Chapter 42- Anatomy and Physiology of the Endocrine System My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

A patient has just suffered a serious traumatic injury, resulting in the release of high levels of endogenous catecholamines. As part of the admission laboratory assessment, the nurse notices a high serum glucose level. What is the most appropriate nursing assessment?

A)

Assume the patient is diabetic.

B)

Restrict caloric intake.

C)

Reassess glucose levels.

D)

Assume the result is a laboratory error.

2.

Patients being cared for in ICUs secrete increased amounts of glucocorticoids in response to stress. What laboratory test result is most indicative of the development of a life-threatening complication secondary to the increased secretion of glucocorticoids?

A)

Increased blood glucose

B)

Increased neutrophils

C)

Decreased lymphocytes

D)

Decreased serum myoglobin

3.

A patient is found to have a vitamin D deficiency, putting her at risk for bone demineralization. What factors would contribute to this deficiency? Select all that apply.

A)

Lack of exposure to sunlight

B)

Lack of exercise

C)

Tumor of the posterior pituitary

D)

Dietary deficiency

E)

Insulin resistance

F)

Presence of 7-dehydrocholesterol provitamins in the skin

4.

A patient has a plasma calcium level of 10.5 mg/dL due to excessive intake of vitamin Denriched foods. In response, the nurse should expect to see which of the following?

A)

Decreased parathyroid hormone

B)

Vitamin C deficiency

C)

Increased serum phosphate

D)

Increased serum calcitonin

5.

A patient with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes demonstrates high levels of serum C-peptide. What other findings should the nurse expect in this patient? Select all that apply.

A)

High levels of serum insulin

B)

High levels of blood glucose

C)

Decreased pancreatic activity

D)

Low body weight

6.

A patient with stable type 1 diabetes is in the ICU. He has been taking insulin injections regularly. The nurse receives blood test results back for this patient. What should she most expect to see in the test results?

A)

Elevated blood glucose

B)

Low C-peptide

C)

Elevated cholesterol

D)

Decreased blood pH

7.

A patient in the ICU has been under tremendous stress following myocardial infarction. She has no history of diabetes, but her blood glucose level is elevated. Increase in the serum level of which substance would most likely explain the elevated blood glucose level in this patient?

A)

Insulin

B)

Cortisol

C)

C-peptide

D)

Calcium

8.

A patient has been prescribed an incretin. Which of the following should the nurse expect to seen in the patient as a result of taking this medication?

A)

Increased blood glucose

B)

Delayed gastric emptying

C)

Increased appetite

D)

Dehydration

9.

A patient just underwent a kidney transplant and is receiving a glucocorticoid to suppress his immune system to avoid organ rejection. Which side effect should the nurse most expect to find in this patient?

A)

Hives

B)

Asthma

C)

Minimal-change glomerular disease

D)

Cushings syndrome

10.

A patient has been diagnosed with a tumor of the hypothalamus gland and demonstrates sustained elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) levels. What should the nurse most expect to see in this patient?

A)

Abnormal glucocorticoid secretion pattern over the course of 24 hours

B)

Decreased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels

C)

Absence of glucocorticoid secretion

D)

Hypoglycemia

11.

A patient in the ICU has cardiac failure and resultant low renal perfusion, which triggers the renin-angiotensin mechanism. Which of the following should the nurse expect to happen as a result of this mechanism?

A)

Elevation of systemic blood pressure

B)

Decreased aldosterone secretion

C)

Dehydration

D)

Dilation of vascular smooth muscle

12.

A patient with hypertension is receiving medication that disrupts the renin-angiotensin mechanism and thus lowers his systemic blood pressure. Which of the following is most likely the medication he is on?

A)

Propranolol

B)

Insulin

C)

Glucocorticoid

D)

Somatostatin

13.

Due to an interruption in the communication between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary gland, a patient has a deficit of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). What physical symptom does the nurse expect?

A)

Very dilute urine with high volume

B)

Very concentrated urine with low volume

C)

Very dilute urine with low volume

D)

Very concentrated urine with high volume

14.

An adult has experienced damage to the anterior pituitary gland that has interfered with the secretion of growth hormone. The nurse expects what adverse effect on the patient as a direct result?

A)

None, since the patient is an adult

B)

Increased risk for anemia

C)

Increased sensitivity to insulin

D)

Decreased cellular repair

15.

In a patient with hyperthyroidism, what symptoms does the nurse most expect?

A)

Lethargy and hair loss

B)

Tachycardia and muscle weakness

C)

Hypotension and weight gain

D)

Increased serum lipids

16.

A patient has a parathyroid tumor causing oversecretion of parathyroid hormone. What intervention does the nurse implement to prevent a complication of this oversecretion?

A)

Fall precautions

B)

Frequent vital signs

C)

Weight-bearing exercise

D)

Water-soluble vitamins

17.

What is the main aspect of diabetes mellitus type 2 that is not found in type 1?

A)

Increased secretion of insulin by the pancreas

B)

Increased insulin receptors on most cells

C)

Need for exogenous insulin therapy

D)

Inability to self-regulate glucose levels

18.

A patient is receiving a glucocorticoid to reduce inflammation and has a persistently high blood glucose level. What action is this glucose level most likely due to?

A)

Glycogen

B)

Glucagon

C)

Insulin resistance

D)

Intravenous amino acids

19.

Patients being cared for in critical care units secrete increased amounts of glucocorticoids in response to stress. What laboratory test result is most indicative of the development of a life-threatening complication secondary to the increased secretion of glucocorticoids?

A)

Increased blood glucose

B)

Increased eosinophils

C)

Decreased lymphocytes

D)

Decreased serum myoglobin

20.

A patient is in hypovolemic shock but has a normal blood pressure. The nurse understands that part of the rationale for this effect is activation of the renin-angiotensin system and the subsequent secretion of aldosterone. What physiologic effect does the activation of aldosterone result in?

A)

Inhibition of vasoconstriction

B)

Reabsorption of sodium and water

C)

Promotion of central vasodilation

D)

Inhibition of peripheral vasoconstriction

21.

A patient is receiving a glucocorticoid medication for treatment of severe allergic inflammation. What is the most significant effect of increased glucocorticoid levels that the nurse teaches the patient?

A)

Water retention

B)

Sodium retention

C)

Immune suppression

D)

Complement activation

Answer Key

1.

C

2.

C

3.

A, D

4.

D

5.

A, B

6.

B

7.

B

8.

B

9.

D

10.

A

11.

A

12.

A

13.

A

14.

B

15.

B

16.

A

17.

A

18.

B

19.

C

20.

B

21.

C

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