CHAPTER 3: THE CHILD IN CONTEXT OF THE FAMILY(FREE) My Nursing Test Banks

CHAPTER 3: THE CHILD IN CONTEXT OF THE FAMILY

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. When the nurse treats families as context, the emphasis is on which of the following?

a.

extended family

c.

community

b.

nuclear family

d.

individual

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The extended family may become emphasized when the family is viewed as an interactional system or as a social institution.

B

Incorrect. The nuclear family may be emphasized when the family is viewed as a client or as an interactional system or as a social institution.

C

Incorrect. The community may be emphasized when the family is viewed as a social institution as a part of the larger community.

D

Correct. The view of the family as context actually emphasizes the individual within that context.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 58 Definition of the Family OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

2. Sociologists define the family as a group of people:

a.

with blood ties, adoption, guardianship, or marriage

b.

with a focus on perpetuating the species

c.

who are living together

d.

who have strong emotional ties

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The legal definition emphasizes relationships through blood ties, adoption, guardianship or marriage.

B

Incorrect. The religious traditions tend to focus upon family with a focus upon procreation.

C

Correct. Sociologists define the family as a group of people living together.

D

Incorrect. Psychologists define the family as a group with strong emotional ties.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 58 Definition of the Family OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

3. Which of the following definitions best matches the U.S. Bureau of Census definition of family?

a.

everyone in a household regardless of relationship

b.

father, mother, and children

c.

a group of two or more people related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together

d.

a household of only those related by marriage(s) or birth, which would include extended family

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Close, but not precise enough for the U. S. Bureau of Census.

B

Incorrect. Close, but not expansive enough for the U. S. Bureau of Census.

C

Correct. U. S. Bureau of Census defines family as a group of two or more persons related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together. The Census Bureau has used this definition for years.

D

Incorrect. The diversity of family structures in the U. S. requires that extended family be included, but not according to the Census Bureau.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 58 Definition of the Family

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

4. Nurses using a contemporary definition should identify a clients family by asking which of these questions?

a.

Who do you consider to be your family?

b.

Are your parents and siblings living?

c.

Are you married and do you have any children?

d.

Who lives with you in your household?

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Nurses working with families should first ask their clients whom they consider to be their family and then include those individuals in their health care planning.

B

Incorrect. The fact that parents and siblings are living is important, but does not address the definition of ones family.

C

Incorrect. Important question, but asks about a more traditional concept of family.

D

Incorrect. Important question, and approaches the question of significant others, but does not address the issue of family directly.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 58 Definition of the Family OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

5. The major goal of the nurse using Neumans nursing theory would be to:

a.

assist the individual to identify helpful and antagonistic family members

b.

help keep the family structure stable within its environment

c.

enhance interactions between all extended family and the individual

d.

minimize ineffective communication between family and society

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Neumans system theory is concerned with the whole rather than segregating its members into two groups.

B

Correct. Neumans system theory is consistent with a family systems approach, describing the family as the recipient of nursing care. The family is described as an appropriate target for both assessment and nursing interventions. The way each member expresses self influences the whole and creates the basic structure of the family. The major goal of the nurse is to keep the structure stable within its environment.

C

Incorrect. Neumans system theory is focused on keeping the family structure stable within its environment.

D

Incorrect. Neumans system theory does not rely upon improving communication between the family and society.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 59 Neumans System Theory OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

6. Kings open systems theory viewed the family as:

a.

the future through birthing of children

b.

both hostile and helpful in ever-changing dynamics

c.

a social system that influences the growth and development of individuals

d.

a family system where children can be nurtured and build a strong sense of identity

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Kings open systems theory does not contemplate birthing of children as the future.

B

Incorrect. Kings open systems theory is focused upon growth and development of individuals within the family as environment, not upon hostile and helpful forces.

C

Correct. King views the family as a social system that influences the growth and development of individuals. The family is seen as both context and client. Kings theory of goal attainment is useful for nurses when assisting families to set goals to maintain their health or cope with problems or illness.

D

Incorrect. Kings open systems theory argues that the context nurtures all members, adults and children alike.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 59 Kings Open Systems Theory

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

7. Which of the following statements best represents a major belief in Kings open systems theory?

a.

Nurses are partners with families.

b.

Families are self-sufficient.

c.

Individuals are more important than families.

d.

Family is viewed only as context.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Nurses are viewed as partners with the family.

B

Incorrect. Kings open systems theory sees the family as context for growth and development of individuals, open systems which may require assistance, not self-sufficient.

C

Incorrect. Kings open systems theory views the family as the context but also client, not the individual as the focus.

D

Incorrect. Kings open systems theory views the family as context and client.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 59 Kings Open Systems Theory

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

8. The major goal of nursing in Roys adaptation model is to:

a.

help an individual adapt and integrate into the larger society

b.

promote adaptation and minimize ineffective responses

c.

help the individual adapt to maturational crises

d.

assist the family in adapting to interpersonal difficulties

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Roys adaptation model in interested in individual adaptation and integration into the larger society, but this is not the major nursing goal.

B

Correct. The goal of nursing is to promote adaptation and minimize ineffective responses.

C

Incorrect. Roys adaptation model is concerned with the individual within the family system, not the individual alone.

D

Incorrect. Roys adaptation model does address assisting the family in adapting to unusual stresses, but this is not the major goal of nursing care.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 59 Roys Adaptation Theory

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

9. One of the five functions in the structural-functional theory of family is affective, which refers to the:

a.

general mood of the family

b.

way feelings are addressed or not addressed in the family

c.

family meeting the needs for love and belonging of each member

d.

face or outer picture that the family shows to the outside world

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The general mood of the family may be affected by sense of belonging and love for each other, but this does not describe the affective function described by the structural-functional theory.

B

Incorrect. Although the way feelings are addressed or not addressed in the family is important, this does not describe the affective function from the structural-functional theory.

C

Correct. The affective function is one of the most vital functions for the formation and the continuation of the family unit. This function refers to the family meeting the need for love and belonging of each member.

D

Incorrect. The shell of the family that it presents to the outside world is not a part of theaffective function.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 59 Structural-Functional Theory

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

10. The nurse can best gain a perspective about a family value system by:

a.

gaining an understanding of how a family distributes its resources

b.

asking family members what they most value

c.

assessing church membership and membership in community organizations

d.

interviewing employers, friends, and neighbors of the family

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The economic function of the family is fourth after affective function,socialization and social placement function, and the reproductive function. By gaining an understanding of how a family distributes its resources, the nurse can obatin a perspective about their value system.

B

Incorrect. Often what people say and what people do are not the same, better to look into what they do to understand what they truly value.

C

Incorrect. Assessing church membership and membership in community organizations might provide some insight into values, but association does not necessarily provide the best perspective about economic values.

D

Incorrect. Often what people say about others is not nearly true; again, better to look at what people do, not what they say or leave unsaid.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 60 Structural-Functional Theory

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

11. The major focus of the developmental theory of family is:

a.

systems within which the family operates

b.

predictable stages with specific issues and tasks

c.

assessment of growth in holistic measures

d.

relationships among individual members

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The developmental theory perceives the family as social groups, not systems.

B

Correct. Developmental or life-cycle theory suggests that family life cycle has two stages: expansion and contraction. Further, families evolve through predictable development stages, and experience growth and development in much the same way as individuals. Stages begin with marriage, followed by childbirth and child rearing. Each stage is characterized by specific issues and tasks.

C

Incorrect. The developmental theory of family is more traditional and not in tune with more modernistic themes such as assessment of growth in holistic measures.

D

Incorrect. The family is the focus and not the relationships among individual members.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 60 Developmental Theory

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

12. One of the best-known formulations of developmental theory involving stages was that of:

a.

Freud

c.

Duvall

b.

Jung

d.

Holmes

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Freud is considered the father of phychoanalysis.

B

Incorrect. Jung is considered the best known for his model of analytical psychology.

C

Correct. E. M. Duvall is responsible for the best known formulation of the developmental theory developing the eight stages and the developmental tasks of the two-parent nuclear family.

D

Incorrect. Sherlock Holmes is a fictional character from the 19th century.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 60 Developmental Theory OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

13. An advantage of the developmental theory of families approach is that it provides nurses with information about:

a.

what to expect of families at different points in their life cycle

b.

pathology in the family and how it affects individuals

c.

growth of individuals compared with other family members

d.

limitations of individuals and families

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. An advantage of the developmental approach to families is that it provides nurses with information about what to expect at different points in their life cycle, and, thus, what teaching and counseling services they may need.

B

Incorrect. The development theory plods along the normal expectations and does not contemplate pathology.

C

Incorrect. The family is compared to other families at the same stage of development without any focus upon the individuals compared to other family members.

D

Incorrect. The theory does not focus upon the limitations of individuals and families but rather upon developmental stages.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 60 Developmental Theory

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

14. One of the major assumptions of Duvalls developmental theory of families is that:

a.

young adults marry in their early 20s before they develop a career

b.

child rearing is no longer the central focus of the life cycle

c.

todays society is very diverse and includes a variety of family forms

d.

the nuclear family is not as prominent as in past centuries

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Duvalls developmental theory assumes a nuclear family with husband and wife who marry early in their 20s before they develop a career, and immediately begin their family life.

B

Incorrect. Duvalls developmental theory assumes the opposite, child rearing is the central focus of family life.

C

Incorrect. Duvalls developmental theory assumes homogeneity, not diversity in family forms.

D

Incorrect. Duvalls developmental theory assumes the nuclear family remains the prominent family form.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 60 Developmental Theory

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

15. Von Bertalanffy developed which of the following theories?

a.

general systems theory

c.

specific developmental theory

b.

general stress and adaptation theory

d.

specific age accomplishment theory

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Von Bertalanffy developed a general systems theory which describes principles that govern all living systems. One of the central propositions is that the system is not the total sum of its parts but is characterized by wholeness and unity. The family is therefore viewed as a system where all members interact interdependently with one another. The theory emphasizes family elements and the processes that exist within and between families and their various environments.

B

Incorrect. General systems theory, not general stress and adaptation theory.

C

Incorrect. General systems theory, not specific systems or specific developmental theory.

D

Incorrect. General systems theory, not specific age accomplishment theory.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 62 Family Systems Theory OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

16. General systems theory has as one of its central propositions the idea that the system is:

a.

in the center of interaction surrounded by other less important but necessary systems

b.

not the total sum of its parts but is characterized by wholeness and unity

c.

dependent on other systems to make it function at the maximum potential

d.

going to wear out at a rate no less than that of interacting systems

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. General systems theory does not have a center, but is characterized by wholeness and unity.

B

Correct. General systems theory argues that the family is not the sum total of its parts but is characterized by wholenesss and unity, as is true of all living systems.

C

Incorrect. Interdependence binds the members together, not dependence upon others.

D

Incorrect. General systems theory involves family, not moving metal parts.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 62 Family Systems Theory

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

17. The nurse working with a family and applying general systems theory must most importantly analyze the:

a.

individual and the individuals educational and economic workplace

b.

family and its relationship to the extended family members

c.

interrelationships of family members with each other and with the larger society

d.

past history of the individual members and how the past affects present performance

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. General systems theory is focused upon the family as a whole not the individual educational accomplishments or involvement in the economic workplace.

B

Incorrect. General systems theory must assess all relationships of the family and its members.

C

Correct. The family is defined as a system characterized by continual interaction between its members and with the environment. The interrelationships in a family system are closely tied together so that a change in one member results in a change in the other members. Therefore, one cannot understand the family as a whole by only knowing each of its members. The interrelationships of the members with each other and with the larger society must be analyzed.

D

Incorrect. The general systems theory is concerned with the present, not the past.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 62 Family Systems Theory

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

18. A genogram is a method for recording and mapping information about:

a.

morbidity, mortality, and onset of illnesses of all family members, usually for three generations

b.

genealogy for as many generations back as the family can be traced

c.

genocide in the population of an ethnic group, neighborhood, or town

d.

illness in a military group during a particular period of history or time

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. A genogram is a format for drawing a family tree that records information about family members and their relationships over a period of time, usually three generations. It maps the structure of the family and records the health history of all members (morbidity, mortality, and onset of illnesses), thus revealing information about genetic and familial diseases.

B

Incorrect. Genealogy does not provide the information necessary to know about the potential for genetic and familial diseases.

C

Incorrect. Genocide does not provide the information necessary to know about the potential for genetic and familial diseases.

D

Incorrect. A genogram is focused upon an individual and her family history, not military groups.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 66 Assessment Instruments

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

19. An ecomap is best described as a:

a.

visual presentation of the condition of the environment in an area

b.

visual representation of a family in relation to the community

c.

drawing of the location of ecological projects in a given area

d.

tool of the ecotourist, which demonstrates what has been seen or done

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. An environmental map does not provide the information sought about a family.

B

Correct. An ecomap is a visual representation of a family in relation to the community. It demonstrates the nature and quality of family relationships and what kind of resources or energies are going inside and outside the family. This assessment instrument is useful in identifying the strengths of family networks and what resources are available during stressful times.

C

Incorrect. A map detailing ecological projects in a given area does not provide information sought about a family.

D

Incorrect. A map displaying ecotourism does not provide the information sought about a family in your care.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 66 Assessment Instruments

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

20. Family assessment ideally takes place in which of the following places?

a.

health care providers office

c.

familys church

b.

childs school

d.

childs home

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. For an in-depth family assessment, you need to go to the childs home.

B

Incorrect. For an in-depth family assessment, you need to go to the childs home.

C

Incorrect. For an in-depth family assessment, you need to go to the childs home.

D

Correct. Ideally, for an in-depth family assessment, all family members are included in the interview, and it takes place in the childs home.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 66 Assessment Instruments OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

21. A model for family assessment that consists of structural, developmental, and functional categories is which of the following models?

a.

Denver Developmental

c.

Calgary Family Assessment

b.

Beck Assessment

d.

Minnesota Multiphasia

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Denver Developmental screening test is used to identify developmental delays.

B

Incorrect. Beck Assessment is utilized for screening for depression, Beck Diagnostic Inventory or Beck depression inventory (BDI).

C

Correct. The Calgary Family Assessment Model (CFAM) combines nursing and family therapy concepts, and incorporates three major categories: structural, developmental, and functional. The assessment questions are organized in these groupings.The genogram and ecomap are approriate instruments to identify and assess structure. Development focuses upon assessment of family stages, tasks, and attachments. Functional issues focus upon how the family members behave in relation to each other and how the members communicate.

D

Incorrect. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a psychological test commonly used for evaluating personality and detecting disorders.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 67 The Calgary Family Assessment Model

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

22. The Friedman Family Assessment Model views the family as:

a.

just one of the basic units of wider society along with religion, education, health, and others

b.

the center of concentric circles representing the individual as the most important element in society

c.

indispensable to the individual in attaining normal physical and psychological growth

d.

more important than the individual in terms of predicting the future success of the individual

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Friedman Family Assessment Model views the family as just one of the basic units of the wider society, along with institutions involving religion, education, and health.

B

Incorrect. A better analogy for Friedmans Family Assessment Model in interlinking circles, not concentric circles.

C

Incorrect. The model focuses mainly on the family structure and function interrelated with other social systems.

D

Incorrect. The model is more interested in the family than in the individual member.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 68 Friedman Family Assessment Model

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

23. The Friedman Family Assessment Model is designed to collect information or data on:

a.

two categories of interest, which are the individual and the nuclear family

b.

the developmental stage and history of the family

c.

family coping, past and present

d.

six categories of information and numerous subcategories

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The Friedman model incorporates six categories, from identification to coping.

B

Incorrect. The second category of data to collect is the developmental stage of the family.

C

Incorrect. The sixth area of interest is family coping.

D

Correct. The Friedman model gathers data for six major categories: 1) identifying data; 2) developmental stage and history; 3) environmental data about the home, neighbordood, etc.; 4) family structure; 5) family functions, and 6) family coping.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 68 Friedman Family Assessment Model

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

24. The nuclear family consists of:

a.

husband and wife

b.

husband, wife, and their natural and adoptive children

c.

any couple regardless of gender, and children acquired by the couple

d.

any couple regardless of gender

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. A husband and wife is a couple, not a nuclear family.

B

Correct. The nuclear family is defined as a husband, wife, and their children biological, adopted or both.

C

Incorrect. Two women and children do not meet the definition of nuclear family, two men and children do not meet the definition of nuclear family.

D

Incorrect. A couple without children is not a nuclear family.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 68 Family Structure

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

25. The greatest incidence of redivorce occurs in stepfamilies in which there are:

a.

children from previous marriages, for both adult partners, living with the couple

b.

grown stepchildren living on their own and no children living with the couple

c.

children from past marriage(s) for one partner only

d.

children from one partner living in the home and a new baby expected

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Stepfamilies where both adults have children from a previous marriage living with them have the greatest incidence of redivorce.

B

Incorrect. A couple without children from one or both previous marriages at home does not encounter the same issues, and is less likely to redivorce as compared to a stepfamily with children from two previous families.

C

Incorrect. A couple with children from a previous marriage from one partner only is less likely to redivorce as compared to a stepfamily with children from two previous families.

D

Incorrect. A couple with children from a previous marriage from one partner only expecting the birth of their child is less likely to redivorce as compared to a stepfamily with children from two previous families.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 71 Blended (or Step) Family OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

26. When the parents of preschool-aged children divorce, the children most often think which of the following things?

a.

The parent with whom they live caused the problem.

b.

God is punishing the family for being bad.

c.

They caused the divorce and may be able to reunite the parents.

d.

The parents are going to abandon the children forever at some time.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The preschool-aged child may believe they are the cause, not the parent.

B

Incorrect. The preschool-aged child is more likely to believe they are the cause of the divorce than that God is punishing the family.

C

Correct. With their magical thinking, preschoolers may believe their angry thoughts or behaviors led to the family disruption, and they may also believe they can magically reunite the divorced parents.

D

Incorrect. Not out of the question, but not age appropriate for preschooler.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 71 Blended (or Step) Family

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

27. When a preschool-aged childs parents divorce, the child is most likely to exhibit which of the following behaviors?

a.

expressing feelings verbally

b.

acting out anger in aggression

c.

accepting the divorce as something beyond his or her control

d.

blaming and hating the parent who left the home

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Not age appropriate, preschoolers are not adept at verbal expression.

B

Correct. Preschoolers will act out their anger aggressively in response to separation, divorce, and even remarriage.

C

Incorrect. Not age appropriate, preschoolers are not yet capable of higher level thinking.

D

Incorrect. Not age appropriate for a preschooler.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 71 Blended (or Step) Family

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

28. Which of the following things must nurses do first in order to provide culturally sensitive care to children and families?

a.

assess the cultural background and beliefs of the family

b.

study various cultures to gain knowledge of their core beliefs

c.

recognize how their attitudes are influenced by their own values and beliefs and be aware of these values and beliefs

d.

spend time observing and listening to people of the various cultures that they will come into contact with in their work as nurses

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Before assessing the cultural background and beliefs of others, we must first assess our cultural background and belief.

B

Incorrect. Study of other cultures and their core beliefs is learning about others, but is only partially correct.

C

Correct. To provide culturally sensitive care to children and their families, nurses must first be aware of their own values and beliefs and recognize how they influence their attitudes and actions.

D

Incorrect. Although always a great starting point, again, self awareness must occur first.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 74 Cultural Influences on the Family

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

29. Which of the following best describes a nurse with cultural sensitivity?

a.

a person who knows the stereotypical practices and beliefs of a large number of cultural groups

b.

one who has awareness and appreciation of cultural influences on health care and respect for differences in cultural beliefs and values

c.

a health care professional who comes from a minority ethnic group and who has experienced cultural bias

d.

a nurse who attends an annual conference on working with clients from various cultural groups

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. To know is not to be self-aware and is not to appreciate other cultures, their practices, beliefs, and values.

B

Correct. Cultural sensitivity means having an awareness and appreciation of cultural influences in health care and being respectful of differences in cultural belief systems and values.

C

Incorrect. Cultural sensitivity must be broader than any single ethnic group or experience.

D

Incorrect. Knowledge informs awareness, conferences are always great for CE credits, but does not necessarily rise to the level of respectfulness.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 75 Cultural Influences on the Family

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

30. Children raised by authoritarian parents tend to exhibit which of the following characteristics?

a.

stubborn, perfectionist, tough on self and others

b.

dependent, passive, low in self-esteem, low in spontaneity

c.

high in self-control and self-esteem, highly creative

d.

socially competent, self-reliant, responsible

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Indifferent or uninvolved caregivers provide little guidance to their children, often resulting in more unacceptable behaviors.

B

Correct. Children whose caregivers are authoritarian tend to be dependent, passive, less intellectually curious, lack social competence and spontaneity, and have low self-esteem.

C

Incorrect. Children whose caregivers are authoritative or democratic tend to develop high self-control and self-esteem, not high creativity.

D

Incorrect. Children whose caregivers are authoritarian tend to lack social competence, are dependent, and passive. They are not self-reliant and responsible.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 77 Parenting Styles

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

31. The American Academy of Pediatrics has said that discipline should not only include setting limits and punishing for wrongdoing but also help children learn:

a.

rules, regulations, and goals of living in a world with others

b.

never to do the offending behavior again

c.

the feeling of guilt

d.

to be remorseful for wrongdoing to others

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Caregivers nurture their children so they will achieve self-control, competence, and self-direction in order to be a productive individual in society. It could be said this is the goal of disciplineto teach or instruct. The AAP Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Heath say that discipline should be approached in the broadest sense of helping the child learn rules, regulations, and goals of living in the world with othersand not just as setting limits and punishing.

B

Incorrect. Typical of the authoritarian or autocratic parenting style, but does not help the child internalize.

C

Incorrect. Positive discipline suggests that to improve a childs behavior, it is not appropriate to make the individual feel worse or guilty.

D

Incorrect. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not encourage parental discipline to push remorse as a means of the child learning self-control.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 78 Parental Role in Socialization of Children

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

32. The consequences of discipline must have the following qualities:

a.

effective, constructive, and not unduly harsh

b.

sufficiently harsh to prevent reoccurrence of the offending behavior

c.

not harsh enough to cause the parents to get into trouble with the law

d.

not harsh enough to produce guilt in the one to give out the consequences

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Effective disciplinary practices are effective, constructive, and not unduly harsh.

B

Incorrect. Harsh words or worse may actually ensure repetition of the offending behavior.

C

Incorrect. The consequences of discipline should be sufficient to be considered negative without being harsh for the child or illegal.

D

Incorrect. The consequences of discipline should be sufficient to be considered negative without being harsh for the child or producing guilt in the one giving out the consequences.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 78 Parental Role in Socialization of Children

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

33. If caregivers use verbal reprimands very frequently, they will most likely:

a.

extinguish the behavior

c.

change the behavior to a worse one

b.

change the behavior some

d.

reinforce the undesired behavior

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Frequent and indiscriminate verbal reprimands will not always extinguish the behavior.

B

Incorrect. Frequent and indiscriminate verbal reprimands may not change the behavior at all..

C

Incorrect. Frequent and indiscriminate verbal reprimands may or may not change the behavior to a worse behavior.

D

Correct. Frequent and indiscriminate verbal reprimands will reinforce the undesired behavior because the child is at least getting attention.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 79 Reducing or Eliminating Undesirable Behaviors

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

34. A defined period of time in which a child is removed from activities and social interactions because of unacceptable behavior is called a:

a.

punishment

c.

respite

b.

time-out

d.

seclusion

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The use of time-out avoids punishment.

B

Correct. Time-out is an effective disciplinary strategy that involves removing positive reinforcement for unacceptable behavior. It is a defined period of time in which the child is removed from activities and social interactions. The goal of time-out is to interrupt a pattern of negative behavior. The child should be placed in an area that is unstimulating and safe for about 1 minute for every year of age.

C

Incorrect. Not the term for this disciplinary strategy.

D

Incorrect. Seclusion may not be safe for a toddler or young child, and hence is not correct.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 79 Reducing or Eliminating Undesirable Behaviors

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

35. The application of some form of physical pain in response to undesired behavior is called:

a.

neurological stimulation

c.

extinguishment

b.

pain punishment

d.

corporal punishment

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Neurological stimulation is not normally associated with physical pain.

B

Incorrect. Pain punishment does not mean anything.

C

Incorrect. Extinguishment is not a word.

D

Correct. Corporal punishment involves the application of some form of physical pain such as spanking, beating, etc. in response to undesired behavior.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 80 Reducing or Eliminating Undesirable Behaviors

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

COMPLETION

1. A parent is requesting information on the use of a time-out for her 4-year-old. The nurse recommends that the parent allow the child to remain in the unstimulating, safe environment for ____________________ minutes.

ANS:

4

four

During a time-out, the child should be placed in an area that is unstimulating and safe for a time that is usually 1 minute per year of age. Therefore, for a child who is 4 years old, the time-out should be 4 minutes.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 79 Reducing or Eliminating Undesirable Behaviors

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A child is placed with kinship caregivers in foster care. The nurse is aware that kinship caregivers tend to face more challenges than nonkinship caregivers for which of the following reasons? Select all that apply.

a.

Kinship caregivers tend to be younger in age.

b.

Kinship caregivers tend to be in poorer health.

c.

Kinship caregivers tend to have lower incomes.

d.

Kinship caregivers tend to have less education.

ANS: B, C, D

Feedback

Correct

Kinship caregivers tend to be in poorer health than nonkinship caregivers.

Kinship caregivers tend to face more challenges than nonkinship caregivers because they have lower incomes.

Kinship caregivers tend to face more challenges than nonkinship caregivers because they have less education.

Incorrect

Kinship caregivers tend to be older in age, rather than younger than nonkinship caregivers.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 85 Foster Parenting

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

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