Chapter 52: Nursing Management: Breast Disorders My Nursing Test Banks

Lewis: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition

Chapter 52: Nursing Management: Breast Disorders

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. When teaching a 28-year-old patient about breast self-examination (BSE), the nurse will instruct the patient that

a.

BSE will reduce the risk of dying from breast cancer.

b.

BSE should be done daily while taking a bath or shower.

c.

annual mammograms should be scheduled in addition to BSE.

d.

performing BSE right after the menstrual period will improve comfort.

ANS: D

Performing BSE at the end of the menstrual period will reduce the breast tenderness associated with the procedure. The evidence is not clear that BSE reduces breast cancer mortality. BSE should be done monthly. Annual mammograms are not routinely scheduled for women under age 40.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1306-1308

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. To determine the risk for breast cancer in a 52-year-old patient who has found a small lump in her breast, which question is most pertinent for the nurse to ask?

a.

Do you currently smoke cigarettes?

b.

Have you ever had any breast injuries?

c.

At what age did you start having menstrual periods?

d.

Is there any family history of fibrocystic breast changes?

ANS: C

Early menarche and late menopause are risk factors for breast cancer because of the prolonged exposure to estrogen that occurs. Cigarette smoking, breast trauma, and fibrocystic breast changes are not associated with increased breast cancer risk.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1311

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

3. A patient with a small immobile breast lump is advised to have a fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. The nurse explains that an advantage to this procedure is that

a.

FNA is done in the outpatient clinic, and results are available in 1 to 2 days.

b.

only a small incision is needed, resulting in minimal breast pain and scarring.

c.

if the biopsy results are negative, no further diagnostic testing will be needed.

d.

FNA is guided by a mammogram, ensuring that cells are taken from the lesion.

ANS: A

FNA is done in outpatient settings and results are available in 24 to 48 hours. No incision is needed. FNA may be guided by ultrasound, but not by mammogram. Since the immobility of the breast lump suggests cancer, further testing will be done if the FNA is negative.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1308

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

4. When the nurse is assessing the breasts of a 31-year-old, which finding is most indicative of a need for further evaluation?

a.

Bilateral nodules that are tender with palpation

b.

A nodule that is 1 cm in size, painless, and fixed

c.

A lump that increases in size before the menstrual period

d.

A lump that is small, mobile, and has a rubbery consistency

ANS: B

Painless and fixed lumps suggest breast cancer. The other findings are more suggestive of benign processes such as fibrocystic breasts and fibroadenoma.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1309-1310

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

5. A 51-year-old woman at menopause is considering the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) but is concerned about the risk of breast cancer. Which information will the nurse include when discussing HRT with the patient?

a.

HRT does not appear to increase the risk for breast cancer unless there are other risk factors.

b.

HRT is a safe therapy for menopausal symptoms if there is no family history of BRCAgenes.

c.

She and her health care provider must weigh the benefits of HRT against the possible risks of breast cancer.

d.

Alternative therapies with herbs and natural drugs are as effective as estrogen in relieving menopausal symptoms.

ANS: C

Because HRT has been linked to increased risk for breast cancer, the patient and provider must determine whether or not to use HRT. Breast cancer incidence is increased in women using HRT, independent of other risk factors. HRT increases the risk for both nonBRCA-associated cancer and BRCA-related cancers. Alternative therapies can be used but are not consistent in relieving menopausal symptoms.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1311

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

6. A patient with stage II breast cancer tells the nurse, I need to decide about what type of surgery to have, but I feel so overwhelmed that I cannot make any decisions yet! What do you think I should do? Which response by the nurse is best?

a.

I would have a lumpectomy, but you need to decide what is best for you.

b.

Tell me what you understand about the surgical options that are available.

c.

It would not be appropriate for me to make the decision about your health.

d.

There is no need to make a decision rapidly; you have time to think about this.

ANS: B

This response indicates the nurses willingness to assist the patient with the decision-making process without imposing the nurses values or opinions. Response B indicates that the nurse is not willing to help the patient with the decision about treatment. Because treatment decisions for breast cancer do need to be made relatively quickly, response C is not accurate. Since the nurses values and situation are not the same as the patients, imposing the nurses opinions during this emotionally vulnerable time is not appropriate.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1320

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity

7. A patient at the clinic who has metastatic breast cancer has a new prescription for trastuzumab (Herceptin). The nurse will plan to

a.

have the patient schedule frequent eye examinations.

b.

instruct the patient to call if she notices ankle swelling.

c.

remind the patient that hot flashes may occur with the medication.

d.

teach the patient about the need to monitor serum electrolyte levels.

ANS: B

Herceptin can lead to ventricular dysfunction, so the patient is taught to self-monitor for symptoms of heart failure. There is no need to monitor serum electrolyte levels. Hot flashes or changes in visual acuity may occur with tamoxifen, but not with trastuzumab.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1319-1320 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

8. The pathology report for a 42-year-old who has had a modified radical mastectomy identifies the tumor as an estrogen-receptor positive adenocarcinoma. The nurse will plan on teaching the patient about

a.

estradiol (Estrace).

b.

raloxifene (Evista).

c.

tamoxifen (Nolvadex).

d.

trastuzumab (Herceptin).

ANS: C

Tamoxifen is used for estrogen-dependent breast tumors in premenopausal women. Raloxifene is used to prevent breast cancer, but it is not used postmastectomy to treat breast cancer. Estradiol will increase the growth of estrogen-dependent tumors. Trastuzumab is used to treat tumors that have the HER-2 receptor.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1318-1319 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

9. A patient returns to the surgical unit following a right modified radical mastectomy with dissection of axillary lymph nodes. Which nursing action should be included in the plan of care?

a.

Insist that the patient examine the surgical incision when the dressings are removed.

b.

Teach the patient to use the ordered patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) every 10 minutes.

c.

Post a sign at the bedside warning against blood pressures or venipunctures in the right arm.

d.

Obtain a permanent breast prosthesis for the patient before she is discharged from the hospital.

ANS: C

The patient is at risk for lymphedema and infection if blood pressures or venipuncture are done on the right arm. The patient is taught to use the PCA as needed for pain control rather than at a set time. The nurse allows the patient to examine the incision and participate in care when the patient feels ready. Permanent breast prostheses are usually obtained about 6 weeks after surgery.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1320-1323 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

10. After the nurse completes discharge teaching for a patient who has had a left modified radical mastectomy and lymph node dissection, which statement by the patient indicates that teaching has been successful?

a.

I will need to use my right arm and to rest the left one.

b.

I will avoid reaching over the stove with my left hand.

c.

I will keep my left arm in a sling until the incision is healed.

d.

I will stop the left arm exercises if moving the arm is painful.

ANS: B

The patient should avoid any activity that might injure the left arm, such as reaching over a burner. If the left arm exercises are painful, analgesics should be used and the exercises continued in order to restore strength and range of motion. The left arm should be elevated at or above heart level and should be used to improve range of motion and function.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1320-1323 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

11. A patient has a saline breast implant inserted in the outpatient surgery area. Which instruction will the nurse include in the discharge teaching?

a.

Take aspirin every 4 hours to reduce inflammation.

b.

Check wound drains for excessive blood or any foul odor.

c.

Wear a loose-fitting bra to decrease irritation of the sutures.

d.

Resume normal activities 2 to 3 days after the mammoplasty.

ANS: B

The patient should be taught drain care because the drains will be in place for 2 or 3 days after surgery. Normal activities can be resumed after 2 to 3 weeks. A bra that provides good support is typically ordered. Aspirin will decrease coagulation and is typically not given after surgery.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1326-1327

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

12. Which information will the nurse include when teaching a patient about the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) procedure?

a.

Saline-filled implants are placed under the pectoral muscles.

b.

Recovery from the TRAM surgery takes at least 6 to 8 weeks.

c.

Muscle tissue is removed from the back and used to form a breast.

d.

TRAM flap procedures may be done in outpatient surgery centers.

ANS: B

Patients take at least 6 to 8 weeks to recover from the TRAM surgery. Tissue from the abdomen is used to reconstruct the breast. The TRAM procedure can take up to 8 hours and requires postoperative hospitalization. Saline implants are used in mammoplasty.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1326

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

13. Which statement by a 52-year-old patient newly diagnosed with stage I breast cancer indicates to the nurse that patient teaching may be needed?

a.

There are several options available for treating the cancer.

b.

I will probably need radiation to the breast after having the surgery.

c.

I can probably have reconstructive surgery at the same time as a mastectomy.

d.

Mastectomy will be the best choice to decrease the chance of cancer recurrence.

ANS: D

The survival rates with lumpectomy and radiation or modified radical mastectomy are comparable. The other patient statements indicate a good understanding of stage I breast cancer treatment.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1314-1316

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

14. When a patient is scheduled for stereotactic core biopsy of the breast, which information will the nurse include in patient education?

a.

A local anesthetic will be given before the biopsy specimen is obtained.

b.

You will need to lie flat on your back and lie very still during the biopsy.

c.

A thin needle will be inserted into the lump and aspirated to remove tissue.

d.

You should not have anything to eat or drink for 6 hours before the procedure.

ANS: A

A local anesthetic is given before stereotactic biopsy. NPO status is not needed because no sedative drugs are given. The patient is placed in the prone position. A biopsy gun is used to obtain the specimens.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1308

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

15. A student nurse prepares a list of teaching topics for a patient with a new diagnosis of breast cancer. Which topic indicates that the student needs more education about breast cancer diagnostic testing?

a.

CA 15-3 level testing

b.

HER-2 receptor testing

c.

Estrogen receptor testing

d.

Oncotype DX assay testing

ANS: A

Tumor markers such as CA 15-3 are used to monitor response to treatment for breast cancer, not to detect or diagnose breast cancer. The other tests are likely to be used for additional diagnostic testing in a patient with breast cancer.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1312-1314 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

16. After a patient is diagnosed with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), the nurse will anticipate that patient teaching may be needed about

a.

lumpectomy.

b.

lymphatic mapping.

c.

MammaPrint testing.

d.

tamoxifen (Nolvadex).

ANS: D

Tamoxifen is used as a chemopreventive therapy in some patients with LCIS. The other diagnostic tests and therapies are not needed because LCIS does not usually require treatment.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1312-1313 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

17. Following a lumpectomy, a patient is scheduled for external beam radiation to the right breast. Which information should the nurse include in patient teaching?

a.

The radiation therapy will take a week to complete.

b.

Careful skin care in the radiated area will be necessary.

c.

Visitors are restricted until the radiation therapy is completed.

d.

Wigs may be used until the hair regrows after radiation therapy.

ANS: B

Skin care will be needed because of the damage caused to the skin by the radiation. External beam radiation is done over a 5- to 6-week period. Hair loss does not occur with radiation therapy. Since the patient does not have radioactive implants, no visitor restrictions are necessary.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1314

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

18. After the nurse has completed teaching a patient who has breast cancer about the newly prescribed tamoxifen (Nolvadex), which patient statement indicates that the teaching has been effective?

a.

I will expect to have leg cramps with this drug.

b.

I will call the clinic if I develop any hot flashes.

c.

I will be taking the medication for at least a year.

d.

I will call immediately if I have any eye problems.

ANS: D

Retinopathy, cataracts, and decreased visual acuity should be immediately reported because it is likely that the tamoxifen will be discontinued or decreased. Tamoxifen treatment generally lasts 5 years. Hot flashes are an expected side effect of tamoxifen. Leg cramps may be a sign of deep vein thrombosis, and the patient should immediately notify the health care provider if pain occurs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1316-1317 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

19. Which action should the nurse take first when caring for a patient who has been admitted for lumpectomy and axillary lymph node dissection?

a.

Teach the patient how to deep breathe and cough.

b.

Discuss options for postoperative pain management.

c.

Explain the postdischarge care of the axillary drains.

d.

Ask the patient to describe what she knows about the surgery.

ANS: D

Before teaching, the nurse should assess the patients current knowledge level. The other teaching also may be appropriate, depending on the assessment findings.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1320-1323

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

20. When the nurse is working in the womens health care clinic, which of these actions is appropriate to take?

a.

Educate a healthy 36-year-old about the need for an annual mammogram.

b.

Discuss the need for a clinical breast examination every year with a 22-year-old.

c.

Talk about magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 26-year-old with a BRCA-1mutation.

d.

Teach an active 70-year-old that mammography frequency can be reduced to every 3 years.

ANS: C

MRI (in addition to mammography) is recommended for women who are at high risk for breast cancer. A 22-year-old patient should have a clinical breast exam every 3 years. Annual mammograms are recommended for women starting at age 40. Annual mammography is recommended for healthy older women.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1305-1308 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

21. When the nurse is caring for a patient with left arm lymphedema, which action will be included in the plan of care?

a.

Check BP on both right and left arms.

b.

Avoid isometric exercise on the left arm.

c.

Assist with application of compression dressings.

d.

Keep the left arm at or below the level of the heart.

ANS: C

Compression of the arm assists in improving lymphatic flow toward the heart. Isometric exercises may be prescribed for lymphedema. BPs should only be done on the patients right arm. The arm should not be placed in a dependent position.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1323 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

22. A 33-year-old who has a diagnosis of fibrocystic breast changes calls the nurse in the clinic with these symptoms. Which is most important to report to the health care provider?

a.

There is yellow-green discharge from one of the patients nipples.

b.

There is an area on the breast that is hot, pink, and tender to touch.

c.

The lumps are firm feeling and most are in the upper outer breast quadrants.

d.

The lumps are larger and more painful before the patients menstrual period.

ANS: B

An area that is hot or pink suggests an infectious process such as mastitis, which would require further assessment and treatment. The other information also will be reported, but these findings are typical in fibrocystic breasts.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1309

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

23. During examination of a 67-year-old man, the nurse notes bilateral enlargement of the breasts. Which action should the nurse take first?

a.

Question the patient about any medications being currently used.

b.

Teach the patient about how to palpate the breast tissue for lumps.

c.

Refer the patient for mammography and biopsy of the breast tissue.

d.

Explain that this is a temporary condition due to hormonal changes.

ANS: A

The first action should be further assessment. Since gynecomastia is a possible side effect of drug therapy, asking about the current drug regimen is appropriate. The other actions may be needed, depending on the data that are obtained with further assessment.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1310-1311

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

24. Which of the following nursing interventions for the patient who has had right-sided breast-conservation surgery and an axillary lymph node dissection is appropriate to delegate to an LPN/LVN?

a.

Teaching the patient how to avoid injury to the right arm

b.

Assessing the patients range of motion for the right arm

c.

Administering an analgesic 30 minutes before the scheduled arm exercises

d.

Evaluating the patients understanding of discharge instructions about drain care

ANS: C

LPN/LVN education and scope of practice include administration and evaluation of the effects of analgesics. Assessment, teaching, and evaluation of a patients understanding of instructions are more complex tasks that are more appropriate to RN level education and scope of practice.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1320-1324

OBJ: Special Questions: Delegation TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

25. When the nurse is caring for a patient with breast cancer who is receiving chemotherapy with doxorubicin (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), which assessment finding is most important to communicate to the health care provider?

a.

The patients apical pulse is irregular.

b.

The patient has complaints of fatigue.

c.

The patient eats only 15% of food on meal tray.

d.

The patients white blood cell (WBC) count is 5000/mm3.

ANS: A

Doxorubicin can cause cardiac toxicity; the dysrhythmia should be reported because it may indicate a need for a change in therapy. Anorexia, fatigue, and a low-normal WBC count are expected effects of chemotherapy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1318

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

Mosby items and derived items 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier, Inc.

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