Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. Nurse Tonis assignment included a 41-year-old male client. Per Erikson, which developmental stage is the patient at?

A.

Focus on having a family

B.

Does not assume responsibility for his actions

C.

Unable to solve problems

D.

Perceptions are based on illusions

____ 2. A nursing intervention for the initial phase of grief should focus on:

A.

Ignoring the patient until your presence is requested.

B.

Staying available to provide support when the person demonstrates distress.

C.

Insisting the person face reality of the loss.

D.

Organizing a support group to provide a support system.

 

____ 3. Joy is occupied exclusively with thoughts of her fathers death. Although Joy is preoccupied with his death, she is still planning to purchase a gift for his birthday, which would have been in two more weeks. Dr. Leone advises the nurse to assist Joy through this stage of grief, which is known as:

A.

Denial.

B.

Anger.

C.

Bargaining.

D.

Acceptance.

____ 4. Freud defines the ego as:

A.

Helping to determine what is right and what is wrong.

B.

Being concerned with self-gratification.

C.

Focusing on reality.

D.

The part where a person is only concerned with ones individual needs.

____ 5. A 16-year-old adolescent is hospitalized and acting like a child. According to Erik Erikson, what is the appropriate developmental task?

A.

Industry vs. inferiority

B.

Integrity vs. despair

C.

Identity vs. role confusion

D.

Trust vs. mistrust

____ 6. Which level of Maslows hierarchy of need pyramid is necessary for survival?

A.

Love and belonging

B.

Physiological needs

C.

Self-actualization

D.

Safety and security

____ 7. This theorist supported the theory of moral reasoning. The theory of moral reasoning demonstrates how a person justifies right or wrong.

A.

Freud

B.

Erikson

C.

Kohlberg

D.

Peters

____ 8. Jean Piagets cognitive theory elaborates on the way a person thinks and how these thoughts are used to adapt to the surrounding environment. The age group for the formal operation is:

A.

Birth to 2 years of age.

B.

2 to 7 years of age.

C.

8 to 12 years of age.

D.

12 years of age to adulthood.

____ 9. Karen Horney was a follower of Sigmund Freud. Dr. Horney believed that the abnormal behavior experienced by her patient was the result of ineffective:

A.

Parenting.

B.

Mother-child bonding.

C.

Environmental stressors.

D.

Genetic markers.

____ 10. Jean Piagets theory focuses on a persons ability to reason. The stage of a person between 12 years of age and an adult according to Piaget would be:

A.

Sensorimotor.

B.

Preoperational.

C.

Concrete operational.

D.

Formal operations.

____ 11. The id, the ego, and the superego theory was established by:

A.

Freud.

B.

Horney.

C.

Skinner.

D.

Pavlov.

____ 12. When caring for a young child, Nurse Andrea realizes that trust is a normal part of growth and further development. Trust is primary in which age group according to Erikson?

A.

36 years old

B.

Over 65

C.

Birth 18 months

D.

1218

Completion

Complete each statement.

13. The treatment method known as behavior modification is based on the theory of the behavioral theorists Skinner and ____________________.

14. The theorist__________ ________ believed that a persons behavior is related to ineffective personality development in childhood.

15. The eight stages of development with each one having contradictory developmental tasks was identified by _________ ___________.

16. Cognitive Development is the central thesis of the theorist _________________.

17. According to Freud, ______ is the part of the personality that is concerned with the gratification of self.

18. The humanistic theorist _________________ developed the hierarchy of needs.

19. In Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs, the level for survival is also known as the level of __________ __________.

20. According the Maslow, the highest level of need is _____________________.

21. Dr. Elisabeth Kbler-Rosss theory about facing death consists of a process of _____(number) stages.

22. This theorist ____________ ________________ identified eight developmental tasks or stages that are expressed as opposites or contraindications of each other.

Multiple Response

Identify one or more choices that best complete the statement or answer the question.

____ 23. The physiological needs components in Maslows Hierarchy of Needs are (select all that apply):

A.

Water

B.

Oxygen

C.

Elimination

D.

Safety

E.

Freedom from fear

F.

Giving and receiving

____ 24. The love and belonging needs components in Maslows Hierarchy of Needs are (select all that apply):

A.

Companionship

B.

Physical safety

C.

Elimination

D.

Caring

E.

Freedom from fear

F.

Giving and receiving of affection

____ 25. Self-esteem components in Maslows Hierarchy of Needs are (select all that apply):

A.

Companionship

B.

Self-respect

C.

Achieve success

D.

Love

E.

Recognition

F.

Giving and receiving of affection

____ 26. The components of self-actualization in Maslows Hierarchy of Needs are (select all that apply):

A.

Achievement

B.

Working to ones potential

C.

Achieve success

D.

Love

E.

Self-fulfillment

F.

Giving and receiving of affection

____ 27. Which of the following are components of Freuds theory of personality (select all that apply):

A.

Personality is fully developed by age 12.

B.

The personality is not fully developed until after adolescence.

C.

Developmental behaviors can happen at any age.

D.

Failure to progress in a particular manner will lead to dysfunction.

E.

Behaviors resulting from ineffective personality development are unconscious.

F.

Ineffective personality development was in some way related to the relationship of the child to the parent and is called psychosexual development.

____ 28. Toni T is a 5-year-old girl who has a broken pelvis as a result of falling out of her tree house. Toni was ordered to stay in bed for 3 weeks. What would be the most appropriate activities for this child (select all that apply)?

A.

An age-appropriate video game

B.

Sports video

C.

Finger paints

D.

A chess set

E.

A punching bag

F.

A Scrabble game set

____ 29. The expected behavioral development of the child that is between the ages of 6 and 12 is the following (select all that apply):

A.

Learning to share

B.

Forming friendships with same-sex friends

C.

Beginning to show acceptance of moral issues by questions and discussions

D.

Socializing

E.

Being self-centered

F.

Learning independence

Other

30. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs is arranged from the lowest level to the highest level (placed in the order they will occur):

___A. Self-actualization

___B. Self-esteem

___C. Physiological needs

___D. Love and belonging

___E. Safety and security

31. According to Freud, personality development stages follow this order.

(Place in order these stages occur.)

___ A. Phallic

___ B. Latency

___ C. Oral

___ D. Anal

___ E. Genital

32. The five stages of death and dying based on Elisabeth Kubler-Rosss work are (place in the order they will occur):

___ A. Anger

___ B. Acceptance

___ C. Denial

___ D. Bargaining

___ E. Depression

Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span

Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ANS: A

The developmental tasks for adults aged 2145 are generativity vs. stagnation.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span: Developmental Theorist-Erickson; Table 4-2, Eriksons Eight Stages of Development; page 55

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Analysis | Content Area: Mental Health: Developmental Theory | Cognitive Level: Analysis | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

2. ANS: B

The initial phase of grief is denial. The individual may have difficulty facing the scope of the loss initially, so being available to support him or her when the emotions come is important.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Elisabeth Kbler-Ross/Death and Dying; page 69-70

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Content Area: Mental Health: Grief | Cognitive Level: Application | Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity: Grief and Loss

3. ANS: A

To protect themselves from the pain of the death, people use denial to unconsciously avoid facing reality and pain from the loss. Denial can seem irrational and can be intermittent.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Elisabeth Kbler-Ross/Death and Dying; Table 4-8 Five Stages of Grief/Death and Dying; page 69

KEY: Integrated Processes: Caring | Content Area: Mental Health: Grief | Cognitive Level: Synthesis | Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity: Coping Mechanism

4. ANS: C

The ego is responsible for meeting and interacting with the outside world. The id is balanced by the ego.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Freud; Table 4-1, Freuds Stages of Development; page 42

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

5. ANS: C

A 16-year-old is experiencing role confusion perhaps in response to the stress of hospitalization.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Table 4-2, Eriksons Eight Stages of Development; page 54-55

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Mental Health: Development | Cognitive Level: Comprehension | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages

6. ANS: B

Physiological needs are the foundation of the pyramid; they must be met before any other needs can be addressed.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Maslow; page 60

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages

7. ANS: C

Kohlberg believed there are three levels for determining moral reasoning: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Table 4-4, Lawrence Kohlbergs Theory of Development of Moral Reasoning; page 54-55

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Analysis | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

8. ANS: D

Twelve years to adulthood is the age for formal operations. The person develops adult logic, can plan for the future, and is able to solve abstract problems.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Table 4-3, Developmental Theory of Jean Piaget; page 56

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

9. ANS: B

Horney believed abnormal behaviors were related to ineffective mother and child bonding.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span: Developmental Theorist-Horney; page 58

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

10. ANS: D

During the formal operational age, the person develops adult logic, is able to reason, plans for the future, and able to form conclusions.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Development Theorist; Newborn to Adolescence; Table 4-3 Developmental Theory of Jean Piaget; page 56

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Analysis | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

11. ANS: A

Dr. Freud developed these personality components and believed that these components are all set in the unconscious.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Developmental Theorist; Adolescence to Adulthood; page 57

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

12. ANS: C

Trust versus mistrust is the developmental task in the formative yearsbirth to 18 months.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Table 4-2, Eriksons Eight Stages of Development (Psychoanalytic or Psychosexual Stages); page 54

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Comprehension | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

COMPLETION

13. ANS:

Pavlov

Behavior modification is used to eliminate and decrease the frequency of identified negative behaviors. Skinner and Pavlov were leaders in developing this theory.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Pavlov and Skinner; page 58

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Mental Health: Treatment | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity: Mental Health Concepts

14. ANS:

Sigmund Freud

One of Freuds beliefs was that behaviors resulting from ineffective personality development are unconscious. Freud believed that ineffective personality development was in some way related to the relationship of the child to the parent and that it was related to what he called psychosexual development.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Developmental Theorist; page 52

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

15. ANS:

Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson developed eight stages of development of the life span that related developmental tasks to a persons approximate age. Each stage has an expected task and a contradictory one if not achieved (e.g., identify vs role confusion).

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Developmental Theorist; page 52-53

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

16. ANS:

Piaget

Piagets theory was known as the cognitive theory. Piaget believed that intelligence consists of coping with the environment. Piaget also believed that a person had to complete each stage of development in order to progress to the next stage.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Developmental Theorist; page 53-54

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

17. ANS:

id

Sigmund Freud described the three components of the personality s the id, the ego, and the superego. All three parts are in your unconscious.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Developmental Theorist; page 57

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

18. ANS:

Maslow

Abraham Maslow introduced the hierarchy of needs as part of his humanist theory. This theory consisted of five levels of need. Maslows hierarchy of needs begins at a lower level and proceeds to a higher level. These levels are physiological needs, safety and security needs, love and belonging, the self-esteem, and self-actualization.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Developmental Theorist; page 60

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

19. ANS:

physiological needs

The physiological level of needs consists of what a person needs to survive: food, water, oxygen, clothing, ability to eliminate, and sexual activity for procreation.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Developmental Theorist; page 60

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

20. ANS:

self-actualization

Needs hierarchies are physiologic, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Maslow; page 62

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

21. ANS:

five; 5

Dr. Elisabeth Kbler-Ross felt that people went through different stages of dying relating to their different life experiences: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Death and Dying; page 69

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: End of Life | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity: Grief and Loss

22. ANS:

Erik Erikson

Eriksons developmental concepts were derived partly from Sigmund Freuds concepts of personality development. Eriksons stages related to developmental task based on age.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Developmental Theorist: Newborn to Adolescence; page 52

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

23. ANS: A, B, C

This level is related to survival.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Abraham Maslow; page 60

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Application | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

24. ANS: A, D, F

If the person has the previous level of needs taken care of (safety and security), then he or she can proceed to this level.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Abraham Maslow; page 61

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Application | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

25. ANS: B, C, E

If the person has the previous level of needs taken care of (love and belonging), then he or she can proceed to this level.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Abraham Maslow; page 61

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Application | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

26. ANS: A, B, C, E

This is the fifth and highest level of the pyramid that can be accomplished after all of the other levels are completed.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Abraham Maslow; page 62

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Application | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

27. ANS: A, D, E, F

One of Freuds main beliefs was that behaviors resulting from personality development are unconscious. He also believed that ineffective personality development was in some way related to the relationship of the child and parent.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Developmental Theorist Newborn to Adolescence; page 52

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Comprehension | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

28. ANS: A, C

An overall view of the 5-year-old and developmental stage is important for self-expression. Primary activities at this time are cognitive development.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Table 4-7, Overall View of Human Development; page 66

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Application | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

29. ANS: A, B, C

The child is school age and interacting with others. There will be more sharing and forming of friendships and beginning to show acceptance of moral issues by questions and discussions.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Table 4-7, Overall View of Human Development; page 66

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Comprehension | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

OTHER

30. ANS:

A: 5

B: 4

C: 1

D: 3

E: 2

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs starts at the lowest level, beginning with the level of survival. The lowest level is necessary for survival. Self-actualization is the highest.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Developmental Theorist-Adolescence through Adulthood-Maslow; Figure 4-9 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs; page 61

KEY: Integrated Processes: Analysis | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

31. ANS:

A: 3

B: 4

C: 1

D: 2

E: 5

Freud believed the childs personality was fully developed by age 12 and all the stages would be completed by that age.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Developmental Theorist; Table 4 Freuds Stages of Development ( Psychoanalytic or Psychosexual Stages); page 53

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Growth and Development | Cognitive Level: Analysis | Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Developmental Stages and Transitions

32. ANS:

A: 2

B: 5

C: 1

D: 3

E: 4

The five stages of dying do not always progress in order and not everyone will experience all five stages. The stages of dying are related to a persons life experiences and also apply to losses other than death.

PTS: 1

REF: Chapter 4: Developmental Psychology Throughout the Life Span; Table 4-8, Five Stages of Grief/Death and Dying by Dr. Elisabeth Kbler-Ross; page 69

KEY: Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning | Content Area: Mental Health: Grief | Cognitive Level: Analysis | Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity: Grief and Loss

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