Chapter 64: Nursing Management: Musculoskeletal Problems My Nursing Test Banks

Lewis: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition

Chapter 64: Nursing Management: Musculoskeletal Problems

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A patient is hospitalized for initiation of regional antibiotic irrigation for acute osteomyelitis of the right femur. Which intervention will be included in the plan of care?

a.

Immobilization of the right leg

b.

Frequent weight-bearing exercise

c.

Avoiding administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

d.

Support of the right leg in a flexed position

ANS: A

Immobilization of the affected leg helps decrease pain and reduce the risk for pathologic fractures. Weight-bearing exercise increases the risk for pathologic fractures. NSAIDs are frequently prescribed to treat pain. Flexion of the affected limb is avoided to prevent contractures.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1625 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. A patient is being discharged after 2 weeks of IV antibiotic therapy for acute osteomyelitis in the left leg. Which information will be included in the discharge teaching?

a.

How to apply warm packs safely to the leg to reduce pain

b.

How to monitor and care for the long-term IV catheter site

c.

The need for daily aerobic exercise to help maintain muscle strength

d.

The reason for taking oral antibiotics for 7 to 10 days after discharge

ANS: B

The patient will be on IV antibiotics for several months, and the patient will need to recognize signs of infection at the IV site and how to care for the catheter during daily activities such as bathing. IV antibiotics rather than oral antibiotics are used for acute osteomyelitis. Patients are instructed to avoid exercise and heat application because these will increase swelling and the risk for spreading infection.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1625

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

3. A patient has chronic osteomyelitis of the left femur, which is being managed at home with administration of IV antibiotics. The nurse chooses a nursing diagnosis of ineffective health maintenance when the nurse finds that the patient

a.

takes and records the oral temperature twice a day.

b.

is unable to plantar flex the foot on the affected side.

c.

uses crutches to avoid weight bearing on the affected leg.

d.

is irritable and frustrated with the length of treatment required.

ANS: B

Foot drop is an indication that the foot is not being supported in a neutral position by a splint. Using crutches and monitoring the oral temperature are appropriate self-care activities. Frustration with the length of treatment is not an indicator of ineffective health maintenance of the osteomyelitis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1625 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

4. Which statement by a patient who is scheduled for an above-the-knee amputation for treatment of an osteosarcoma of the right tibia indicates that patient teaching is needed?

a.

I did not have this bone cancer until my leg broke a week ago.

b.

I wish that I did not have to have chemotherapy after this surgery.

c.

I know that I will need to participate in physical therapy after surgery.

d.

I will use the patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) to control postoperative pain.

ANS: A

Osteogenic sarcoma may be diagnosed following a fracture, but it is not caused by the injury. The other patient statements indicate that patient teaching has been effective.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1625-1627 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

5. A 20-year-old patient with a history of muscular dystrophy is hospitalized with a respiratory tract infection. Which nursing action will be included in the plan of care?

a.

Assist the patient with ambulation.

b.

Logroll the patient every 1 to 2 hours.

c.

Discuss the need for genetic testing with the patient.

d.

Teach the patient about the muscle biopsy procedure.

ANS: A

Since the goal for the patient with muscular dystrophy is to keep the patient active for as long as possible, assisting the patient to ambulate will be part of the care plan. The patient will not require logrolling. Muscle biopsies are necessary to confirm the diagnosis but are not necessary for a patient who already has a diagnosis. There is no need for genetic testing since the patient already knows the diagnosis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1627-1628 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

6. A patient has muscle spasms and acute low back pain. An appropriate nursing intervention for this problem is to teach the patient to

a.

avoid the use of cold because it will exacerbate the muscle spasms.

b.

keep both feet flat on the floor when prolonged standing is required.

c.

keep the head elevated slightly and flex the knees when resting in bed.

d.

twist gently from side to side to maintain range of motion in the spine.

ANS: C

Resting with the head elevated and knees flexed will reduce the strain on the back and decrease muscle spasms. Twisting from side to side will increase tension on the lumbar area. A pillow placed under the upper back will cause strain on the lumbar spine. Alternate application of cold and heat should be used to decrease pain.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1629 | eNCP 64-2 on Evolve

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

7. A patient whose work involves lifting has a history of chronic back pain. After the nurse has taught the patient about correct body mechanics, which patient statement indicates that the teaching has been effective?

a.

I plan to start doing exercises to strengthen the muscles of my back.

b.

I will try to sleep with my hips and knees extended to prevent back strain.

c.

I can tell my boss that I need to change to a job where I can work at a desk.

d.

I will keep my back straight when I need to lift anything higher than my waist.

ANS: A

Exercises can help to strengthen the muscles that support the back. Flexion of the hips and knees places less strain on the back. Modifications in the way the patient lifts boxes are needed, but sitting for prolonged periods can aggravate back pain. The patient should not lift above the level of the elbows.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1629 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. A patient with a herniated intravertebral disk undergoes a laminectomy and discectomy. Following the surgery, the nurse should position the patient on the side by

a.

instructing the patient to move the legs before turning the rest of the body.

b.

having the patient turn by grasping the side rails and pulling the shoulders over.

c.

placing a pillow between the patients legs and turning the entire body as a unit.

d.

turning the patients head and shoulders first, followed by the hips, legs, and feet.

ANS: C

The spine should be kept in correct alignment after laminectomy. The other positions will create misalignment of the spine.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1632-1633

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

9. After teaching a patient with a bunion about how to prevent further problems, the nurse will determine that more teaching is needed if the patient says,

a.

I will throw away my high heel shoes.

b.

I will use the bunion pad to relieve the pain.

c.

I will need to wear open sandals at all times.

d.

I will take ibuprofen (Motrin) when I need it.

ANS: C

The patient can wear shoes that have a wide forefoot. The other patient statements indicate that the teaching has been effective.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1635 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

10. An assessment finding that alerts the nurse to the presence of osteoporosis in a middle-aged patient is

a.

measurable loss of height.

b.

the presence of bowed legs.

c.

an aversion to dairy products.

d.

statements about frequent falls.

ANS: A

Osteoporosis occurring in the vertebrae produces a gradual loss of height. Bowed legs are associated with osteomalacia. Low intake of dairy products is a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it does not indicate that osteoporosis is present. Frequent falls increase the risk for fractures but are not an indicator of osteoporosis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1637-1638

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

11. A 58-year-old woman who has a family history of osteoporosis is diagnosed with osteopenia following densitometry testing. In teaching the woman about her osteoporosis, the nurse explains that

a.

estrogen replacement therapy must be started to prevent rapid progression to osteoporosis.

b.

continuous, low-dose corticosteroid treatment is effective in stopping the course of osteoporosis.

c.

with a family history of osteoporosis, there is no way to prevent or slow gradual bone resorption.

d.

calcium loss from bones can be slowed by increasing calcium intake and weight-bearing exercise.

ANS: D

Progression of osteoporosis can be slowed by increasing calcium intake and weight-bearing exercise. Estrogen replacement therapy does help prevent osteoporosis, but it is not the only treatment and is not appropriate for some patients. Corticosteroid therapy increases the risk for osteoporosis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1638

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

12. Which menu choice by a patient with osteoporosis indicates that the nurses teaching about appropriate diet has been effective?

a.

Pancakes with syrup and bacon

b.

Whole wheat toast and fruit jelly

c.

Two-egg omelet and a half grapefruit

d.

Oatmeal with skim milk and fruit yogurt

ANS: D

Skim milk and yogurt are high in calcium. The other choices do not contain any high calcium foods.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1638 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

13. Which assessment information will the nurse obtain to evaluate the effectiveness of the prescribed calcitonin (Cibacalcin) and ibandronate (Boniva) for a patient with Pagets disease?

a.

Pain level

b.

Oral intake

c.

Daily weight

d.

Grip strength

ANS: A

Bone pain is one of the common early manifestations of Pagets disease, and the nurse should assess the pain level to determine whether the treatment is effective. The other information will also be collected by the nurse, but will not be used in evaluating the effectiveness of the therapy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1639-1640 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

14. A patient is receiving gentamicin (Garamycin) 80 mg IV twice daily for acute osteomyelitis. Which action should the nurse take before administering the gentamicin?

a.

Ask the patient about any nausea.

b.

Obtain the patients oral temperature.

c.

Change the prescribed wet-to-dry dressing.

d.

Review the patients blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels.

ANS: D

Gentamicin is nephrotoxic and can cause renal failure. Monitoring the patients temperature before gentamicin administration is not necessary. Nausea is not a common side effect of IV gentamicin. There is no need to change the dressing before gentamicin administration.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1624

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

15. The nurse is caring for a patient who has had a surgical reduction of an open fracture of the left tibia. Which assessment finding is most important to report to the health care provider?

a.

Left leg muscle spasms

b.

Serous wound drainage

c.

Left leg pain with movement

d.

Temperature 101.4 F (38.6 C)

ANS: D

An elevated temperature is suggestive of possible osteomyelitis. The other clinical manifestations are typical after a repair of an open fracture.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1623-1624

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

16. Following a laminectomy with a spinal fusion, a patient reports numbness and tingling of the right lower leg. The first action indicated by the nurse is to

a.

report the patients complaint to the surgeon.

b.

check the vital signs for indications of hemorrhage.

c.

turn the patient to the side to relieve pressure on the right leg.

d.

check the chart for preoperative neuromuscular assessment data.

ANS: D

The postoperative movement and sensation of the extremities should be unchanged (or improved) from the preoperative assessment. If the numbness and tingling are new, this information should be immediately reported to the surgeon. Numbness and tingling are not symptoms associated with hemorrhage at the site. Turning the patient will not relieve the numbness.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1633

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

17. When administering alendronate (Fosamax) to a patient, the nurse will first

a.

be sure the patient has recently eaten.

b.

ask about any leg cramps or hot flashes.

c.

assist the patient to sit up at the bedside.

d.

administer the ordered calcium carbonate.

ANS: C

To avoid esophageal erosions, the patient taking bisphosphonates should be upright for at least 30 minutes after taking the medication. Fosamax should be taken on an empty stomach, not after taking other medications or eating. Leg cramps and hot flashes are not side effects of bisphosphonates.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1639

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

18. Which of these nursing actions included in the care of a patient after laminectomy can the nurse delegate to experienced nursing assistive personnel (NAP)?

a.

Ask about pain control with the patient-controlled analgesia (PCA).

b.

Determine the patients readiness to ambulate.

c.

Check ability to plantar and dorsiflex the foot.

d.

Turn the patient from side to side every 2 hours.

ANS: D

Repositioning a patient is included in the education and scope of practice of NAP, and experienced NAP will be familiar with how to maintain alignment in the postoperative patient. Evaluation of the effectiveness of pain medications, assessment of neurologic function, and evaluation of a patients readiness to ambulate after surgery require higher level nursing education and scope of practice.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1632-1633

OBJ: Special Questions: Delegation TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

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