Chapter 45- Anatomy and Physiology of the Hematological and Immune Systems. My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

Normal red blood cell development requires specific nutrients for formation. Which of the following aid red blood cell development? Select all that apply.

A)

Iron

B)

Vitamin B12

C)

Folic acid

D)

Vitamin K

2.

Describe the main difference between granulocytes and agranulocytes.

A)

Granulocytes are white blood cells, whereas agranulocytes are platelets.

B)

Granulocytes are white blood cells, whereas agranulocytes are immature white blood cells.

C)

Granulocytes include monocytes, whereas agranulocytes include basophils.

D)

Granulocytes contain lysosomal granules, whereas agranulocytes do not.

3.

Hemostatic homeostasis is maintained through which three interdependent components?

A)

Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

B)

Serum, blood coagulation factors, and blood cells

C)

Blood vessels, blood pressure, and platelets

D)

Blood vessels, platelets, and blood coagulation factors

4.

Which of the following are involved in innate (general) immune defenses? Select all that apply.

A)

Skin

B)

Antibody response to an antigen

C)

Stomach acid

D)

Urine flow

E)

Maternal transfer of antibodies

5.

A patient with a skin wound shows pus-colored exudate and redness. Which of the following stages of the inflammatory response is demonstrated in this patient?

A)

Vascular stage

B)

Cell exudate stage

C)

Tissue repair stage

D)

Production of antibody stage

6.

A patient had a severe case of pneumonia for a few weeks. The patient became concerned that 2 weeks of antibiotics were not helping and went to the doctor for a repeat checkup. A sputum sample led to a lung biopsy, which revealed the causative organism to be Aspergillus, an opportunistic infection. What are some similarities between the patients innate (general) and adaptive (acquired) immune systems? Select all that apply.

A)

They have highly specialized, systemic cells.

B)

They work to eliminate, or prevent attack of self from non-self.

C)

They have cells that originate in the bone marrow.

D)

They have humoral immunity and can make IgG.

7.

A patients white blood cell count is:

WBC: 6,000 cells/mm3

Segmented neutrophils: 30%

Lymphocytes: 70%

This patient has an infection, yet the WBC count is low. What does this indicate? Select all that apply.

A)

A low WBC count with an infection may indicate a fungal disease.

B)

The neutrophil count may indicate depressed bone marrow.

C)

The neutrophil count may indicate a stress response due to hospitalization.

D)

A low WBC count may indicate early stages of leukemia

8.

The immune response is complex and involves humoral and cell-mediated components. Which of the following is considered the first stage of the immune response?

A)

Helper T cells are activated with the help of interleukin.

B)

Macrophages process antigens and give them to T cells in lymph tissue.

C)

T cells produce lymphokines which stimulate antibody-producing B cells.

D)

Macrophages remove cellular debris.

9.

A patient weighing 70 kg lost approximately 3,500 mL of blood in a traumatic incident. What signs and symptoms does the nurse expect to find?

A)

Vital signs within normal range due to compensation

B)

Skin warm and dry with capillary refill less than 3 seconds

C)

Alert and oriented to person, place, time, and bodily relationships

D)

Peripheral cyanosis, cool skin, diaphoresis, and weak thready pulse

10.

A patient has been malnourished for a long time. What essential component of plasma does the nurse most expect to be low?

A)

Albumin

B)

B lymphocytes

C)

Sodium

D)

Platelets

11.

A patient has a disease that interferes with the production of vitamin B12. What reduced blood component does the nurse most expect to find?

A)

Lymphocytes

B)

Platelets

C)

Neutrophils

D)

Erythrocytes

12.

The patient has been exposed to significant levels of carbon monoxide. What component of blood does the nurse most need to examine for adverse effects?

A)

Plasma volume

B)

Neutrophil count

C)

Hemoglobin saturation

D)

Arterial plasma pH

13.

A patient has an acute infection. What type of blood cell does the nurse expect to be increased?

A)

Erythrocytes

B)

Neutrophils

C)

Platelets

D)

Basophils

14.

A patient has damage to the endothelial surfaces of blood vessels. The nurse expects which of the following as the most useful normal body reaction?

A)

Vasodilation of damaged vessels

B)

Migration of basophils to damaged areas

C)

Attraction of platelets to exposed collagen

D)

Activation of B-lymphocyte antibodies

15.

A patient has suffered a major trauma, resulting in activation of the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. What laboratory result would most likely interfere with normal coagulation?

A)

Normal fibrin level

B)

Normal platelet count

C)

Elevated phospholipids

D)

Critical hypocalcemia

16.

A patient has undergone surgery that resulted in unexpected massive blood loss. The bodys normal systems compensate to prevent excessive blood loss through clotting. Under normal circumstances, what is the most important body process that is activated after the coagulation pathways are activated?

A)

Cellular phagocytosis

B)

Antigenantibody formation

C)

Coagulation inhibition

D)

Platelet attraction to collagen

17.

The patient has acquired immunity to the measles virus. What is the central component of this acquired immunity?

A)

Presence of natural killer cells

B)

Developed antibodies

C)

Platelets and eosinophils

D)

Bone marrow stem cells

18.

A culture report shows that a patients oral pharynx is colonized with normal flora. What treatment does the nurse expect?

A)

None, since normal flora are protective

B)

Antiviral treatment

C)

The test should be repeated.

D)

Antibiotics

19.

The patient has received a solid organ graft and is receiving drug therapy to suppress cell-mediated immunity. What portion of the immune system does this medication suppress?

A)

Erythrocytes

B)

Gastric acid production

C)

T lymphocytes

D)

Platelets

20.

A patient has a bacterial infection that has stimulated his humoral immune response. In which of the following does the nurse expect to find an increase?

A)

Neutrophils

B)

T lymphocytes

C)

Immunoglobulins

D)

Platelet aggregation

Answer Key

1.

A, B, C

2.

D

3.

D

4.

A, C, D

5.

B

6.

A, B, C

7.

B, C

8.

B

9.

D

10.

A

11.

D

12.

C

13.

B

14.

C

15.

D

16.

C

17.

B

18.

A

19.

C

20.

C

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