CHAPTER 6: THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN My Nursing Test Banks

CHAPTER 6: THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.Maturation refers to changes that are due to:

a.

major life experiences

c.

illness

b.

genetic inheritance

d.

injury

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Maturation does not refer to changes that are due to major life experiences.

B

Correct. Maturation refers to changes that are due to genetic inheritance.

C

Incorrect. Maturation does not refer to changes that are due to illness.

D

Incorrect. Maturation does not refer to changes that are due to injury.

PTS:1

REF: p. 158 Theoretical Approaches to the Growth and Development of Children

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

2.Cephalocaudal development proceeds in which direction?

a.

head downward

b.

foot to midsection, followed by head to midsection

c.

toe to head

d.

extremities in toward the tailbone section of the body

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Cephalocaudal development proceeds from the head downward.

B

Incorrect. Cephalocaudal development does not proceed from foot to midsection, followed by head to midsection.

C

Incorrect. Cephalocaudal development does not proceed from toe to head.

D

Incorrect. Cephalocaudal development does not proceed from extremities in toward the tailbone section of the body.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 159 Principles of Growth and Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

3.Development that proceeds from the inside out is called by which of the following terms?

a.

internal-external

c.

proximodistal

b.

inner-outer

d.

cellular-epidermal

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Development that proceeds from the inside out is not called internal-external.

B

Incorrect. Development that proceeds from the inside out is not called inner-outer.

C

Correct. Proximodistal development proceeds from the inside out.Controlled movements closest to the bodys center (trunk, arms) develop before controlled movements distant to the body (fingers).

D

Incorrect. Development that proceeds from the inside out is not called cellular-epidermal.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 159 Principles of Growth and Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

4.Infants start grasping with the whole hand, and as they develop they begin to use just the fingers. This development is an example of which of the following types of development?

a.

cephalocaudal

c.

anterior-posterior

b.

proximodistal

d.

internal-external

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Cephalocaudal development emerges from the head downward, areas closest to the brain or head develop first, followed by the trunk, then legs and feet.

B

Correct. Proximodistal development involves controlled movements closest to the bodys center first, followed by controlled movements distant to the body, such as the fingers. Grasping changes from using the entire hand to just the fingers as infants develop.

C

Incorrect. Infants start grasping with the whole hand, and as they develop they begin to use just the fingers. This development is not an example of anterior-posterior.

D

Incorrect. Infants start grasping with the whole hand, and as they develop they begin to use just the fingers. This development is not an example of internal-external.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 159 Principles of Growth and Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

5.When comparing the development of a number of children, you would expect which aspect of developmental change to be the same in all the children?

a.

basic sequence of changes

c.

length of each change

b.

onset of each change

d.

response

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. When comparing the development of a number of children, you would expect the basic sequence of developmental change to be the same in all the children.

B

Incorrect. When comparing the development of a number of children, you would not expect the onset of each developmental change to be the same in all the children.

C

Incorrect. When comparing the development of a number of children, you would not expect the length of each developmental change to be the same in all the children.

D

Incorrect. When comparing the development of a number of children, you would not expect the response to each developmental change to be the same in all the children.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 159 Principles of Growth and Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

6.When children learn new developmental skills, the new skills:

a.

take longer to learn than earlier skills

c.

predominate over older skills

b.

cause the child anxiety

d.

are a minor focus compared to old skills

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. When children learn new developmental skills, the new skills do not take longer to learn than earlier skills.

B

Incorrect. When children learn new developmental skills, the new skills do not cause the child anxiety.

C

Correct. When children learn new developmental skills, the new skills predominate over older skills. This occurs because of the strong drive to practice and perfect new abilities, especially early in life, when the child is not capable of coping well with several new skills simultaneously.

D

Incorrect. When children learn new developmental skills, the new skills are not a minor focus compared to old skills.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 160 Principles of Growth and Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

7.When comparing the way infants react to pain with the way older children respond to pain, you will find that:

a.

there is little difference between the way infants and children respond to pain

b.

infants respond with their whole body while children can localize the pain

c.

children will cry more and infants will withdraw more

d.

infants will refuse to nurse during pain while children will continue to eat

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. When comparing the way infants react to pain with the way older children respond to pain, you will find that there is considerable difference between the way infants and children respond to pain.

B

Correct. Development becomes increasingly differentiated. For example, infants will react with their entire body to pain by crying and withdrawing, whereas an older child is able to localize the pain, can often identify its source, and may only withdraw the extremity experiencing the pain.

C

Incorrect. When comparing the way infants react to pain with the way older children respond to pain, you will not find that children will cry more and infants will withdraw more.

D

Incorrect. When comparing the way infants react to pain with the way older children respond to pain, you will not find that infants will refuse to nurse during pain while children will continue to eat.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 160 Principles of Growth and Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

8.A mother is comparing her child with the neighbors child who is the same age. The mother is concerned that her child does not have as advanced language skills as the neighbor child. The nurse assesses the child and determines the language skills are within the range of normal. This nurse would advise the mother that:

a.

speech develops more rapidly in children with siblings

b.

the development of language skills varies greatly in children

c.

some childrens talents lie in areas other than language skills

d.

the child needs to have a battery of psychological tests

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. All development is unique for each child, including language skills.

B

Correct. This nurse would best advise the mother that the development of language skills varies greatly in children. Every child has a unique timetable for development.

C

Incorrect. This nurse would not best advise the mother that some childrens talents lie in areas other than language skills.

D

Incorrect. This nurse would not best advise the mother that the child needs to have a battery of psychological tests.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 159 Principles of Growth and Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

9.The nurse is working with the caregivers of a child who is 2-1/2 years old. The nurse advises the caregivers that it is important for the child to know what it feels like to have a wet diaper. This advice was given because of which rationale?

a.

The nurse is acting on an old wives tale and has no rationale.

b.

Children need to know the connection between being wet and being changed by a caregiver.

c.

Children have to be able to tell a caregiver they are wet before they can be successfully toilet trained.

d.

This is an important sensory experience for maximum development of brain potential.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The nurse advises the caregivers that it is important for the child to know what it feels like to have a wet diaper. The nurse is not acting on an old wives tale without rationale.

B

Incorrect. The nurse advises the caregivers that it is important for the child to know what it feels like to have a wet diaper. This is not for the child to know the connection between being wet and being changed.

C

Correct. The nurse advises the caregivers that it is important for the child to know what it feels like to have a wet diaper. Children have to be able to tell a caregiver they are wet before they can be successfully toilet trained.

D

Incorrect. The nurse advises the caregivers that it is important for the child to know what it feels like to have a wet diaper. This is not because it is an important sensory experience for maximum development of brain potential.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 160 Principles of Growth and Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

10.In the nature versus nurture controversy about human development, the nature view sees development as mainly influenced by which of the following factors?

a.

genetic

c.

culture

b.

environmental

d.

chance

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. In the nature versus nurture controversy about human development, the nature view sees development as mainly influenced by genetics.

B

Incorrect. In the nature versus nurture controversy about human development, the nurture view sees development as mainly influenced by environmental issues.

C

Incorrect. In the nature versus nurture controversy about human development, the nurture view sees development as mainly influenced by cultural issues.

D

Incorrect. In the nature versus nurture controversy about human development, the nature view does not see development as mainly influenced by chance.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 160 Principles of Growth and Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

11.When a person is discussing the strong influences that child-rearing methods have on the development of the child, this person is most probably coming from which of the following viewpoints or theories?

a.

neoclassic

c.

nature

b.

nurture

d.

naturalistic

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. When a person is discussing the strong influences that child-rearing methods have on the development of the child, this person is not coming from a neoclassic viewpoint.

B

Correct. When a person is discussing the strong influences that child-rearing methods have on the development of the child, this person is coming from a nurture viewpoint.

C

Incorrect. When a person is discussing the strong influences that child-rearing methods have on the development of the child, this person is not coming from a nature viewpoint.

D

Incorrect. When a person is discussing the strong influences that child-rearing methods have on the development of the child, this person is not coming from a naturalistic viewpoint.

PTS:1REF:p. 161 Themes of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

12.The most popular theory of developmentalists today is that:

a.

nature provides the most important contribution to development

b.

how biological and environmental factors interact is more important than the predominance of one over the other

c.

development depends almost entirely on the experiences an individual has by age 5

d.

genetics is most important, and we are about to engineer people to correct all defects

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The most popular theory of developmentalists today is not that nature provides the most important contribution to development.

B

Correct. The most popular theory of developmentalists today is that how biological and environmental factors interact is more important than the predominance of one over the other.

C

Incorrect. The most popular theory of developmentalists today is not that development depends almost entirely on the experiences an individual has by age 5.

D

Incorrect. The most popular theory of developmentalists today is not that genetics is most important. We are about to engineer people to correct all defects.

PTS:1REF:p. 161 Themes of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

13.In looking at continuity versus discontinuity in human development, theorists who use discontinuity believe that:

a.

there is a connection between early and later development

b.

a shy adult was shy as a child

c.

development is a series of discrete steps or stages

d.

once an introvert, always an introvert

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Continuity suggests change is orderly and built upon earlier experiences. Theorists who use discontinuity do not believe there is a connection between early and later development.

B

Incorrect. Continuity suggests change is orderly and built upon earlier experiences, hence a shy child becomes an introverted adult.

C

Correct. Discontinuity suggests development is a series of discrete steps or stages that elevate the child to a more advanced or high level of functioning with increased age.

D

Incorrect. Continuity suggests change is orderly and built upon earlier experiences, hence once an introvert, always an introvert.

PTS:1REF:p. 161 Themes of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

14.If you view a childs development from a passivity theory rather than an activity theory, you would most probably believe that:

a.

creative teachers have little to do with a childs interest in a particular subject

b.

children become delinquent because of association with an antisocial peer group

c.

child-rearing practices have little to do with whether a child is passive or assertive

d.

children seek their own experiences to shape their development

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. If you view a childs development from a passivity theory rather than an activity theory, you would most probably believe that talented and creative teachers deserve credit for a childs interest in a particular subject.The passivity theory views the child as shaped by external environmental forces.

B

Correct. If you view a childs development from a passivity theory rather than an activity theory, you would most probably believe that children become delinquent because of association with an antisocial peer group.

C

Incorrect. If you view a childs development from a passivity theory rather than an activity theory, you would most probably believe that child-rearing practices have a lot to do with whether a child is passive or assertive.

D

Incorrect. If you view a childs development from a passivity theory rather than an activity theory, you would most probably believe that external environmental forces shape a childs development. The activity theory believes a child purposefully, creatively and actively seeks experiences to shape her or his development.

PTS:1REF:p. 161 Themes of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

15.The activity view of a childs development would most believe which of the following statements?

a.

The personality and activity levels of children are for the most part shaped by association with family.

b.

An inquisitive, friendly, outgoing child may encourage the same behavior in indifferent and unfriendly people.

c.

Children who are fearful as toddlers will most likely retain some paranoia as adults and isolate themselves.

d.

Teachers and peers are the most important indicators of a childs motivation to seek meaningful experiences.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The activity view of a childs development would not most believe the personality and activity levels of children are for the most part shaped by association with family.

B

Correct. The activity view of a childs development would most believe an inquisitive, friendly, outgoing child may encourage the same behavior in indifferent and unfriendly people.

C

Incorrect. The activity view of a childs development would not most believe children who are fearful as toddlers will most likely retain some paranoia as adults and isolate themselves.

D

Incorrect. The activity view of a childs development would not most believe teachers and peers are the most important indicators of a childs motivation to seek meaningful experiences.

PTS:1REF:p. 161 Themes of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

16.It is documented that infants who lived in an impoverished orphanage and who were adopted into nurturing homes grew up without identifiable intellectual defects. This occurrence best supports which of the following views of development?

a.

shared parenting

c.

critical period

b.

correctional

d.

sensitive period

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Shared parenting is not the view of development that suggests humans are malleable and adaptable and able to catch up.

B

Incorrect. Correctional is not the view of development that suggests humans are malleable and adaptable and able to catch up.

C

Incorrect. Critical period refers to a limited time span when a child is biologically prepared to acquire certain behaviors, but need the support of a suitably stimulating environment.

D

Correct. The sensitive period is a time span that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge when the individual is especially receptive to environmental influences. For example, infants reared in an impoverished orphanage grew up without identifiable intellectual deficits if they were later placed in a stimulative and nurturing adoptive homes.

PTS:1REF:p. 161 Themes of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

17.Context specificity suggests which of the following beliefs?

a.

Bad caregivers raise bad kids, and good caregivers raise good kids.

b.

Children develop according to an internal time clock that is set for certain milestones.

c.

There are differences in child development related to cultural values, beliefs, and experiences.

d.

Climate has a lot to do with the rate at which children develop.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Context specificity does not suggest that bad caregivers raise bad kids, and good caregivers raise good kids.

B

Incorrect. Context specificity does not suggest that children develop according to an internal time clock that is set for certain milestones.

C

Correct. Context specificity suggests there are differences in child development related to cultural values, beliefs, and experiences.

D

Incorrect. Context specificity does not suggest that climate has a lot to do with the rate at which children develop.

PTS:1REF:p. 162 Themes of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

18.John Locke suggested that children are neither good nor bad but have inborn tendencies and are molded by life experiences. His doctrine was called:

a.

original sin

c.

tabula rasa

b.

innate purity

d.

carta blanca

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The doctrine of original sin as used by Thomas Hobbes suggests children to be inherently evil and selfish egotists who must be controlled by society.

B

Incorrect. The doctrine of innate purity proposed by Rousseau suggests children are inherently good and born without an intuitive sense of what is right and wrong.

C

Correct. The doctrine of tabula rasa (blank slate) proposed by John Locke suggests that children are neither good nor evil, but rather enter the world without inborn tendencies, and are molded through life experiences.

D

Incorrect. Carta blanca or carte blanche is a blank check. It has nothing to do with theories about childhood, but instead is a banking term.

PTS:1REF:p. 162 Themes of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

19.The assumptions about human nature that Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) proposed include a belief that children are:

a.

inherently good and born without a sense of right and wrong

b.

little adults and have all the reasoning abilities of adults

c.

bad and must be taught, corrected, and saved from evil ways

d.

neither good nor bad but are taken over by God or the devil

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The assumptions about human nature that Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) proposed include a belief that children are inherently good and born without a sense of right and wrong.

B

Incorrect. The assumptions about human nature that Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) proposed does not include a belief that children are little adults and have all the reasoning abilities of adults.

C

Incorrect. The assumptions about human nature that Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) proposed does not include a belief that children are bad and must be taught, corrected, and saved from evil ways.This assumption is proposed by Thomas Hobbes.

D

Incorrect. The assumptions about human nature that Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) proposed does not include a belief that children are neither good nor bad but are taken over by God or the devil.

PTS:1REF:p. 162 Themes of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

20.Freud developed the theory that the source of psychic energy that drives human behavior is:

a.

sexual need

c.

the id, ego, and superego

b.

work need

d.

the preconscious mind

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Freud developed the theory that the source of psychic energy that drives human behavior is psychosexual, but not based only upon sexual need.

B

Incorrect. Freud developed the theory that the source of psychic energy that drives human behavior is not based only upon work need.

C

Correct. Freud developed the theory that the source of psychic energy that drives human behavior has three components: the id, ego, and superego.

D

Incorrect. Freud developed the theory that the source of psychic energy that drives human behavior is not based only upon the preconscious mind.

PTS:1REF:p. 164 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

21.Which of the following best describes the ego, according to Freudian theory?

a.

the conscience

b.

the irrational, selfish, impulsive part of the personality

c.

the rational and controlling part of the personality

d.

the inner self

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Freudian theory describes the conscience as the superego.

B

Incorrect. Freudian theory describes the rational and controlling part of the personality as the id.

C

Correct. The ego, according to Freudian theory, is best described as the rational and controlling part of the personality.

D

Incorrect. The inner self is not contemplated as a part of Freudian theory.

PTS:1REF:p. 164 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

22.In Freudian theory the component of the personality that emerges when the child internalizes values, roles, and morals is called the:

a.

superego

c.

id

b.

ego

d.

anti-Narcissus

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The superego, or conscience, emerges when the child internalizes caregiver or societal values, roles and morals.

B

Incorrect. The ego is the rational or controlling part of the emergent personality, develops before the superego.

C

Incorrect. During infancy, the id, the inborn element of personality is driven by selfish urges.

D

Incorrect. The development of the ego can be described as the reality principle, which replaces the narcissism of the id characteristic of infancy.

PTS:1REF:p. 164 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

23.Freud believed that the most important life instinct was which of the following instincts?

a.

protector

c.

sex

b.

hunter

d.

comfort

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Freud did not believe that the most important life instinct was the role of protector.

B

Incorrect. Freud did not believe that the most important life instinct was the role of hunter.

C

Correct. Freud believed that the most important life instinct was sex.

D

Incorrect. Freud did not believe that the most important life instinct was the search for comfort.

PTS:1REF:p. 164 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

24.From birth to 1 year of age, the infant is in which of the following stages, according to Freudian theory?

a.

oral

c.

phallic

b.

anal

d.

genital

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. From birth to 1 year of age, the infant is in the oral stage, according to Freudian theory.

B

Incorrect. The anal stage is ages 1-3 years of age, according to Freudian theory.

C

Incorrect. The phallic stage is ages 3-6 years of age, according to Freudian theory.

D

Incorrect. The genital stage is the last stage, begins about 12 years of age, according to Freudian theory.

PTS:1REF:p. 165 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

25.Freud theorized that methods used to toilet-train children might have a lasting effect on their personality. Children who had rigid, severe toilet training would most likely show which of the following behaviors later in life?

a.

narcissistic

c.

self-mutilating

b.

meticulous and hypercritical

d.

bullying to others and aggressive

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Narcissistic behaviors are observed in the infant under one year of age.

B

Correct. Freud suggested methods caregivers use to toilet train children during this period may have long-lasting effects on personality. For example, children who were products of rigid, severe toilet training could become obsessive about routines and their schedules, or very meticulous and hypercritical.

C

Incorrect. Self-mutilating behavior has nothing to do with the anal stage.

D

Incorrect. Bullying and aggressive behaviors have nothing to do with the anal stage.

PTS:1REF:p. 165 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

26.In Freudian psychodynamic theory, which of the following best describes the Oedipus complex?

a.

a child becoming the center of attention

b.

extreme jealousy of one or more siblings

c.

believing that one is actually the child of royalty

d.

incestuous desire of a boy for his mother

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The Oedipus complex, according to Freud psychodynamic theory, does not describe a child becoming the center of attention.

B

Incorrect. The Oedipus complex, according to Freud psychodynamic theory, does not describe extreme jealousy of one or more siblings.

C

Incorrect. The Oedipus complex, according to Freud psychodynamic theory, does not describe a child believing that one is actually the child of royalty.

D

Correct. In Freudian psychodynamic theory, children in the phallic stage (3-6 years) develop a strong incestuous desire for the caregiver of the opposite sex. In boys, Freud labels it the Oedipus complex.

PTS:1REF:p. 165 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

27.Freud theorized that during the phallic stage, a childs energy is focused on which of the following areas of the body?

a.

mouth

c.

anus

b.

genitals

d.

hands

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Freud theorized that during the oral stage, a childs energy is focused on the mouth and its sensations.

B

Correct. Freud theorized that during the phallic stage, a childs energy is focused on the genitals.

C

Incorrect. Freud theorized that during the anal stage, a childs energy is focused on the anus and the ability to voluntarily defecate..

D

Incorrect. Freud theorized that during the phallic stage, a childs energy is not focused on the hands.

PTS:1REF:p. 165 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

28.According to Freudian psychodynamic theory, the attachment of a girl to her father produces anxiety, which must be resolved and controlled. Which name is used for this attachment?

a.

Electra

c.

Oedipus

b.

Cleopatra

d.

Olympia

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. According to Freudian psychodynamic theory, the attachment of a girl to her father produces anxiety, which must be resolved and controlled. He named it the Electra complex.

B

Incorrect. Freud did not use the name Cleopatra in his psychodynamic theory.

C

Incorrect. The Oedipus complex is the name for the attachment boys experience for their mother.

D

Incorrect. Freud did not use the name Olympia in his psychodynamic theory.

PTS:1REF:p. 165 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

29.Which of the following activities are most closely identified with the latency stage suggested by Freud?

a.

The id is out of control, and the child struggles with antisocial thoughts and deeds.

b.

The child increasingly identifies with the same-sex parent and has intense involvement with same-sex peers.

c.

Energies are directed toward sexual thoughts and curiosity about opposite-sex parent and peers.

d.

The superego has not yet developed, and the child has little focus on society and useful skills.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. By the latency stage, the id is more under control, and the child does not struggle with antisocial thoughts and deeds.

B

Correct. During the latency stage, sexual drives are submerged, appropriate gender roles are adopted, and the Oedipal or Electra conflicts are resolved. The child increasingly identifies with the same-sex parent and has intense involvement with same-sex peers.

C

Incorrect. During the phallic stage, energies are directed toward sexual thoughts and curiosity about opposite-sex parent and peers.

D

Incorrect. The superego has developed sufficiently to keep the id under control, and children rapidly learn about society and themselves while learning useful skills.

PTS:1REF:p. 165 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

30.Using your knowledge of the Freudian stages of psychosexual development when caring for a child between the ages of 1 and 3 years, it would be most important for you to ask the caregivers about:

a.

fords and rituals used for elimination

b.

use of pacifiers

c.

pet names for grandparents

d.

whether or not the child has a tendency to bite others

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The anal stage (1-3 years) is about toilet training, hence it is most appropriate to ask the caregivers about words and rituals used for elimination.

B

Incorrect. Knowing about the use of pacifiers is not the most important question to ask.

C

Incorrect. Knowing about the pet names for grandparents is not the most important question to ask.

D

Incorrect. Knowing about whether or not the child has a tendency to bite others is not the most important question to ask.

PTS:1REF:p. 165 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

31.Eriksons psychosocial theory of development differed from Freuds ideas of development in that Erikson viewed:

a.

children as being controlled by caregivers and society with little room for exploring the environment on their own

b.

children as being controlled by the superego and being afraid to displease the caregivers

c.

humans as rational creatures with the egorather than the id, superego, or conflictscontrolling thoughts, feelings, and actions

d.

children as having no sexual interests or conflicts of any kind, with this issue not arising until young adulthood

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Eriksons psychosocial theory of development believes children actively adapt and explore their environment instead of being passively controlled and molded by caregivers and society.

B

Incorrect. Eriksons psychosocial theory of development believes children are controlled by their ego and not restrained by their superego.

C

Correct. Erikson assumes humans are rational creatures whose actions, feelings and thoughts are controlled primarily by the ego instead of the id, superego, or conflicts between the three components of personality.

D

Incorrect. Erikson generally agreed with Freud concerning sexuality, but does not emphasize sexuality in the same way.

PTS:1REF:p. 167 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

32.According to Eriksons psychosocial theory of development, a child between ages 6 and 11 is going through which of the following stages?

a.

initiative versus guilt

c.

identity versus role confusion

b.

industry versus inferiority

d.

autonomy versus shame and doubt

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. According to Eriksons psychosocial theory of development, the stage of initiative versus guilt is ages 3 to 6 years.

B

Correct. According to Eriksons psychosocial theory of development, a child between ages 6 and 11 is going through the stage called industry versus inferiority.

C

Incorrect. According to Eriksons psychosocial theory of development, the stage of identity versus role confusion is ages 12 to 18 years.

D

Incorrect. According to Eriksons psychosocial theory of development, the stage of autonomy versus shame and doubt is 1 1/2 to 3 years.

PTS:1REF:p. 167 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

33.In order to help an infant accomplish the basic task of infancy (according to Eriksons stages of psychosocial development), caregivers must consistently do which of the following things?

a.

Provide entertainment and stimulation for psychological growth.

b.

Talk with the child during the childs waking hours.

c.

Hold the baby in a way that the baby prefers.

d.

Meet need for comfort, security, predictability, food, and warmth.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. In order to help an infant accomplish the basic task of infancy (according to Eriksons stages of psychosocial development), the provision of entertainment and stimulation for psychological growth is not as critical as meeting the needs for comfort, security, predictability, food and warmth.

B

Incorrect. In order to help an infant accomplish the basic task of infancy (according to Eriksons stages of psychosocial development), talking with the child during the childs waking hours is not as critical as meeting the needs for comfort, security, predictability, food and warmth.

C

Incorrect. In order to help an infant accomplish the basic task of infancy (according to Eriksons stages of psychosocial development), holding the baby in a way that the baby prefers is not as critical as meeting the needs for comfort, security, predictability, food and warmth.

D

Correct. In order to help an infant accomplish the basic task of infancy (according to Eriksons stages of psychosocial development), caregivers must consistently meet the infants need for comfort, security, predictability, food, and warmth.

PTS:1REF:p. 168 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

34.The nurse is assessing a toddlers psychosocial developmental level using Eriksons eight stages. Which of the following behaviors would the nurse most likely find if the child were demonstrating being in shame and doubt instead of having mastered autonomy?

a.

dependency and constantly looking to others for approval

b.

sleep disturbance, crying, and vomiting

c.

always imitating others rather than using imagination

d.

frequent crying, emotional outbursts, and whining

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Eriksons theory of psychosocial development posits the toddler years are engaged in establishing autonomy versus shame and doubt. Children demonstrating dependency and constantly needing approval for their actions are experiencing doubt.

B

Incorrect. Sleep disturbance, crying and vomiting indicates an infant who mistrusts their environment, stage of trust versus mistrust, the first developmental stage of Erikson.

C

Incorrect. Imitation of others rather than using imagination suggests a reluctance to act independently, and indicates the third stage of Eriksons theory of psychosocial development, initiative versus guilt.

D

Incorrect. Frequent crying, emotional outbursts and whining are associated with the first stage of Eriksons theory of psychosocial development, trust versus mistrust.

PTS:1REF:p. 168 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

35.When an infant is hospitalized, the nurse recognizes the importance of this infant mastering the first of Eriksons eight life stages. He or she would most help the infant by instructing the caregivers:

a.

not to visit as it could upset the infant when the caregivers leave

b.

to spend as much time with the infant as possible

c.

to schedule visits around nursing care

d.

to limit visits to official visiting hours

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. When an infant is hospitalized, the nurse recognizes the importance of this infant mastering the first of Eriksons eight life stages. He or she would most help the infant by not instructing the caregivers not to visit as it could upset the infant when the caregivers leave

B

Correct. When an infant is hospitalized, the nurse recognizes the importance of this infant mastering the first of Eriksons eight life stages. He or she would most help the infant by instructing the caregivers to spend as much time with the infant as possible.

C

Incorrect. When an infant is hospitalized, the nurse recognizes the importance of this infant mastering the first of Eriksons eight life stages. He or she would most help the infant by not instructing the caregivers to schedule visits around nursing care.

D

Incorrect. When an infant is hospitalized, the nurse recognizes the importance of this infant mastering the first of Eriksons eight life stages. He or she would most help the infant by not instructing the caregivers to limit visits to official visiting hours.

PTS:1REF:p. 167 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

36.Sullivan believed that personality development is mainly the result of:

a.

biochemical types and amounts and being either in balance or out of balance

b.

genetic inheritance

c.

childhood experiences, interpersonal encounters, and the mother-child relationship

d.

extended family influences

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Sullivan did not believe that personality development is mainly the result of biochemical types and amounts and being either in balance or out of balance.

B

Incorrect. Sullivan did not believe that personality development is mainly the result of genetic inheritance.

C

Correct. Sullivan believed personality development was largely the result of childhood experiences, interpersonal encounters, and the mother-child relationship.

D

Incorrect. Sullivan did not believe that personality development is mainly the result of extended family influences.

PTS:1REF:p. 171 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

37.According to Sullivans stages of interpersonal development, the primary task of the first stage is:

a.

to learn to rely on others, especially the primary caregiver, to gratify physiological needs and achieve satisfaction

b.

to satisfy egotistical and narcissistic needs

c.

to learn how to please the caregivers and others

d.

to become independent of caregivers and separate oneself from the environment and significant people

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. According to Sullivans stages of interpersonal development, the primary task of the first stage is to learn to rely on others, especially the primary caregiver, to gratify physiological needs and achieve satisfaction.

B

Incorrect. According to Sullivans stages of interpersonal development, the primary task of the first stage is not to satisfy egotistical and narcissistic needs.

C

Incorrect. According to Sullivans stages of interpersonal development, the primary task of the first stage is not to learn how to please the caregivers and others.

D

Incorrect. According to Sullivans stages of interpersonal development, the primary task of the first stage is not to become independent of caregivers and separate oneself from the environment and significant people.

PTS:1REF:p. 171 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

38.Sullivan believed that a persons self-image emerged according to how the infant:

a.

was treated by the extended family

b.

interpreted the primary caregiver relationship

c.

was or was not the center of attention of the family

d.

was treated in relation to other people or siblings by the primary caregivers

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Sullivan did not believe that a persons self-image emerged according to how the infant was treated by the extended family.

B

Correct. Sullivan felt ones self-image emerged according to how the infant interpreted the mother-infant relationship (primary caregiver) when basic physiological needs were met.

C

Incorrect. Sullivan did not believe that a persons self-image emerged according to how the infant was or was not the center of attention of the family.

D

Incorrect. Sullivan did not believe that a persons self-image emerged according to how the infant was treated in relation to other people or siblings by the primary caregivers.

PTS:1REF:p. 172 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

39.Sullivan theorized that the good me and the bad me fuse around which age?

a.

6 months

c.

12 months

b.

9 months

d.

18 months

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Sullivan did not theorize that the good me and the bad me fuse around age 6 months.

B

Incorrect. Sullivan did not theorize that the good me and the bad me fuse around age 9 months.

C

Incorrect. Sullivan did not theorize that the good me and the bad me fuse around age 12 months.

D

Correct. Sullivan theorized that the good me and the bad me fuse around age 18 months.

PTS:1REF:p. 172 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

40.During Sullivans early childhood stage, excessive parental disapproval may cause children to see themselves and the world as:

a.

negative or hostile

c.

undeserving

b.

inadequate and wanting

d.

sick

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. During Sullivans early childhood stage, excessive parental disapproval may cause children to see themselves and the world as negative or hostile.

B

Incorrect. Sullivans early childhood stage is focused upon interpersonal relationships, and does not cause children to see themselves and the world as inadequate and wanting.

C

Incorrect. Sullivans early childhood stage is focused upon interpersonal relationships, and does not cause children to see themselves and the world as undeserving.

D

Incorrect. Sullivans early childhood stage is focused upon interpersonal relationships, and does not cause children to see themselves and the world as sick.

PTS:1REF:p. 172 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

41.The stage at which children have a chum, according to Sullivans stages of interpersonal development, is which of the following stages?

a.

early childhood

c.

late childhood

b.

preadolescence

d.

adolescence

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The stage at which children have a chum, according to Sullivans stages of interpersonal development, is not early childhood (18 months to 6 years).

B

Correct. The stage at which children have a chum, according to Sullivans stages of interpersonal development, is preadolescence (9-12 years).

C

Incorrect. The stage at which children have a chum, according to Sullivans stages of interpersonal development, is not late childhood (6-9 years).

D

Incorrect. The stage at which children have a chum, according to Sullivans stages of interpersonal development, is not adolescence (15-19 years).

PTS:1REF:p. 172 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

42.The nurse applying knowledge of Sullivans interpersonal theory of development would most likely encourage which of the following activities for school-aged children and adolescents who are hospitalized?

a.

extra homework

c.

interactions with same-aged children

b.

television and computer game time

d.

visits from extended family

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The nurse applying knowledge of Sullivans interpersonal theory of development would not most likely encourage extra homework for school-aged children and adolescents who are hospitalized.

B

Incorrect. The nurse applying knowledge of Sullivans interpersonal theory of development would not most likely encourage television and computer game time for school-aged children and adolescents who are hospitalized.

C

Correct. When children of any age are ill it is important to meet their basic needs and provide an opportunity for school-aged children and adolescents to interact with others their same age.

D

Incorrect. The nurse applying knowledge of Sullivans interpersonal theory of development would not most likely encourage visits from extended family for school-aged children and adolescents who are hospitalized.

PTS:1REF:p. 172 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

43.The behavioral theorists believe which of the following factors most influence behavior?

a.

rewards and punishment

c.

confrontation

b.

genetic inheritance

d.

presentation of reality

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The behavioral theorists believe children randomly respond to the environment consistent with developmental capabilities, and rewards and punishment influence behavior.

B

Incorrect. The behavioral theorists do not believe that genetic inheritance factors most influence behavior.

C

Incorrect. The behavioral theorists do not believe that confrontation most influences behavior.

D

Incorrect. The behavioral theorists do not believe that presentation of reality factors most influence behavior.

PTS:1REF:p. 173 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

44.Ivan Pavlov is known for his studies involving which of the following?

a.

behavior modification of small children

b.

stress levels of maze rats and the rise of these levels as more rats are added to the maze

c.

mental illness among the homeless

d.

dogs that salivated not only at the sight of food but also at the sound of the bell that rang before the food appeared

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Ivan Pavlov is known for his studies involving classical conditioning or conditioned stimulus, not behavior modification of small children.

B

Incorrect. Ivan Pavlov is known for his studies involving classical conditioning or conditioned stimulus, not stress levels of maze rats and the rise of these levels as more rats are added to the maze.

C

Incorrect. Ivan Pavlov is known for his studies involving classical conditioning or conditioned stimulus, not mental illness among the homeless.

D

Correct. Ivan Pavlov initially discovered linkages between a stimulus and a response while studying a dogs response to food. He observed that dogs salivated not only at the sight of food but also at the sound of the bell that rang before the food appeared.

PTS:1REF:p. 173 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

45.Operant conditioning is a term originated by which of the following theorists?

a.

Albert Ellis

b.

B. F. Skinner

c.

Victor Frankl

d.

Urie Bronfenbrenner

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Operant conditioning is not a term originated by Albert Ellis.

B

Correct. Operant conditioning, a term originated by B. F. Skinner (1904-1990), involves behavioral changes due to either negative (punishment) or positive (reinforcers) consequences rather than just the occurrence of a stimuli.

C

Incorrect. Operant conditioning is not a term originated by Victor Frankl.

D

Incorrect. Operant conditioning is not a term originated by Urie Bronfenbrenner.

PTS:1REF:p. 174 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

46.Which of the following behaviors best describes an example of classical conditioning?

a.

an infant getting excited when seeing the spoon used for feeding

b.

a child crying when frightened by a dog

c.

children singing when directed by the choir director

d.

the dog barking when seeing the master come down the stairs

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. An infant getting excited when seeing the spoon used for feeding does best describe an example of classical conditioning.

B

Incorrect. A child crying when frightened by a dog does not best describe an example of classical conditioning.

C

Incorrect. Children singing when directed by the choir director does not best describe an example of classical conditioning.

D

Incorrect. The dog barking when seeing the master come down the stairs does not best describe an example of classical conditioning.

PTS:1REF:p. 173 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

47.B. F. Skinner discovered that behavioral change becomes more lasting when consequences are:

a.

less than the rewards

c.

continuous

b.

provided intermittently

d.

not part of the plan of change

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. B. F. Skinner observed that behavioral change does not become more lasting when consequences are less than the rewards.

B

Correct. Skinner discovered behavioral change became more permanent when consequences are provided intermittently than continuously, and believed the essence of development involved constantly acquiring new behaviors or habits due to reinforcing or punishing stimuli.

C

Incorrect. B. F. Skinner observed that behavioral change does not become more lasting when consequences are continuous, he observed the exact opposite.

D

Incorrect. B. F. Skinner observed that behavioral change does not become more lasting when consequences are not part of the plan of change.

PTS:1REF:p. 174 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

48.Bandura proposed a kind of behaviorism called:

a.

model learning

c.

cognitive learning

b.

new learning

d.

social learning

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Bandura did not propose a kind of behaviorism called model learning.

B

Incorrect. Bandura did not propose a kind of behaviorism called new learning.

C

Incorrect. Bandura did not propose a kind of behaviorism called cognitive learning.

D

Correct. Bandura proposed a kind of behaviorism called social learning.

PTS:1REF:p. 174 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

49.Bandura suggested that children acquire new behaviors from observational learning in which:

a.

teachers observe the child, without the child being aware of the observation, and base teaching on this observation

b.

caregivers spend more time observing their children and sharing these observations with behaviorists

c.

the child watches others who are pursuing their own interests with no attempt to teach, reward, or punish

d.

a teacher models the behavior, and the child demonstrates the behavior in return

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Bandura suggested that children acquire new behaviors from observational learning in which they observe others, not by being observed by teachers.

B

Incorrect. Bandura suggested that children acquire new behaviors from observational learning in which they observe others, not by being observed by caregivers who share these observations with behaviorists.

C

Correct. Bandura suggests observational learning (learning that results from merely watching others), there children acquire a variety of new behaviors when models are merely pursuing their own interests and not attempting to teach, reward, or punish, is another important method of learning behaviors.

D

Incorrect. Bandura suggested that children acquire new behaviors from observational learning in which the behavior is learned when the teacher or model is least aware they are being observed.

PTS:1REF:p. 174 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

50.Which of the following statements best demonstrates social learning theory applied in a health care setting?

a.

Children cooperate with a procedure if they see other children or adults cooperating for the same or similar procedure.

b.

The nurse shows the child the equipment and lets the child play with it until the procedure takes place.

c.

The respiratory therapist shows the child how to use a nasal inhaler and lets the child then demonstrate the use of the inhaler.

d.

Children play with peers in a playroom rather than staying in bed in the acute care hospital.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Social learning theory is also readily applicable to health care. Children often will cooperate with procedures (blood draws, X rays) if they see other children or adults they emulate cooperating for the same procedure.

B

Incorrect. The following statement does not best demonstrates social learning theory applied in a health care setting: The nurse shows the child the equipment and lets the child play with it until the procedure takes place.

C

Incorrect. The following statement does not best demonstrates social learning theory applied in a health care setting: The respiratory therapist shows the child how to use a nasal inhaler and lets the child then demonstrate the use of the inhaler.

D

Incorrect. The following statement does not best demonstrates social learning theory applied in a health care setting: Children play with peers in a playroom rather than staying in bed in the acute care hospital.

PTS:1REF:p. 174 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

51.Piaget believed that interactions with the environment caused people to organize patterns of thought called:

a.

synapses

c.

strings

b.

schema

d.

social maps

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Piaget did not label interactions with the environment that caused people to organize patterns of thought synapses.

B

Correct. To Piaget, interactions with the environment caused people to organize patterns of thought (schema), which they used to interpret or make sense of their experiences.

C

Incorrect. Piaget did not call interactions with the environment that caused people to organize patterns of thought strings.

D

Incorrect. Piaget did not call interactions with the environment that caused people to organize patterns of thought social maps.

PTS:1REF:p. 176 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

52.Piaget theorized that development moves from:

a.

simple to complexbegins with the concrete and proceeds to abstraction

b.

head to toebegins with the face and proceeds to the hands and feet

c.

easy to difficultbegins with smiling and proceeds to complex thinking

d.

physical to neuronalbegins with small movements and proceeds to communication

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. According to Piaget, cognitive development occurs gradually, sequentially, and without regression. He postulated that development moves from simple to complex, begins with concrete situations and objects, and proceeds to abstraction.

B

Incorrect. Piaget did not theorize that development moves from head to toebegins with the face and proceeds to the hands and feet (cephalocaudal development).

C

Incorrect. Piaget did not theorize that development moves from easy to difficultbegins with smiling and proceeds to complex thinking.

D

Incorrect. Piaget did not theorize that development moves from physical to neuronalbegins with small movements and proceeds to communication.

PTS:1REF:p. 176 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

53.According to Piaget, the coordination of the secondary schemes phase of development (8 to 12 months) occurs when the infant:

a.

is interested in novelty and repetition as seen in activities such as continual hitting with a hammer

b.

understands concepts of space and object permanence and anticipates actions of others

c.

is able to think before acting and use memory for simple trial-and-error problem solving

d.

can name and locate familiar objects and demonstrate symbolic and ritualistic play

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Piaget characterizes the tertiary circular reactions phase (12-18 months) by the infants interest in novelty and repetition as seen in activities such as continual hitting with a hammer.

B

Correct. According to Piaget, the coordination of the secondary schemes phase of development (8 to 12 months) occurs when the infant understands concepts of space and object permanence and anticipates actions of others.

C

Incorrect. Piaget describes the mental combinations phase (18-24 months) as the stage at which children are able to think before acting and use memory for simple trial-and-error problem solving.

D

Incorrect. Piaget describes the preconceptual phase, and characterizes it by saying the child can name and locate familiar objects and demonstrate symbolic and ritualistic play.

PTS:1REF:p. 176 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

54.When children use language and have a growing understanding of the past, present, and future, they are in which of the following stages or phases of a stage, according to Piaget?

a.

preoperational stage

c.

mental combinations phase

b.

preconceptual phase

d.

tertiary circular reactions phase

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct: During the preoperational stage (2-7 years) use language and have a growing understanding of the past, present, and future.

B

Incorrect: The preconceptual phase (2-4 years) is one phase of the preoperational stage and is characterized by increasing use of language, egocentric thought, symbolic play and mental imagery.

C

Incorrect: The mental combinations phase (18-24 months) is the 6th phase of the sensorimotor stage. During this phase children are able to think before acting and use memory for simple trial and error problem solving.

D

Incorrect: The tertiary circular reactions phase (12-18 months) is the 5th phase of the sensorimotor stage. It is characterized by interest in novelty, repetition, awareness that objects that are out of sight continue to exist, understanding causality, and soliciting help.

PTS:1REF:p. 176 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

55.According to Piaget, the concrete operations stage occurs in which of the following age ranges?

a.

3 to 6 years

c.

12 to 15 years

b.

7 to 11 years

d.

16 to 18 years

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect: The preoperational stage encompasses the age range of 2-7 years which would include 3-6 years of age.

B

Correct: The concrete operations stage occurs during the ages 7-11 years.

C

Incorrect: The age range 12-15 years is the formal operations stage which is 12 years and older.

D

Incorrect: The age range 16-18 years is the formal operations stage.

PTS:1REF:p. 176 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

56.According to Piaget, a child whose thinking is characterized by systematic and abstract thinking and who is able to consider alternative solutions is in which of the following stages?

a.

abstract stage

c.

systematic operations stage

b.

parable stage

d.

formal operations stage

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect: There is not an abstract stage according to Piagets theory.

B

Incorrect: There is not a parable stage according to Piagets theory.

C

Incorrect: There is not a systematic operations stage according to Piagets theory.

D

Correct: A child in the formal operations stage is capable of systematic and abstract thinking and is able to consider alternative solutions.

PTS:1REF:p. 176 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

57.According to Kohlberg, the first level of moral development is called:

a.

preconventional

c.

conventional

b.

instrumental realistic orientation

d.

postconventional

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct: The first level of moral development is called the preconventional level (birth to 7 years of age) and is characterized by an egocentric focus.

B

Incorrect: The instrumental realistic orientation stage (4-7 years) is the third stage of the preconventional level.

C

Incorrect: The second level of moral development is called the conventional level (school years).

D

Incorrect: The third level of moral development is called the postconventional level (12 years and older).

PTS:1REF:p. 181 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

58.The first level of moral development according to Kohlberg is divided into three stages. Which of the following types of behavior characterizes stage zero?

a.

magical thinking

c.

sharing

b.

impulsiveness

d.

goodness

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect: Magical thinking does not characterize stage zero.

B

Correct: Stage zero is characterized by impulses that rule behavior. What is good is pleasant or exciting; what is bad is painful or fearful.

C

Incorrect: Sharing is seen in stage 3 (interpersonal concordance orientation) of the second level of morality called the conventional level, not stage zero.

D

Incorrect: Goodness characterizes the interpersonal concordance orientation, not stage zero.

PTS:1REF:p. 180 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

59.During stage one of Kohlbergs stages of moral development, the child conforms to rules:

a.

to please caregivers

c.

because children like rules

b.

due to fear of punishment

d.

to get rewards

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect: A child conforming to rules to please caregivers is in stage three (interpersonal concordance orientation) of the second level of morality called the conventional level.

B

Correct: During stage one (punishment and obedience orientation stage) of the first level of moral development (preconventional level), the child conforms to rules due to fear of punishment.

C

Incorrect: During stage one (punishment and obedience orientation stage) of the first level of moral development (preconventional level), the child conforms to rules due to fear of punishment, not because the child likes rules.

D

Incorrect: During stage one (punishment and obedience orientation stage) of the first level of moral development (preconventional level), the child conforms to rules due to fear of punishment, not to get rewards.

PTS:1REF:p. 181 Theories of Human Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

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