Chapter 7- Introduction to Cell Physiology My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

A researcher is studying chromosomal disorders. What part of the human cell would the researcher be interested in studying?

A)

Cytoplasm

B)

Membrane

C)

Nucleus

D)

Organelles

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The nucleus of a cell contains all of the genetic material that is necessary for cell reproduction. The nucleus also contains genes or sequences of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are responsible for the formation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and transcription RNA, which are involved in production of proteins unique to the cells. This is the area where chromosomal disorders originate. The cell cytoplasm lies within the cell membrane and is the site of activities of cellular metabolism and special cellular functions. The organelles are contained within the cytoplasm and are structures with specific functions. They include the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes. The membrane is a thin barrier, which separates the intracellular fluid from the extracellular fluid and is essential for cellular integrity; it also maintains cell homeostasis.

2.

Which of these body cells has the greatest number of mitochondria?

A)

Tibia bone cells

B)

Breast tissue

C)

Cardiac muscle

D)

Subcutaneous skin

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Mitochondria are very abundant in cells that consume energy. The cardiac muscle cells, which must work continually to keep the heart contracting, contain a great number of mitochondria. Milk-producing cells in breast tissue, which are normally dormant, contain very few. Cells of bone and of subcutaneous tissue do not consume a great deal of energy; therefore, they have smaller numbers of mitochondria than cardiac muscle.

3.

When hormones, formed within the cell, move across the cell membrane, the process is called what?

A)

Endocytosis

B)

Exocytosis

C)

Phagocytosis

D)

Pinocytosis

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Exocytosis is the movement of substances such as waste products, hormones, and neurotransmitters out of the cell. Pinocytosis is the movement of nutrients and needed substances into the cell through specific receptors on the cell surface. Phagocytosis involves the destruction of engulfed proteins or bacteria. Endocytosis involves incorporation of material into the cell.

4.

What substances move freely in and out of a cell by diffusion?

A)

Electrolytes

B)

Enzymes

C)

Hormones

D)

Proteins

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Sodium, potassium, calcium, carbonate, oxygen, bicarbonate, and water move freely in and out of cells. These substances move through channels or pores in the cell membrane through movement from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Hormones, enzymes, and proteins are considered carriers. If a substance cannot move freely on its own, it may attach itself to another carrier to be diffused.

5.

There can be interference with cancer chemotherapy in what phase of the cell cycle?

A)

G0 phase

B)

G1 phase

C)

G2 phase

D)

S phase

Ans:

A

Feedback:

During the G0 phase, the cell is stable. Cells in this phase can interfere with cancer chemotherapy because these drugs usually work on actively dividing cells, leaving resting cells mostly untouched. When the resting cells are stimulated to become active and regenerate, the cancer can return. This is the reason that cancer chemotherapy regimens are complicated and extended over a period of time. In the G1 phase, a cell is stimulated to emerge from its resting phase. During this time, the cell synthesizes the substances needed for DNA formation. The S phase involves the actual synthesis of DNA, and during the G2 phase, the cell produces all the substances that are required for the manufacture of the mitotic spindles.

6.

The pharmacology instructor is discussing the histocompatibility of the cell. What is the importance of a cells histocompatibility antigen?

A)

It reproduces cells when other cells die.

B)

It recognizes cells as self-cells that belong in the body.

C)

The antigen produces antibodies to viral invaders.

D)

The antigen stimulates the production of white blood cells.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The histocompatibility antigens are proteins that are seen on the top of the cell membrane. T cells use these antigens as the identifying proteins that identify a cell as a self-cell. If these antigens are not present on a cell membrane, the T cells will destroy that cell, determining that it is foreign. The histocompatibility antigens are not involved in reproduction. They do not produce antibodies nor do they stimulate white blood cell production.

7.

A patient on the unit has a deep decubitus ulcer. The family asks why the nurse debrides the ulcer and removes the dead cells. What is the nurses best response to explain to the family why debridement is performed?

A)

The lysosomes released by the dead cells in the area continue to kill other cells, destroying more tissue.

B)

The dead cells no longer contain histocompatible antigens causing a greater inflammatory response.

C)

Removing dead tissue forces oxygen to enter the damaged cells to regenerate them and to promote healing.

D)

The doctor ordered the procedure to be performed so it is done the way it is ordered because orders are always followed.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

When a cell dies, its cell membrane ruptures and the lysosomes release lysozymes, which dissolve protein. When many cells die, lysozymes accumulate and dissolve the proteins that the dead cells leave behind, but the lysozymes also destroy the cell membrane of healthy cells in the area. Those cells then die, releasing lysozymes, which destroy more cells, and a vicious cycle occurs. A decubitus ulcer is an area of many dead cells, which are killing healthy cells. The area needs to be scraped clean to remove the dead cells so that the lysozymes will stop destroying healthy cells and allow oxygen to return to the area through the capillary bed, which allows healing to occur. Many treatments exist for decubitus ulcers, all of which depend on the return of blood flow to the area and removal of the dead tissue. No procedure should ever be performed only because it was ordered. The nurse should understand why each procedure is needed.

8.

A patient is extremely dehydrated from vomiting and diarrhea causing his or her blood to become hypertonic. What effect does the nurse expect this will have on the red blood cells?

A)

They will swell and eventually rupture.

B)

Red blood cells will migrate to the bone narrow.

C)

The cells will shrink and shrivel, decreasing their oxygen-carrying ability.

D)

The red cells will precipitate out of circulation.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

A hypertonic solution will draw the water out of the red blood cell, causing it to shrink and shrivel, decreasing the oxygen carrying ability of the red blood cell. A hypotonic solution would result in water moving into the red blood cell, causing it to swell and burst. Red blood cells will not migrate back to the bone marrow or precipitate out of circulation.

9.

The nurse is caring for four patients. Which patient would the nurse expect to have a faster recovery period based only on the process of mitosis?

A)

A 32-year-old female patient who had surgery for ulcerated colitis

B)

A 72-year-old man who had surgery for colon cancer

C)

A 28-year-old woman who had breast reduction surgery

D)

A 65-year-old man who had surgery for breast cancer

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Cells lining the GI tract reproduce very quickly (72 hours) compared with breast tissue, which takes 2 to 3 months to reproduce. The older the person is, the longer it will take for recovery due to the aging process that reduces rate of circulation of blood cells carrying oxygen to and from cells.

10.

When chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cellular physiology, it results in what?

A)

Cellular death or alterations

B)

Diffusion

C)

Endocytosis

D)

Homeostasis

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Drugs may alter the cell membrane, causing the cell to rupture and die or they may deprive the cell of certain nutrients, altering the proteins that the cell produces. This could interfere with normal cell functioning and cell division. Diffusion is the movement of a substance from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Endocytosis involves gathering of material into a cell. Homeostasis refers to keeping the cytoplasm stable within the cell membrane. Diffusion, endocytosis, and homeostasis are not the result of chemotherapeutic agents but may be impacted by the agent.

11.

When learning about the physiology of the human body, a student would learn that cellular metabolism takes place where?

A)

Organelles

B)

Mitochondria

C)

Endoplasmic reticulum

D)

Cytoplasm

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The cell cytoplasm lies within the cell membrane and outside the nucleus and is the site of activities of cellular metabolism and special cellular functions. Organelles, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum are all part of the cytoplasm of the cell and each has a specific function that contributes to cellular function.

12.

What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) within a cell?

A)

Produces proteins

B)

Combines protein with other components of the cytoplasm

C)

Exports protein from the cell

D)

Destroys ribosomes

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Many granules that contain enzymes and ribosomes, which produce protein, are scattered over the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Production of proteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol takes place in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The rough ER segregates (rather than combines) these proteins from other components of the cytoplasm and modifies their structure for a specific function. Rough ER does not transport anything through the cell membrane. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes; it does not destroy them.

13.

What is one purpose of the Golgi apparatus?

A)

Produces bile

B)

Prepares hormones or other substances for secretion-producing excretory granules

C)

Stimulates production of new red blood cells

D)

Produces small carbohydrate molecules

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The Golgi apparatus is a series of flattened sacs that may be part of the endoplasmic reticulum. These structures prepare hormones or other substances for secretion by processing them and packaging them in vesicles to be moved to the cell membrane for excretion from the cell. Golgi bodies do not produce bile. They produce secretory, not excretory, granules and they produce large carbohydrate molecules rather than small ones.

14.

Mitochondria produce energy in the form of what?

A)

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

B)

Red blood cells

C)

Lactic acid

D)

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Mitochondria are rod-shaped power plants within each cell that produce energy in the form of ATP, which allows the cell to function. Red blood cells and DNA are not formed in the mitochondria. If oxygen is not available, lactic acid builds up as a by-product of cellular respiration. Lactic acid leaves the cell and is transported to the liver for conversion to glycogen and carbon dioxide.

15.

The physiology instructor is explaining cell death to the nursing students. The instructor explains that what organelle digests worn or damaged sections of a cell when the cell dies?

A)

Golgi apparatus

B)

Lysosomes

C)

Endoplasmic reticulum

D)

Mitochondria

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Lysosomes are membrane-covered organelles that contain specific digestive enzymes that can break down proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. They are responsible for digesting worn or damaged sections of a cell when the membrane ruptures and the cell dies. The Golgi apparatus prepares substances for secretion by processing and packaging them in vehicles to move through the cell membrane. The endoplasmic reticulum provides a large surface for chemical reactions within the cell. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell.

16.

What is the function of the mitochondria within the cell?

A)

Convert small substances into energy

B)

Convert hormones into secretory substances

C)

Produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

D)

Move electrolytes into and out of a cell

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Mitochondria are rod-shaped organelles that produce energy in the form of ATP for use by cells. They do not convert small substances into energy; they do not convert hormones into secretory substances; and they do not move electrolytes into and out of a cell.

17.

Two types of ribosomes exist within a cell. Ribosomes that are not bound to the endoplasmic reticulum exist throughout the cytoplasm of the cell and produce proteins with what purpose?

A)

Bind themselves to the Golgi apparatus

B)

Bind to produce the endoplasmic reticulum

C)

Denature unnecessary enzymes within the cell

D)

Contribute to the structure of the cell

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Ribosomes that are not bound to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum exist throughout the cytoplasm. These free-floating ribosomes produce proteins that are important to the structure of the cell and some of the enzymes that are necessary for cellular activity. Free-floating ribosomes do not bind themselves to Golgi apparatus; produce endoplasmic reticulum; or denature any part of the cell or its contents.

18.

When a cell uses energy to move ions against an electrical or chemical gradient, what is the process called?

A)

Passive transport

B)

Neutral transport

C)

Cotransport

D)

Active transport

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Active transport is what happens when cells use energy to move ions against an electrical or chemical gradient. Passive transport is another term for diffusion. There is no such thing as neutral transport. Cotransport is when the sodium ion and the solute are transported in the same direction.

19.

When making a presentation on the cell, what would the students say are the main parts of the cell? (Select all that apply.)

A)

The nucleus

B)

The cytoplasm

C)

The cell membrane

D)

The mitochondria

E)

The organelles

Ans:

A, B, C

Feedback:

The cell is composed of a nucleus, which contains genetic material and controls the production of proteins by the cell; a cell membrane, which separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment; and cytoplasm, which contains various organelles important to cell function. The mitochondria and the organelles are units within the cytoplasm but are not main parts of the cell.

20.

The cell membrane has embedded within it a series of peripheral proteins that function in several ways. One of these proteins is known as a receptor site. What does this receptor site do?

A)

Maintains contact with outside proteins to prevent lysis of the cell wall

B)

Maintains contact with inside proteins to prevent lysis of the cell wall

C)

Reacts with specific chemicals inside the cell to stimulate a reaction outside the cell

D)

Reacts with specific chemicals outside the cell to stimulate a reaction within a cell

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Embedded in the cell membrane are a series of peripheral proteins with several functions. One type of protein located on the cell membrane is known as a receptor site. This protein reacts with specific chemicals outside the cell to stimulate a reaction within a cell. Receptor sites do not prevent lysis of the cell wall nor do they stimulate a reaction outside of the cell.

21.

Proteins within the cell wall allow the passage of several substances into and out of the cell. What is one of these substances?

A)

Calcium

B)

Phosphorous

C)

Magnesium

D)

Manganese

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Channels or pores within the cell membrane are made by proteins in the cell wall that allow the passage of small substances in or out of the cell. Specific channels have been identified for sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate, and water; other channels may also exist. Some drugs are designed to affect certain channels specifically. For example, calcium channel blockers prevent the movement of calcium into a cell through calcium channels. Options B, C, and D are not known to have their own channels at this time.

22.

After the cell has produced all substances necessary for the formation of a new cell, mitosis occurs in what phase of the cell cycle?

A)

G0 phase

B)

M phase

C)

S phase

D)

G2 phase

Ans:

B

Feedback:

After the cell has produced all substances necessary for formation of a new cell, or daughter cell, it undergoes cell division. This occurs during the M phase of the cell cycle. During this phase, the cell splits to form two identical daughter cells, a process called mitosis. The S phase involves the actual synthesis of DNA. In the G2 phase, the cell produces all the substances required for manufacture of the mitotic spindles.

23.

During the cell cycle, the cell is stimulated to emerge from its resting phase and enter what stage?

A)

M phase

B)

S phase

C)

G1 phase

D)

G2 phase

Ans:

C

Feedback:

When a cell is stimulated to emerge from its resting phase, it enters what is called the G1 phase, which lasts from the time of stimulation from the resting phase until the formation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). During this period, the cell synthesizes substances needed for DNA formation. The cell is actively collecting materials to make these substances and producing the building blocks for DNA.

24.

When a substance must attach to another molecule, called a carrier, to move into or out of a cell, it is called what?

A)

Active transport

B)

Osmosis

C)

Passive transport

D)

Facilitated diffusion

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Sometimes a substance cannot move freely on its own in or out of a cell. Such a substance may attach to another kind of molecule, called a carrier, to be diffused. This form of diffusion, known as facilitated diffusion, does not require energy, only the presence of the carrier. Active transport requires energy to move the substance against the concentration gradient. Osmosis is a special form of diffusion where water moves across a semipermeable membrane from an area low in solutes to one that is higher in solutes to dilute solutes. Passive transport does not require energy to move solutions across a semipermeable membrane and includes diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion.

25.

A group of students are diagramming the cycle of a cell. What phase would they diagram as actually synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)?

A)

S phase

B)

G0 phase

C)

M phase

D)

G2 phase

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The next phase, called the S phase, involves the actual synthesis of DNA, which is an energy-consuming activity. The cell remains in this phase until the amount of cellular DNA has doubled. The G0 phase is considered the resting phase of the cell cycle. The M phase is when cell replication occurs. The G2 phase is when the cell produces all substances it needs to replicate.

26.

What is the purpose of the G1 phase of the cell cycle?

A)

Reproduction

B)

Synthesizes substances needed for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) formation

C)

Rest

D)

Production of mitotic spindles

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The G1 phase lasts from the time of stimulation from the resting phase until the formation of DNA. During this period, the cell synthesizes substances needed for DNA formation. Mitotic spindles are produced in the S phase; rest is accomplished in the G0 phase; and reproduction is in the M phase.

27.

What is the cell membrane composed of? (Select all that apply.)

A)

Glycolipids

B)

Lysosomes

C)

Cholesterol

D)

Glycoprotein

E)

Phospholipids

Ans:

A, C, E

Feedback:

The cell membrane is a lipoprotein structure, meaning it is mainly composed of proteins and lipidsphospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol; bipolar arrangement of the lipids monitors substances passing in and out of the cell. Lysosomes are organelles within the cytoplasm. Glycoprotein is a distracter.

28.

The Krebs cycle provides a common pathway for the metabolism of nutrients by the body. The Krebs cycle uses carbohydrates, proteins, and what other nutrient to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?

A)

NADH + H+

B)

Vitamins

C)

Fat

D)

H2O

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The mitochondria can take carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the cytoplasm and make ATP via the Krebs cycle, which depends on oxygen. Cells use the ATP to maintain homeostasis, produce proteins, and carry out specific functions. NADH + H+ is an end-product of glycolysis. Vitamins are not used to make ATP and neither is water.

29.

A patient is discussing a liver transplant with the transplant team. The physician is explaining the effort made to match what in the donor tissue?

A)

Histocompatability antigens

B)

Lipoproteins

C)

Non-self-markers

D)

Receptor sites

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The bodys immune system recognizes these proteins and acts to protect self-cells and to destroy non-self-cells. When an organ is transplanted from one person to another, a great effort is made to match as many histocompatibility antigens as possible to reduce the chance that the new body will reject the transplanted organ.

30.

The cell membrane, an integral part of the cell, is essential for what? (Select all that apply.)

A)

Cell movement

B)

Cellular integrity

C)

Cell life

D)

Cell homeostasis

E)

Cell maturation

Ans:

B, C, D

Feedback:

The membrane is essential for cellular integrity and is equipped with many mechanisms for maintaining cell homeostasis. Options A and E are distracters for this question.

31.

The pharmacology instructor explains to the nursing students that drugs will have the least effect on the cell during what phase of the cell cycle?

A)

G0 phase

B)

G1 phase

C)

S phase

D)

G2 phase

Ans:

A

Feedback:

During the G0 phase, or resting phase, the cell is stable. It is not making any proteins associated with cell division and is basically dormant in terms of reproduction. These cells are functioning to do whatever they are supposed to do. Most drugs, particularly chemotherapy for cancer, work on active cells so cells that are resting are less susceptible to chemical action. The other options are active phases when drugs will be most effective.

32.

The nurse is caring for a patient with acute renal failure with an elevated potassium level. The health care provider orders administration of insulin that causes potassium to return to the cell, thereby lowering serum potassium levels and the risks associated with hyperkalemia. The nurse recognizes this as a type of what?

A)

Passive transport

B)

Active transport

C)

Osmosis

D)

Diffusion

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Moving potassium back into the cell, an area with a higher concentration gradient than the bloodstream, requires energy. Insulin helps to activate the sodiumpotassium pump. Passive transport is a means of moving substances in and out of the cell without the use of energy. Potassium levels are elevated and will not diffuse into the cell independently because potassium levels are higher inside the cell than outside and require energy to cross the concentration gradient. Osmosis involves diffusion of water.

33.

The nurse is caring for a patient with edema caused by escape of fluid from the intravascular compartment to the extracellular compartment. An IV solution will be administered to draw the fluid back into the intravascular compartment. What type of solution will the nurse expect to administer?

A)

Isotonic solution

B)

Hypertonic solution

C)

Hypotonic solution

D)

Osmotic solution

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Hypertonic solutions are those with a higher concentration of solutes than human plasma. They draw water from cells, which would help to draw fluid back into the intravascular space. Hypotonic solutions are fluids that contain a lower concentration of solutes than human plasma, which causes water to be pushed into the cells. Isotonic fluids contain the same concentration of solutes as human plasma and will not cause fluids to shift from one compartment to another. Osmotic solution is a distracter.

34.

The cytoplasm within the cell is stable so that the cell is said to be in what state?

A)

Homeostasis

B)

Activity

C)

Excitability

D)

Mitosis

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The main goal of a cell is to maintain homeostasis, which means keeping the cytoplasm stable within the cell membrane. Options B, C, and D are distracters for the question.

35.

The patient has been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a disease that reduces the amount of available adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the body. The nurse recognizes that this reduction in ATP is caused by the impact of the disease on what part of the cell?

A)

Cell neuron

B)

Endoplasmic reticulum

C)

Golgi bodies

D)

Mitochondria

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The mitochondria are rod-shaped power plants within each cell that produce energy in the form of ATP, which allows the cell to function. Inadequate production of ATP would indicate damage to the functioning of the mitochondria. The neuron, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi bodies do not produce ATP.

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