Chapter 5: Health Promotion for the Developing Child My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 5: Health Promotion for the Developing Child

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which statement best describes development in infants and children?

a.

Development, a predictable and orderly process, occurs at varying rates within normal limits.

b.

Development is primarily related to the growth in the number and size of cells.

c.

Development occurs in a proximodistal direction with fine muscle development occurring first.

d.

Development is more easily and accurately measured than growth.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Development, a continuous and orderly process, provides the basis for increases in the childs function and complexity of behavior. The increases in rate of function and complexity can vary normally within limits for each child.

B

An increase in the number and size of cells is a definition for growth.

C

Development proceeds in a proximodistal direction with fine muscle organization occurring as a result of large muscle organization.

D

Development is a more complex process that is affected by many factors; therefore, it is less easily and accurately measured. Growth is a predictable process with standard measurement methods.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 68

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. Frequent developmental assessments are important for which reason?

a.

Stable developmental periods during infancy provide an opportunity to identify any delays or deficits.

b.

Infants need stimulation specific to the stage of development.

c.

Critical periods of development occur during childhood.

d.

Child development is unpredictable and needs monitoring.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Infancy is a dynamic time of development that requires frequent evaluations to assess appropriate developmental progress.

B

Infants in a nurturing environment will develop appropriately and will not necessarily need stimulation specific to their developmental stage.

C

Critical periods are blocks of time during which children are ready to master specific developmental tasks. The earlier those delays in development are discovered and intervention initiated, the less dramatic their effect will be.

D

Normal growth and development is orderly and proceeds in a predictable pattern based on each individuals abilities and potentials.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 71 | p. 78

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. Which factor has the greatest influence on child growth and development?

a.

Culture

b.

Environment

c.

Genetics

d.

Nutrition

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Culture is a significant factor that influences how children grow toward adulthood. Culture influences both growth and development but does not eliminate inborn genetic influences.

B

Environment has a significant role in determining growth and development both before and after birth. The environment can influence how and to which extent genetic traits are manifested, but environmental factors cannot eliminate the effect of genetics.

C

Genetic factors (heredity) determine each individuals growth and developmental rate. Although factors such as environment, culture, nutrition, and family can influence genetic traits, they do not eliminate the effect of the genetic endowment, which is permanent.

D

Nutrition is critical for growth and plays a significant role throughout childhood.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 71

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. The nurse is planning a teaching session for a young child and her parents. According to Piagets theory, the period of cognitive development in which the child is able to distinguish between concepts related to fact and fantasy, such as human beings are incapable of flying like birds, is the _______ period of cognitive development.

a.

Sensorimotor

b.

Formal operations

c.

Concrete operations

d.

Preoperational

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The sensorimotor stage occurs in infancy and is a period of reflexive behavior. During this period, the infants world becomes more permanent and organized. The stage ends with the infant demonstrating some evidence of reasoning.

B

Formal operations is a period in development in which new ideas are created through previous thoughts. Analytic reason and abstract thought emerge in this period.

C

Concrete operations is the period of cognitive development in which childrens thinking is shifted from egocentric to being able to see anothers point of view. They develop the ability to distinguish fact from fantasy.

D

The preoperational stage is a period of egocentrism in which the childs judgments are illogical and dominated by magical thinking and animism.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 73

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. The theorist who viewed developmental progression as a lifelong series of conflicts that need resolution is

a.

Erikson

b.

Freud

c.

Kohlberg

d.

Piaget

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Erik Erikson viewed development as a series of conflicts affected by social and cultural factors. Each conflict must be resolved for the child to progress emotionally, with unsuccessful resolution leaving the child emotionally disabled.

B

Sigmund Freud proposed a psychosexual theory of development. He proposed that certain parts of the body assume psychological significance as foci of sexual energy. The foci shift as the individual moves through the different stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) of development.

C

Lawrence Kohlberg described moral development as having three levels (preconventional, conventional, and postconventional). His theory closely parallels Piagets.

D

Jean Piagets cognitive theory interprets how children learn and think and how this thinking progresses and differs from adult thinking. Stages of his theory include sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, and formal operations.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 76

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. What does the nurse need to know when observing a chronically ill child at play?

a.

Play is not important to hospitalized children.

b.

Children need to have structured play periods.

c.

Childrens play is a form of communication.

d.

Play is to be discouraged because it tires hospitalized children.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Play is important to all children in all environments. Play for children is a mechanism for mastering their environment.

B

Although childrens play activities appear to be unorganized and at times chaotic, play has purpose and meaning. Imposing structure on play interferes with the tasks being worked on.

C

Play for all children is an activity woven with meaning and purpose. For chronically ill children, play can indicate their state of wellness and response to treatment. It is a way to express joy, fear, anxiety, and disappointments.

D

Children who have fewer energy reserves still require play. For these children, less-active play activities will be important.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 80

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

7. Which child is most likely to be frightened by hospitalization?

a.

A 4-month-old infant admitted with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis

b.

A 2-year-old toddler admitted for cystic fibrosis

c.

A 9-year-old child hospitalized with a fractured femur

d.

A 15-year-old adolescent admitted for abdominal pain

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Young infants are not as likely to be as frightened as toddlers by hospitalization because they are not as aware of the environment.

B

Toddlers are most likely to be frightened by hospitalization because their thought processes are egocentric, magical, and illogical. They feel very threatened by unfamiliar people and strange environments.

C

The 9-year-old childs cognitive ability is sufficient enough for the child to understand the reason for hospitalization.

D

The 15-year-old adolescent has the cognitive ability to interpret the reason for hospitalization.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 74 | Table 5-2

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. Which expected outcome is developmentally appropriate for a hospitalized 4-year-old child?

a.

The child will be dressed and fed by the parents.

b.

The child will independently ask for play materials or other personal needs.

c.

The child will be able to verbalize an understanding of the reason for the hospitalization.

d.

The child will have a parent stay in the room at all times.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Parents need to foster appropriate developmental behavior in the 4-year-old child. Dressing and feeding the child do not encourage independent behavior.

B

Erikson identifies initiative as a developmental task for the preschool child. Initiating play activities and asking for play materials or assistance with personal needs demonstrates developmental appropriateness.

C

A 4-year-old child cannot be expected to cognitively understand the reason for hospitalization. Expecting the child to verbalize an understanding for hospitalization is an inappropriate outcome.

D

Parents staying with the child throughout a hospitalization is an inappropriate outcome. Although children benefit from parental involvement, parents may not have the support structure to stay in the room with the child at all times.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 74 | Table 5-2

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. A preschool aged child will be receiving immunizations. Which statement identifies an appropriate level of language development for a 4-year-old child?

a.

The child has a vocabulary of 300 words and uses simple sentences.

b.

The child uses correct grammar in sentences.

c.

The child is able to pronounce consonants clearly.

d.

The child uses language to express abstract thought.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Simple sentences and a 300-word vocabulary are appropriate for a 2-year-old child.

B

The 4-year-old child is able to use correct grammar in sentence structure.

C

The 4-year-old child typically has difficulty in pronouncing consonants.

D

The use of language to express abstract thought is developmentally appropriate for the adolescent.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 77

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. Which children are at greater risk for not receiving immunizations?

a.

Children who attend licensed daycare programs

b.

Children entering school

c.

Children who are home schooled

d.

Young adults entering college

ANS: C

Feedback

A

All states require immunizations for children in daycare programs.

B

All states require immunizations for children entering school.

C

Home-schooled children are at risk for being underimmunized and need to be monitored.

D

Most colleges require a record of immunizations as part of a health history.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 84

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

11. Which developmental assessment instrument is appropriate to assess a 5-year-old child?

a.

Brazelton Behavioral Scale

b.

Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II)

c.

Dubowitz Scale

d.

New Ballard Scale

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The Brazelton Behavioral Scale is used for newborn assessment.

B

The DDST-II is used for infants and children between birth and 6 years of age.

C

The Dubowitz Scale is used for estimation of gestational age.

D

The New Ballard Scale is used for newborn screening.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 78

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12. A 2-month-old child has not received any immunizations. Which immunizations should the nurse give?

a.

DTaP, Hib, HepB, MCV, varicella

b.

DTaP, Hib, HepB, HPV, IPV, Rota

c.

DTaP, Hib, HepB, PCV, Rota

d.

DTaP, Hib, HepB, PCV, HepA

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Meningococcal vaccine should be administered to children at 11 to 12 years of age.

B

Human papillomavirus vaccine is administered to adolescent girls only.

C

DTaP, Hib, HepB, PCV, IPV, and Rota are appropriate immunizations for an unimmunized 2-month-old child.

D

HepA is recommended for all children at 1 year of age.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 83

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

13. The environment, both physical and psychosocial, is a significant determinate of growth and development outcomes before and after birth. Nurses can assist parents in preventing environmental injury for their 2-year-old toddler by teaching them to avoid the most common sources of exposure. This anticipatory guidance includes teaching related to

a.

Avoiding sun exposure, secondhand smoke, and lead

b.

Socioeconomic status, primarily poverty

c.

Maternal smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy

d.

The passing of environmental toxins through breast milk

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Lead can be present in the home and in toys made overseas. Environmental injury can also be the result of mercury, pesticides (flea and tick collars), radon, and exposure to the sun and secondhand smoke. It is important for the nurse to provide health teaching related to these factors.

B

The nurse is unable to influence socioeconomic status.

C

It is too late for the nurse to instruct the mother regarding smoking or alcohol intake during pregnancy. This should have been included in prenatal teaching.

D

It is unlikely that a 2-year-old child will still be breastfeeding.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 71

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. Which immunizations should be used with caution in children with an allergy to eggs?

a.

HepB

b.

DTaP

c.

Hib

d.

MMR

ANS: D

Feedback

A

HepB is safe for children with an egg allergy.

B

DTaP is safe for children with an egg allergy.

C

Hib is safe for children with an egg allergy.

D

Live measles vaccine is produced by using chick embryo cell culture, so there is a remote possibility of anaphylactic hypersensitivity in children with egg allergies. Most reactions are actually the result of other components in the vaccine.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 85

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

15. When counseling parents and children about the importance of increased physical activity, the nurse can emphasize

a.

Anaerobic exercise should comprise a major component of the childs daily exercise.

b.

All children should be physically active for at least 2 hours per day.

c.

It is not necessary to participate in physical education classes at school if a student is taking part in other activities.

d.

Making exercise fun and a habitual activity.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Aerobic exercise should comprise a major component of childrens daily exercise; however, physical activity should also include muscle and bone strengthening activities.

B

Children and adolescents should be physically active for at least 1 hour daily.

C

Encourage all student to participate fully in any physical education classes.

D

It is important to make exercise a fun and a habitual activity. Encourage parents to investigate their communitys different activity programs. This includes recreation centers, parks, and the YMCA.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 87

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. Which is the preferred site for administration of the Hib vaccine to an infant?

a.

Deltoid

b.

Anterolateral thigh

c.

Upper, outer aspect of the arm

d.

Dorsal gluteal region

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The deltoid muscle is not used for infants.

B

The anterolateral thigh is the preferred site for intramuscular administration of vaccines for infants.

C

Subcutaneous injections can be given in the upper arm. The HIB vaccine is given by the intramuscular route.

D

The dorsal gluteal site is never used for vaccines.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 84

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. What should the nurse evaluate before administering the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II)? Select all that apply.

a.

The childs height and weight

b.

The parents ability to comprehend the results

c.

The childs mood

d.

The parent-child interaction

e.

The childs chronologic age

ANS: C, E

Feedback

Correct

The results of the screening test are valid if the child acted in a normal and expected manner. The childs chronologic age in years, months, and days must be calculated in order to draw the age line. This is necessary in order to perform an accurate DDST-II. Reliability and validity of the test can be altered if the child is not feeling well or is under the influence of medications.

Incorrect

The childs height and weight are not relevant to the DDST-II screening process. The parents ability to understand the results of the screening is not relevant to the validity of the test. The parent-child interaction is not significantly relevant to the test results.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 79

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. You are preparing immunizations for a 12-month-old child who is immunocompromised. Which immunizations cannot be given? Select all that apply.

a.

DTaP

b.

HepA

c.

IPV

d.

Varicella

e.

MMR

ANS: D, E

Feedback

Correct

Children who are immunologically compromised should not receive live viral vaccines. Varicella is a live vaccine and should not be given except in special circumstances. MMR is a live vaccine and should not be given to immunologically compromised children.

Incorrect

DTaP, HepA, and IPV can be given safely.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 85

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

TRUE/FALSE

1. Breastfeeding is the ideal method for providing nutrition to the human infant and is recommended by the American Heart Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the World Health Organization. Infants should be exclusively breastfed for a minimum of 4 months and preferably 6 months. Is this statement true or false?

ANS: T

This statement is correct. Solid food should not be introduced until 4 to 6 months of age. Breastfeeding should accompany solid food introduction until 1 year of age.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 86 | Box 5-6

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

COMPLETION

1. A type of play that allows children to act out roles and experiences that may have happened to them, that they fear may happen, or that they have observed in others is known as ______ play.

ANS:

dramatic

This type of play can be spontaneous or guided and often includes medical or nursing equipment. It is especially valuable for children who have had or will have multiple procedures or hospitalizations.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 80

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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