Chapter 35: Care of Patients with Disorders of the Urinary System My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 35: Care of Patients with Disorders of the Urinary System

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. When a 90-year-old resident in a long-term care facility becomes progressively confused and irritable, the nurse should:

a.

request an order for a urinalysis.

b.

hold antihypertensive medications.

c.

assess for fecal impaction.

d.

notify the charge nurse.

ANS: A

Sudden confusion and irritability may indicate a UTI in the older adult. There is no supportive information indicating issues with the patients antihypertensive medications or the presence of a fecal impaction.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 786 OBJ: 1 (theory)

TOP: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in the Older Adult

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

2. During the review of the medications to be administered, the nurse notes that a patient has been prescribed liquid nitrofurantoin (Furadantin). The nurse will add an intervention to the nursing care plan to:

a.

give the drug on an empty stomach.

b.

rinse the mouth after administration.

c.

schedule a morning dose to avoid insomnia.

d.

assess the urine for hematuria.

ANS: B

The liquid form of this drug will stain the teeth. The drug causes drowsiness and should be given at night. Hematuria is not a concern.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 787 OBJ: 1 (theory)

TOP: Nitrofurantoin: Nursing Considerations

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

3. When a 25-year-old woman comes to the emergency department with nonspecific urethritis, the nurse is prompted to inquire about the patients use of:

a.

tight-fitting underwear.

b.

alcohol consumption.

c.

bath salts.

d.

bicycle exercise.

ANS: C

Urethritis refers to inflammation of the urethra. The use of bath salts, spermicidal jelly, body powders, and feminine hygiene sprays can cause urethritis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 788 OBJ: 1 (theory)

TOP: Urethritis: Signs and Symptoms KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

4. A 25-year-old man comes to the college clinic with fever of 101 F and pain in the flank radiating into the thigh and genitals. He complains of nausea. The nurse recognizes these complaints as being indicative of:

a.

urethritis.

b.

pyelonephritis.

c.

glomerulonephritis.

d.

cystitis.

ANS: B

Acute pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys. It is thought to occur when bacteria (such as Escherichia coli) from a bladder infection travel up the ureters to infect the kidneys. A frequent cause of pyelonephritis is an obstruction, causing stasis of urine and stones that cause irritation of the tissue. Both situations provide an environment in which bacteria can grow. When bacteria enter the renal pelvis, inflammation and infection occur. Pyelonephritis causes nausea and vomiting, flank pain, temperature elevation with chills, headache, and malaise. Urethritis and cystitis often cause dysuria. Glomerulonephritis commonly occurs about 2 to 3 weeks after a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection, such as strep throat or impetigo. The patient with acute glomerulonephritis usually becomes suddenly ill with fever, chills, flank pain, widespread edema, puffiness about the eyes, visual disturbances, and marked hypertension.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 788 OBJ: 1 (theory)

TOP: Pyelonephritis: Signs and Symptoms

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

5. The nurse cautions a young man who is taking ciprofloxacin (Cipro) for pyelonephritis to take all the prescription as directed in order to prevent recurrence, which can cause:

a.

scarring of the renal pelvis.

b.

chronic pyelonephritis.

c.

glomerulonephritis.

d.

obstruction of the ureters.

ANS: A

Renal scarring can be the complication of pyelonephritis, which, if not contained, can cause hypertension and renal failure in later years.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 789 OBJ: 1 (theory)

TOP: Pyelonephritis: Complications KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

6. The nurse is reviewing the history and physical examination of a 22-year-old man hospitalized for acute glomerulonephritis. The nurse recognizes the significant information of the probable etiology of this disease as:

a.

a recent trip to Mexico.

b.

unprotected sexual activity.

c.

a recent strep throat infection.

d.

a recent protocol of ciprofloxacin (Cipro).

ANS: C

Glomerulonephritis is primarily seen in children and young adults, and affects males more often than females. It most commonly occurs about 2 to 3 weeks after a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection, such as strep throat or impetigo; however, it can occur in response to bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections elsewhere in the body. It is an immunologic problem caused by an antigen-antibody reaction.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 789 OBJ: 2 (theory)

TOP: Acute Glomerulonephritis: Etiology

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

7. The nurse evaluates a need for further instruction about a sodium-restricted diet when the patient with glomerulonephritis says:

a.

I wont add salt to my food.

b.

Im glad I can still drink carbonated drinks.

c.

I will not eat processed meats, like hot dogs.

d.

Im going to miss eating potato chips.

ANS: B

Care of the patient with glomerulonephritis may include a sodium-restricted diet if edema is present. Fluids may be limited if there is oliguria (diminished urine secretion in relation to intake) or anuria (absence of urine). A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet also may be ordered. Carbonated drinks contain sodium.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 789 OBJ: 2 (theory)

TOP: Glomerulonephritis: Sodium-Restricted Diet

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

8. Plasmapheresis has been ordered for the patient diagnosed with glomerulonephritis. Before the procedure, the patient correctly reports that the procedure will help her when she states that it will:

a.

Identify specific organisms causing my disease.

b.

Remove autoantibodies causing the disease.

c.

Clear the tubules of the nephron for better filtration.

d.

Cause vasodilation and reduce hypertension.

ANS: A

Plasmapheresis a therapy used in autoimmune disorders, such as acute glomerulonephritis or myasthenia gravis. It removes the autoantibodies causing the disease. This procedure can be done at the bedside by a trained technician with specialized equipment. The patients blood is accessed through a shunt or a central intravenous catheter and the blood components are separated from the plasma by filtration or centrifuge. Then the cellular components are returned to the patient and the plasma is replaced with a fluid such as normal saline or albumin.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 789 OBJ: 2 (theory)

TOP: Glomerulonephritis: Plasmapheresis

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

9. The nurse is caring for a patient diagnosed with glomerulonephritis. The nurse notes that the patient is feeling confined with reports of feeling bored and caged. During the interaction, the patient asks when he can resume his normal activities. The nurse clarifies that bed rest is enforced until:

a.

medication has been in effect for 2 weeks.

b.

serum sodium level decreases to 140 mEq/L.

c.

weight has returned to the preillness level.

d.

hypertension and hematuria are gone.

ANS: D

Bed rest is enforced until the person with glomerulonephritis no longer exhibits hypertension and hematuria.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 789 OBJ: 2 (theory)

TOP: Glomerulonephritis: Need for Bed Rest

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

10. The nurse explains that as chronic glomerulonephritis develops, the kidney:

a.

swells.

b.

atrophies.

c.

becomes increasingly scarred.

d.

produces copious urine.

ANS: B

Chronic glomerulonephritis may develop rapidly or progress slowly over 20 to 30 years or longer. The exact cause is unknown; however, in chronic glomerulonephritis, the kidney atrophies; there is a decreased number of functional nephrons, and eventual kidney failure. The prognosis for this disease is ultimately poor; the speed with which it progresses to renal failure varies with the individual. Kidney swelling and scarring are not the changes to the kidney in chronic glomerulonephritis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 789-790 OBJ: 2 (theory)

TOP: Chronic Glomerulonephritis: Pathophysiology

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

11. When the patient enters into nephrotic syndrome after an exacerbation of glomerulonephritis, the nurse would expect to see:

a.

decreased serum albumin.

b.

decreased lipids.

c.

decreased proteinuria.

d.

increased hematuria.

ANS: A

Nephrotic syndrome sometimes occurs after the glomeruli have been damaged by glomerulonephritis or some other disease. This damage results in increased membrane permeability and excretion of protein and decreased serum albumin (hypoalbuminemia). Hypoalbuminemia causes fluid to shift out into the body tissues and the result is severe edema. Lipid level changes are not characteristic of nephritic syndrome. Hematuria does not increase with the onset of nephritic syndrome.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 790 OBJ: 2 (theory)

TOP: Nephrotic Syndrome: Signs KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

12. A patient who has a kidney stone lodged in the ureter questions why it must be removed. What response by the nurse is most appropriate?

a.

If the stone is not promptly removed, you will continue to have blood in your urine.

b.

You may experience a condition known as hydronephrosis, which will result in increased pressure in your renal structures above the stone.

c.

Keeping the stone in your body may result in a condition called glomerulonephritis.

d.

You may experience scarring of the renal structures and a condition known as nephrotic syndrome may result.

ANS: B

An obstructed ureter will cause urinary reflux into the renal pelvis, causing hydronephrosis and, ultimately, destruction of the kidney.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 790 OBJ: 2 (clinical)

TOP: Hydronephrosis: Etiology KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

13. To relieve hydronephrosis, the patient has undergone a right nephrostomy. The nursing responsibility in this condition is:

a.

keeping the patient positioned on the unaffected side.

b.

irrigating the nephrostomy tube.

c.

assessing urinary output from the left kidney.

d.

keeping the nephrostomy tube clamped.

ANS: C

The left kidney will take on increased renal metabolism and must be assessed constantly. The nephrostomy tube is never clamped, and the patient is usually placed on the affected side so as not to impair the functioning kidney.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 791 OBJ: 1 (clinical)

TOP: Nephrostomy Tube: Nursing Responsibility

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

14. The nurse assessing a 50-year-old woman who was involved in a car accident 2 hours ago finds marked tenderness and spasm in the suprapubic area and a nonpulsating mass. The nurse interprets these findings as indication of:

a.

bladder trauma.

b.

a damaged kidney.

c.

a urethral tear.

d.

an obstructed bladder neck.

ANS: A

Bladder traumas signal themselves with pain, spasm, and a mass in the suprapubic area.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 794 OBJ: 1 (clinical)

TOP: Bladder Injury: Signs and Symptoms

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

15. A patient who had a bladder repair following an injury from an automobile accident complains of pain. Which action would be considered an independent nursing intervention that does not require a physicians order?

a.

Give an analgesic medication.

b.

Apply a cold compress to the surgical site.

c.

Give a muscle relaxant.

d.

Irrigate the drainage tube.

ANS: B

Cold application to the surgical site is the only independent intervention.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 791 OBJ: 2 (clinical)

TOP: Bladder Pain: Independent Interventions

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

16. After an instillation of doxorubicin (Adriamycin) into the bladder for treatment of cancer in situ, the patient is then:

a.

positioned on his back for 2 hours.

b.

seated upright for 2 hours.

c.

moved from side to side and from prone to supine.

d.

requested to ambulate for 5 minutes every 15 minutes for 2 hours.

ANS: C

Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) has been found to help patients with bladder carcinoma in situ (site of origin) by reducing tumor recurrence and by eliminating residual malignant cells after surgery. The solution is instilled into the bladder via a urinary catheter. The catheter is clamped for 2 hours and the patients position is changed every 15 to 30 minutes. Treatments are continued weekly for 6 weeks with possible maintenance doses.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 795 OBJ: 1 (clinical)

TOP: Intravesical Instillation: Technique KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

17. Before hemodialysis, the nurse will withhold:

a.

anticoagulants.

b.

antacids.

c.

antianxiety agents.

d.

antibiotics.

ANS: A

The heparin in the dialyzing fluid increases the effect of anticoagulants.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 806 OBJ: 4 (theory)

TOP: Hemodialysis: Effect on Other Medications

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

18. The nurse is discussing alternative therapies with a patient who has had repeated urinary tract infections (UTIs) over the past year. The patient asks the nurse if there are any foods that might help her to potentially avoid developing more infections. What response by the nurse is most appropriate?

a.

Drinking lots of water is about all you can do to avoid getting another urinary tract infection.

b.

There are many rumors out about preventative foods and drinks but none are proven at this time.

c.

Studies show support for including vitamin C in the diet to help avoid urinary tract infections.

d.

Increasing the amount of leafy green vegetables in your daily diet is very helpful in preventing urinary tract infections.

ANS: C

Vitamin C can help acidify the urine and decrease the frequency of cystitis. Drinking increased amounts of water is very helpful, but it isnt the only intervention to avoid a UTI. There is evidence of foods and drinks being preventative measures for UTI, such as cranberry juice. Leafy green vegetables are not considered a preventative food for UTIs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 788 OBJ: 1 (theory)

TOP: Cystitis: Alternative and Complementary Therapies: Vitamin C

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Health Maintenance and Promotion

19. The nurse is caring for a patient who is being treated for acute pyelonephritis. When performing the assessment, the nurse correctly recognizes that which symptom is consistent with the early stages of the disease?

a.

Smoky-colored urine

b.

Low-grade fever

c.

Weakness

d.

Nausea

ANS: D

In the acute state of pyelonephritis, the symptoms include fever, chills, headache, malaise, nausea and vomiting, and pain in the flank (lateral abdomen) radiating to the thigh and genitalia. The chronic phase is often subtle, with gradual scarring of the kidney tissues. The chronic phase results in loss of weight, low-grade fever, and weakness. Eventually the urine becomes loaded with bacteria and pus. Smoky- or tea-colored urine is seen with glomerulonephritis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 788 OBJ: 1 (theory)

TOP: Pyelonephritis: Signs and Symptoms

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

20. The nurse is caring for a child suspected of having acute glomerulonephritis. When reviewing the data collected, the nurse is most likely to note what in the health history?

a.

Recent upper respiratory infection

b.

Recent outpatient surgery

c.

History of asthma

d.

Recent history of gastroenteritis

ANS: A

Glomerulonephritis is primarily seen in children and young adults, and affects males more than females. It most commonly occurs about 2 to 3 weeks after a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection, such as strep throat or impetigo; however, it can occur in response to bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections elsewhere in the body. It is an immunologic problem caused by an antigen-antibody reaction. Outpatient surgery, asthma, and gastroenteritis are not risk factors.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 789 OBJ: 2 (theory)

TOP: Acute Glomerulonephritis: Etiology and Pathophysiology

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

21. The nurse would question an order for carbenicillin for a patient with a urinary infection if the patient is: (Select all that apply.)

a.

over 80 years of age.

b.

allergic to penicillin.

c.

taking warfarin.

d.

taking oral contraceptives.

e.

hypertensive.

ANS: B, C, D

Carbenicillin is an extended-spectrum penicillin medication. It interferes with the effectiveness of oral birth control medication and warfarin and should not be given to people allergic to penicillin.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 787 OBJ: 1 (theory)

TOP: Carbenicillin: Contraindications KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological Therapies

22. When a patient with a urinary tract infection (UTI) is placed on cefazolin (Ancef), the nurse will monitor for: (Select all that apply.)

a.

vaginitis.

b.

decreased clotting time.

c.

arrhythmias.

d.

rash.

e.

confusion.

ANS: A, C, D, E

All options are possible side effects of Ancef except decreased clotting time. The medication may actually increase clotting time.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 787 OBJ: 1 (theory)

TOP: UTI: Treatment with Ancef KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological Therapies

23. A patient has been admitted to the acute care facility to rule out glomerulonephritis. Assessment findings that are supportive of the potential diagnosis include: (Select all that apply.)

a.

flank pain.

b.

hematuria.

c.

periorbital edema.

d.

decrease in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine.

e.

hypertension.

ANS: A, B, C, E

The patient with acute glomerulonephritis usually becomes suddenly ill with fever, chills, flank pain, widespread edema, puffiness about the eyes, visual disturbances, and marked hypertension. The urine may be smoky and will contain red blood cells and protein, and urine will have an increased specific gravity. Serum creatinine and BUN levels rise above normal rather than decrease. Diagnosis is based on physical findings.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 789 OBJ: 2 (theory)

TOP: Glomerulonephritis: Signs and Symptoms

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

24. While the patient is on plasmapheresis, the nurse should monitor for: (Select all that apply.)

a.

an allergic reaction.

b.

bleeding at the puncture site.

c.

a bruit at the shunt site.

d.

decreasing blood pressure.

e.

signs of hyperkalemia.

ANS: B, C, D, E

Plasmapheresis is a therapy used in autoimmune disorders, such as acute glomerulonephritis or myasthenia gravis. It removes the autoantibodies causing the disease. This procedure can be done at the bedside by a trained technician with specialized equipment. The patients blood is accessed through a shunt or a central intravenous catheter and the blood components are separated from the plasma by filtration or centrifuge. Then the cellular components are returned to the patient and the plasma is replaced with a fluid such as normal saline or albumin. Assessment for bruits, hypotension, and electrolyte imbalances is essential. Allergic reactions are not anticipated.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 789 OBJ: 2 (theory)

TOP: Plasmapheresis: Nursing Responsibility

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

25. The nurse is collecting the health history of a patient who has had multiple episodes of renal calculi formation. Which findings place the patient at an increased risk for the development of the renal calculi? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Uric acid crystals in urine

b.

Frequent bacterial urinary infections

c.

Inadequate fluid intake

d.

Prolonged bed rest

e.

Tumor of parathyroid gland

ANS: A, B, C, D, E

All options listed are risk factors for the development of renal calculi.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 791 OBJ: 1 (clinical)

TOP: Renal Calculi: Risks KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

26. The home health nurse recognizes uremic signs in a patient with chronic renal failure, which include: (Select all that apply.)

a.

restless legs syndrome.

b.

dry, scaly skin.

c.

urea crystals in eyebrows.

d.

muscle cramps.

e.

hypotension.

ANS: A, B, C, D

Uremia or uremic syndrome includes the clinical signs and symptoms that affect the entire body during end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Uremia signs generally appear when blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration passes 100 mg/dL. The skin becomes dry, scaly, and a pallid yellowish gray. Pruritus (severe itching) occurs. Uremic frost (a late sign) appears as evaporated sweat leaves urea crystals on the eyebrows. Calcium is not absorbed from the intestinal tract, and this leads to the loss of calcium from the body and a corresponding drop in serum calcium. If the hypocalcemia is not corrected, the patient will eventually suffer from muscle cramps, twitching, and possibly seizures. Complaints about restless legs syndrome are frequent, and the leg discomfort may interfere with sleep. The patient is usually hypertensive rather than hypotensive.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 802 OBJ: 5 (clinical)

TOP: Uremic Signs KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

27. The nurse caring for a patient who has just had an arteriovenous (AV) access created in his right forearm this morning should assess: (Select all that apply.)

a.

for a bruit on auscultation of the AV site.

b.

capillary refill in the left hand.

c.

blood pressure in the right arm.

d.

adequate elevation of the right arm.

e.

clotting of the AV access.

ANS: A, B, D, E

Blood pressure should not be taken in the affected arm.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 806 OBJ: 4 (theory)

TOP: AV Access: Nursing Care KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

COMPLETION

28. The nurse is aware that 80% of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in females are the result of contamination from __________.

ANS:

Escherichia coli

E. coli

Escherichia coli

E. coli

Proximity of the urethral meatus to the anus makes contamination with Escherichia coli a frequent cause of infections.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 785 OBJ: 1 (theory)

TOP: UTI: Etiology KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

MATCHING

The nurse associates the types of acute renal failure with their probable cause to enhance the patients understanding. Match the type of acute renal failure (ARF) with its probable cause: (The options can be used once, more than once, or not at all.)

a.

Prerenal ARF

b.

Intrarenal ARF

c.

Postrenal ARF

29. Hypovolemic shock

30. Vascular changes related to diabetes mellitus

31. Ureteral obstruction

32. Prostate hypertrophy

33. Cardiogenic shock

29. ANS: A DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 799

OBJ: 4 (clinical) TOP: Types of Renal Failure: Etiology

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

30. ANS: B DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 799

OBJ: 4 (clinical) TOP: Types of Renal Failure: Etiology

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

31. ANS: C DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 799

OBJ: 4 (clinical) TOP: Types of Renal Failure: Etiology

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

32. ANS: C DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 799

OBJ: 4 (clinical) TOP: Types of Renal Failure: Etiology

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

33. ANS: A DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 799

OBJ: 4 (clinical) TOP: Types of Renal Failure: Etiology

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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