Chapter 3: Prenatal Development(FREE) My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 3: Prenatal Development

Elsevier items and derived items 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The total number of chromosomes contained in a mature sperm or ovum is:

a.

22

b.

23

c.

44

d.

46

ANS: B

Gametes (sex chromosomes) contain 23 chromosomes.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Text Reference: 30

OBJ: Objective: 2 TOP: Topic: Gametogenesis

KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

2. A woman tells the nurse that she and her husband are trying to get pregnant. The woman asks the nurse for information about optimal conditions for fertilization to occur. The nurse tells the woman:

a.

Once in the cervix, sperm are viable for 12 to 24 hours.

b.

It takes 4 to 5 hours for the sperm to reach the fallopian tube.

c.

An ovum can survive for 24 hours following ovulation.

d.

Ovulation must occur within 24 hours after coitus.

ANS: C

The ovum survives for up to 24 hours after ovulation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Text Reference: 32

OBJ: Objective: 3 TOP: Topic: Fertilization

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

3. A pregnant woman states, It doesnt matter if I have a boy or a girl. The nurse explains that:

a.

The sex chromosome of the fertilized ovum determines the gender of the child.

b.

When the sperm and ovum are united, there is a 75% chance the child will be a girl.

c.

When the pH of the female reproductive tract is acidic, the child will be a girl.

d.

If a sperm carrying a Y chromosome fertilizes an ovum, then a boy is produced.

ANS: D

When a Y-bearing sperm fertilizes an ovum, a male child is produced.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Text Reference: 32

OBJ: Objective: 3 TOP: Topic: Sex Determination

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

4. Using a diagram, the nurse points out the common site for fertilization, which is the:

a.

Lower segment of the uterus

b.

Outer third of the fallopian tube near the ovary

c.

Upper portion of the uterus

d.

Area of the fallopian tube farthest from the ovary

ANS: B

Fertilization takes place in the outer third of the fallopian tube, which is closest to the ovary.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Text Reference: 31

OBJ: Objective: 3 TOP: Topic: Fertilization

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

5. The nurse, while outlining the stages of fetal development, emphasizes the point in gestation when the embryo enters the third stage of prenatal development, which is:

a.

2 weeks

b.

4 weeks

c.

9 weeks

d.

16 weeks

ANS: C

The fetus (third stage of prenatal development) begins at the 9th week and continues until the 40th week of gestation or until birth.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Text Reference: 36

OBJ: Objective: 4 TOP: Topic: Prenatal Developmental Milestones

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

6. The nurse explains to a pregnant patient that blood is circulating through the placenta to the fetus by way of:

a.

One umbilical vein

b.

Two umbilical veins

c.

One umbilical artery

d.

Two umbilical arteries

ANS: A

The umbilical vein transports richly oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Text Reference: 39

OBJ: Objective: 7 TOP: Topic: Fetal Circulation

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

7. A pregnant woman is having an ultrasound because there is some concern about the implantation of the zygote. The nurse explains that the usual location for implantation is the:

a.

Upper section of the posterior uterine wall

b.

Lower portion of the uterus near the cervical os

c.

Inner third of the fallopian tube near the uterus

d.

Lateral aspect of the uterine wall

ANS: A

The zygote usually implants in the upper section of the posterior uterine wall.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Text Reference: 33

OBJ: Objective: 3 TOP: Topic: Implantation

KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

8. The embryonic membrane that contains fingerlike projections on its surface that attach to the uterine wall is the:

a.

Amnion

b.

Yolk sac

c.

Chorion

d.

Decidua basalis

ANS: C

The chorion is a thick membrane with fingerlike projections (villi) on its outermost surface.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge: Growth and Development

REF: Text Reference: 33 OBJ: Objective: 4

TOP: Topic: Accessory Structures of Pregnancy

KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. The nurse explains that the hormone responsible for converting the endometrium into decidual cells for implantation is:

a.

Estrogen

b.

Human chorionic gonadotropin

c.

Human placental lactogen

d.

Progesterone

ANS: D

At high levels, progesterone maintains the endometrial lining for implantation of the zygote.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Text Reference: 36

OBJ: Objective: 6 TOP: Topic: Placenta

KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

10. When the client asks when her babys heart will begin to pump blood, the nurse replies that blood circulation begins at the:

a.

End of week 4

b.

Beginning of week 8

c.

End of week 16

d.

Beginning of week 24

ANS: A

Circulation of blood through the placenta to the fetus is established after week 4 of gestation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Text Reference: 40

OBJ: Objective: 5 TOP: Topic: Prenatal Development

KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

11. In fetal circulation, the purpose of the ductus venosus is to bypass the:

a.

Liver

b.

Heart

c.

Lungs

d.

Kidneys

ANS: A

Fetal blood bypasses the liver through the ductus venosus by carrying blood directly to the inferior vena cava.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Text Reference: 40

OBJ: Objective: 7 TOP: Topic: Prenatal Development

KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development.

12. The nurse explains that although the foramen ovale closes functionally about 2 hours after birth, it can be reopened by:

a.

Esophageal atresia

b.

Gastric dilation

c.

Cold stress

d.

Respiratory distress

ANS: D

Respiratory distress can cause increased pressure in the right ventricle, causing reopening of the foramen ovale.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text Reference: 40

OBJ: Objective: 7 TOP: Topic: Fetal Circulation

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

13. During an ultrasound, two amnions and two placentas are observed. The nurse is aware that this pregnancy will result in:

a.

Dizygotic twins

b.

Monozygotic twins

c.

Conjoined twins

d.

Different-sex twins

ANS: A

Dizygotic twins always have two amnions and two chorions (placentas).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Text Reference: 41

OBJ: Objective: 8 TOP: Topic: Multifetal Pregnancy

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

14. A woman who is 25 weeks pregnant asks the nurse what her fetus looks like. The nurse bases her response on the understanding that one physical characteristic present in a 25-week-old fetus is:

a.

Lanugo covering the body

b.

Blood vessels visible through the skin

c.

Skin that is pink and smooth

d.

Eyes that are closed

ANS: A

By 25 weeks, the body of the fetus is covered with lanugo.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text Reference: 39, Table 3-1

OBJ: Objective: 5 TOP: Topic: Prenatal Development

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

15. At what point in prenatal development do the lungs begin to produce surfactant?

a.

17 weeks

b.

20 weeks

c.

25 weeks

d.

30 weeks

ANS: C

During week 25, the alveoli begin to produce surfactant, which enables the alveoli to stay open for adequate lung oxygenation to occur.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Text Reference: 39, Table 3-1

OBJ: Objective: 5 TOP: Topic: Prenatal Development

KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

16. A woman missed her menstrual period 1 week ago and has come to the doctors office for a pregnancy test. The nurse knows that the placental hormone measured in pregnancy tests is:

a.

Progesterone

b.

Estrogen

c.

Human chorionic gonadotropin

d.

Human placental lactogen

ANS: C

Human chorionic gonadotropin is the basis for most pregnancy tests. It is detectable in maternal blood as soon as implantation occurs, usually 7 to 9 days after fertilization.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Text Reference: 39

OBJ: Objective: 6 TOP: Topic: Accessory Structures of Pregnancy

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

17. When preparing to teach a class about prenatal development, the nurse would include information about folic acid supplementation because it is known to prevent:

a.

Congenital heart defects

b.

Neural tube defects

c.

Mental retardation

d.

Premature birth

ANS: B

It is now known that folic acid supplements can prevent neural tube defects such as spina bifida.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Text Reference: 36

OBJ: Objective: 5 TOP: Topic: Prenatal Development

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

18. The nurse informs a class of expectant parents that the fetus is first considered viable at the age of:

a.

14 weeks

b.

20 weeks

c.

25 weeks

d.

30 weeks

ANS: B

By 20 weeks gestation, the lungs have matured enough for the fetus to survive outside the uterus (age of viability).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Text Reference: 36

OBJ: Objective: 5 TOP: Topic: Prenatal Developmental Milestones

KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

19. The nurse explains that if one parent has a dominant gene and the other parent does not, the percentage of children carrying the dominant gene will be:

a.

10%

b.

25%

c.

50%

d.

100%

ANS: C

If one parent has a dominant trait and the other does not, then 50% of the children will inherit the trait.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Text Reference: 32

OBJ: Objective: 4 TOP: Topic: Dominant Traits

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

20. The nurse explains that twins are frequently below average birth weight because of inadequate:

a.

Space in the uterus

b.

Blood supply

c.

Maternal health

d.

Placental nutrition

ANS: D

The single placenta may not be able to provide adequate nutrition to two fetuses.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Text Reference: 42

OBJ: Objective: 8 TOP: Topic: Low Birth Weight Twins

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. While teaching a class on fetal development to a class of high school students, the nurse emphasizes that the fetus develops from primary germ layers, which are:

Select all that apply.

a.

Endoderm

b.

Blastoderm

c.

Ectoderm

d.

Plastoderm

e.

Mesoderm

ANS: A, C, E

The zygote transforms its embryonic disc into three layers: the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text Reference: 35, Box 3-1

OBJ: Objective: 4 TOP: Topic: Primary Germ Layers

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

2. The nurse clarifies that the functions of the amniotic fluid are:

Select all that apply.

a.

Maintaining an even temperature

b.

Impeding excessive fetal movement

c.

Lubricating fetal skin

d.

Acting as reservoir for nutrients

e.

Acting as cushion for fetus

ANS: A, E

The amniotic fluid provides maintenance of even temperature; prevents amnion from adhering to fetal skin; allows buoyancy, symmetrical growth, and fetal movement; and acts as a cushion for the fetus. Although the fetus does swallow amniotic fluid, it has no nutritional value.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Text Reference: 34

OBJ: Objective: 6 TOP: Topic: Amniotic Fluid

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

COMPLETION

1. The nurse explains that prior to fertilization each cell is reduced from 46 chromosomes to 23 chromosomes. This is referred to as the ____________________ number.

ANS: haploid

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Text Reference: 30

OBJ: Objective: 3 TOP: Topic: Haploid Number

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

NOT: Rationale: When each cell reduces its chromosomes from 46 to 23 is called the haploid number.

2. The component of development that programs the genetic code into the nucleus of the cell is ____________.

ANS: DNA

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Text Reference: 30

OBJ: Objective: 4 TOP: Topic: DNA KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

NOT: Rationale: The DNA programs the genetic code to the nucleus of the cell to be replicated.

OTHER

1. Organize the developmental stages in the correct order.

a. Fetus

b. Zygote

c. Embryo

d. Blastocyst

e. Morula

ANS:

B, E, D, C, A

The development follows these stages: zygote, morula, blastocyst, embryo, and fetus.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text Reference: 33

OBJ: Objective: 4 TOP: Topic: Fetal Development

KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

Leave a Reply