with competency and institutional updates.

D

The number of continuing education hours required varies among states.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 147

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Florence Nightingale established a school of nursing based on which of the following innovative principles? (Select all that apply.)

a.

The nursing school should be affiliated with a teaching hospital but independent of it.

b.

Professional nurses should be paid for their instruction in the school.

c.

Students should be selected to create a diverse student body.

d.

The curriculum should include theory and practical experience.

e.

Nurses should be trained in privately funded educational institutions.

ANS: A, B, D

Feedback

Correct

Nightingale saw the benefit to affiliation with a teaching hospital but thought that the teaching mission should be separate from the service mission. Nightingale saw instruction as a valued activity worthy of reimbursement and involving more than allowing one to learn by watching. Nightingale thought that nursing was more than just on-the-job training and required knowledge upon which to base nursing activities.

Incorrect

Nightingale saw nursing as a profession for women only and that the women should be selected based on certain criteria. Nightingale thought that nursing education should be publicly funded.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 133

2. Why is accreditation of nursing education programs is important? (Select all that apply.)

a.

It assures students that their educational program is offering quality education.

b.

Acceptance into graduate programs in nursing depends on graduation from an accredited program.

c.

It serves as stimulus for programs to initiate periodic self-examination and self-improvement.

d.

It has established standards to allow graduates to take licensure examinations.

e.

Graduating from an accredited program ensures successful completion of the licensure exam.

ANS: A, B, C

Feedback

Correct

For an educational program to be accredited, it must meet criteria that protect the quality of education. Graduate programs use the programs accreditation status to assure the quality of education the potential student has received in preparation for graduate study. As part of the accreditation process, the educational program must complete a self-study and show how the school meets each standard.

Incorrect

The standards that educational programs need to meet to allow their graduates to take the licensure examination are determined by each state, not by accrediting bodies. Graduation from any program of nursing does not guarantee passage of the licensure exam.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 142

3. Which factors contribute to threatening the current and future supply of nurses? (Select all that apply.)

a.

The number of qualified applicants has decreased.

b.

Seventy-five percent of current faculty may retire over the next decade.

c.

Overall numbers of applicants to doctoral programs has decreased.

d.

Faculty vacancies are having an impact on large numbers of schools.

e.

More men are entering nursing and choosing faculty positions.

ANS: B, D

Feedback

Correct

It is projected that as many as 75% of current faculty will retire by 2019. This will impact large numbers of schools and can limit enrollment.

Incorrect

The number of qualified applicants has increased, but more than 30,000 applicants were turned away from bachelors degree programs for lack of capacity. More men are entering nursing, which should help increase recruitment of other men into the field. More male faculty could also help recruitment of men into nursing. There is continued demand for doctoral education in nursing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 147

4. Over the last two decades a number of organizations issued reports identifying changes needed in nursing education to prepare nurses for practice in the twenty-first century. Which of the following suggestions were included in these reports? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Recruitment of students and faculty to reflect the multicultural nature of society

b.

More focus on knowledge and skills to care for acutely ill individuals

c.

Increased informatics training to improve access to information

d.

Limiting discussion of the quality improvement measures in the health care system

e.

Curricula emphasizing interdisciplinary teamwork and collaboration

ANS: A, C, E

Feedback

Correct

The changes recruitment of students and faculty to reflect the multicultural nature of society, increased informatics training to improve access to information and curricula emphasizing interdisciplinary teamwork and collaboration were made in several nursing reports and in the 2003 Institute of Medicine report.

Incorrect

The reports stated that there should be increased focus on chronic illness and that a quality improvement process of the health care system must be included in the education of health care providers.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 149

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