Chapter 2(FREE) My Nursing Test Banks

DAmico/Barbarito Health & Physical Assessment in Nursing, 2/e
Chapter 2

Question 1

Type: MCSA

The nurse is planning a smoking cessation class prior to the upcoming Great American Smokeout, hoping it may motivate many individuals to stop smoking by promoting self-efficacy. Which of the following statements, if made by the client, would indicate the highest level of positive self-efficacy according to the Health Belief Model?

1. I think this time will be different.

2. I am going to do the best that I can, so that I wont get lung cancer.

3. I am afraid of getting lung cancer like my father.

4. I know that this time I will quit smoking permanently.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Stating that this attempt at quitting smoking will be different shows a low level of commitment to the action.

Rationale 2: Stating fear of getting lung cancer represents an internal cue to action, based on the Health Belief Model.

Rationale 3: Referring to a family member with the disease represents an internal cue to action, based on the Health Belief Model.

Rationale 4: Based on the Health Belief Model, self-efficacy refers to the level of confidence an individual has about the ability to perform the activity. The clients statement, I know that this time I will quit smoking permanently, shows the highest-level determination and motivation.

Global Rationale: Based on the Health Belief Model, self-efficacy refers to the level of confidence an individual has about the ability to perform the activity. The clients statement that he/she intends to make a permanent change shows the highest-level determination and motivation. Stating that this attempt at quitting smoking will be different shows a low level of commitment to the action. Stating fear of getting lung cancer and referring to a family member with the disease represents internal cues to action, based on the Health Belief Model.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 2.3: Discuss perspectives of health promotion for the individual, family, and community.

Question 2

Type: MCSA

A couple who both have a positive family history of sickle cell anemia are concerned about the potential of having a child with sickle cell disease. Which statement indicates that the couple wishes to participate in primary prevention?

1. We need to both be treated for sickle cell anemia before we can have a baby.

2. We will have blood tests to determine if we are carriers.

3. We need to see a genetics counselor to discuss the potential for having a child with sickle cell disease.

4. Neither one of us has sickle cell disease, so any baby we have will be safe from the disease as well.

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Indicating a need for treatment would be considered secondary or tertiary prevention.

Rationale 2: Both individuals being tested for carrier status would be considered secondary prevention, as it deals with early diagnosis of health problems.

Rationale 3: Primary prevention implies health and a high level of wellness for the individual. Seeking out a genetics counselor to discuss the potential for having a child with sickle cell disease is considered primary prevention.

Rationale 4: Stating that neither has the disease, thus a child would not inherit the disease, indicates no level of prevention.

Global Rationale: Primary prevention implies health and a high level of wellness for the individual. Seeking out a genetics counselor is considered primary prevention. Indicating a need for treatment would be considered secondary or tertiary prevention. Both individuals being tested for carrier status would be considered secondary prevention, as it deals with early diagnosis of health problems. Stating that neither has the disease, thus a child would not inherit the disease, indicates no level of prevention.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss theories of wellness.

Question 3

Type: MCSA

The nurse is interviewing a client who has experienced a 15-pound weight gain during the last year. The nurse obtains a 24-hour dietary recall, as well as determines the clients exercise habits and feelings regarding plans to take off the excess weight. The nurse is using what type of approach with this client to enhance health?

1. Psychosocial perspective

2. Illness perspective

3. Physiologic perspective

4. Wellness perspective

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: A psychosocial perspective would not take into account the physiologic alteration necessary for a successful weight loss program.

Rationale 2: An illness perspective does not include the positive attributes, such as motivation, that the client possesses to address the 15-pound weight gain during the past year; rather, it focuses on the illnesses, such as hypertension, that can result from the weight gain.

Rationale 3: A physiologic perspective could also be considered an illness perspective.

Rationale 4: When using a wellness perspective, the nurse focuses on the clients personal strengths and abilities to enhance health.

Global Rationale: When using a wellness perspective, the nurse focuses on the clients personal strengths and abilities to enhance health. An illness perspective does not include the positive attributes that the client possesses to address the problem. A physiologic perspective could also be considered an illness perspective. A psychosocial perspective would not take into account the physiologic alteration necessary for a successful weight loss program.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss theories of wellness.

Question 4

Type: MCSA

The nurse is discharging a client who had a CVA and will be cared for at home by her husband. The nurse knows that the clients husband understands the need for tertiary prevention when he makes which of the following statements?

1. She will need instruction on using her walker.

2. She will need to have her flu shot this year.

3. She must take her blood pressure medications regularly.

4. She needs to have her cholesterol checked every 2 months.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Tertiary prevention involves strategies for rehabilitation; instructing the client on proper use of a walker is an example of tertiary prevention.

Rationale 2: Having a flu shot is a primary prevention strategy.

Rationale 3: Taking blood pressure medication is secondary prevention since the treatment is aimed at maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing complications from the condition.

Rationale 4: Having a cholesterol screening is an example of secondary prevention.

Global Rationale: Tertiary prevention involves strategies for rehabilitation, such as using a walker to aid ambulation. Having a flu shot is a primary prevention strategy. Taking blood pressure medication is secondary prevention since the treatment is aimed at maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing complications from the condition. Having a cholesterol screening is also an example of secondary prevention.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss theories of wellness

Question 5

Type: MCMA

The nurse is planning a weight reduction class and wants to use the Health Belief Model to motivate the clients in losing weight. The nurse would correctly choose which of the following as mediating factors in the Health Belief Model?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Likelihood of the individuals developing complications from being overweight

2. The clients perception of the severity of an illness that could develop from being overweight

3. The cost of the class that will be the clients responsibility

4. The amount of time commitment for the individuals taking the class

5. The religion of the clients who will be taking the class

Correct Answer: 1,2,3,4

Rationale 1: Susceptibility refers to how likely an individual is to develop an illness or condition and it is one of the mediating factors according to the Health Belief Model; the likelihood of the individuals developing complications from being overweight is an example.

Rationale 2: The perceived severity of an illness is the second mediating factor that determines the motivation to participating in health-promotion behaviors. The clients perception of the severity of an illness that could develop from being overweight is an example.

Rationale 3: The actual cost of the class would be considered the physical cost of the health-promoting activity versus continuing the unhealthy behavior. Physical and psychologic perceived cost is the fourth mediating variable.

Rationale 4: Time commitment necessary for the class would be considered a psychologic cost of the health promoting activity versus continuing the unhealthy behavior. Physical and psychologic perceived cost is the fourth mediating variable.

Rationale 5: Religion is not identified as one of the mediating variable according to the Health Belief Model.

Global Rationale: Mediating factors affect the health-promoting behaviors by influencing the perception of susceptibility, severity, effectiveness, and cost (physical and psychologic). Religion is not one of the identified mediating factors according to the Health Belief Model.

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 2.3: Discuss perspectives of health promotion for the individual, family, and community.

Question 6

Type: MCSA

The nurse is part of a committee examining ways to most effectively meet the goals of Healthy People 2020. Which of the following clients would be the nurses highest priority client?

1. A 16-year-old girl with her first pregnancy

2. A diabetic client who maintains optimal visual intactness

3. An IV drug abuser who converts to methadone use

4. Several obese school-age children

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: A 16 year old with a pregnancy does not indicate healthy behavior across the life span.

Rationale 2: The diabetic client maintaining visual intactness demonstrates the overall goal of Healthy People 2020 through practicing healthy behavior in regards to controlling his diabetes and improved long-term quality of life.

Rationale 3: An IV drug user still using a drug does not demonstrate healthy behavior, nor improved quality of life or elimination of health inequities.

Rationale 4: Obesity levels in the school-aged population do not demonstrate healthy behavior across the life span.

Global Rationale: The overriding goals for Healthy People 2020 are to eliminate preventable diseases and health inequities, as well as promotion of healthy behavior across the entire life span of an individual. The diabetic client maintaining visual intactness demonstrates healthy behavior in regards to controlling his diabetes and improved long-term quality of life. A 16 year old with a pregnancy does not indicate healthy behavior across the life span. An IV drug user still using a drug does not demonstrate healthy behavior, nor improved quality of life or elimination of health inequities. Obesity levels in the school-aged population do not demonstrate healthy behavior across the life span.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2.4: Describe goals, topic areas, and objectives in Healthy People 2020.

Question 7

Type: MCMA

The nurse is planning an exercise class for a group of young adults. Which of the following would the nurse include as benefits of regular physical activity?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease

2. Reduced risk of skin cancer

3. Reduced risk of colon cancer

4. Reduced risk of renal disease

5. Reduced risk of hypertension

Correct Answer: 1,3,5

Rationale 1: Regular physical activity has been found to decrease the risk of developing or dying from cardiovascular disease.

Rationale 2: The development of skin cancer is not related to physical activity.

Rationale 3: Regular physical activity has been found to decrease the risk of developing or dying from colon cancer.

Rationale 4: The development of renal disease is not related to physical activity.

Rationale 5: Regular physical activity has been found to decrease the risk of developing or dying from hypertension.

Global Rationale: According to Healthy People 2020, regular physical activity results in a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, colon cancer, and hypertension. It does not result in decreasing the risk of skin cancer or renal disease.

Cognitive Level: Remembering

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2.4: Describe goals, topic areas, and objectives in Healthy People 2020.

Question 8

Type: MCSA

The school nurse is working with several teenagers in gym class. Which of the following individuals would the nurse know is meeting the age-appropriate recommendations for physical activity developed by the Centers for Disease Control?

1. A 17 year old who runs at a fast pace for 30 minutes 5 times per week and practices yoga for 30 minutes 2 times per week

2. A 16 year old who swims for 60 minutes 5 times per week and jogs for 60 minutes the other 2 days per week

3. A 15 year old who lifts moderately heavy weights 15 minutes 3 times per week

4. A 13 year old who speed-walks 60 minutes 5 times per week

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Running for 30 minutes 5 times per week and practicing yoga for 30 minutes 2 times per week does not meet the CDC recommendation of 1 hour of moderate to vigorous exercise daily for children and adolescents ages 6 to 17.

Rationale 2: Swimming for 60 minutes 5 times per week and jogging for 60 minutes the remaining 2 days per week meets the CDC recommendation of 1 hour of moderate to vigorous exercise daily for children and adolescents ages 6 to 17.

Rationale 3: Lifting weights for 15 minutes 3 times per week does not meet the CDC recommendation of 1 hour of moderate to vigorous exercise daily for children and adolescents ages 6 to 17.

Rationale 4: Speed-walking for 60 minutes 5 times per week does not meet the CDC recommendation of 1 hour of moderate to vigorous exercise daily for children and adolescents ages 6 to 17.

Global Rationale: The CDC recommendation for physical activity for children and adolescents, ages 6 to 17, are: 1 hour or more of physical activity every day with most of the hour consisting of moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. The CDC also recommends that during the daily hour of physical activity, muscle-strengthening activity and bone-strengthening activity should each be included at least 3 days per week. Therefore, the 16 year old who swims for 1 hour 5 days per week and jogs for 60 minutes the remaining 2 days per week meets the CDC recommendations. The swimming would also be considered a muscle-strengthening activity and the jogging would be considered a bone-strengthening activity. The other options do not meet CDC recommendations.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2.4: Describe goals, topic areas, and objectives in Healthy People 2020.

Question 9

Type: MCSA

The school nurse is working with several school-aged children in health class. Which of the following individuals would the nurse know is most closely meeting the age-appropriate recommendations for physical activity developed by the Centers for Disease Control?

1. A 12 year old who plays soccer 4 days per week at the neighborhood playground and 3 days per week for a soccer team

2. A 10 year old who runs wind sprints for 15 minutes for PE class 1 day per week

3. A 8 year old who plays on the monkey bars at both 30-minute recess periods 3 times per week

4. A 9 year old who plays kickball at one 20-minute recess daily 5 times per week and plays basketball for a team 2 days per week

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The 12 year old who plays soccer 4 days per week at the neighborhood playground and 3 days per week for a soccer team is meeting the recommended 60 minutes per day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic activity.

Rationale 2: The 10 year old who runs wind sprints for 15 minutes for PE class 1 day per week is not meeting the recommended 60 minutes per day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic activity.

Rationale 3: The 8 year old who plays on the monkey bars at both 30-minute recess periods 3 times per week is not meeting the recommended 60 minutes per day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic activity.

Rationale 4: The 9 year old who plays kickball at one 20-minute recess daily 5 times per week and plays basketball for a team 2 days per week is not meeting the recommended 60 minutes per day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic activity.

Global Rationale: The CDC recommendation for physical activity for children and adolescents, ages 6 to 17, are: 1 hour or more of physical activity every day with most of the hour consisting of moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. The CDC also recommends that during the daily hour of physical activity, muscle strengthening activity and bone-strengthening activity should each be included at least 3 days per week. Only the child who plays soccer each day meets the recommended activity levels for age. The 10 year old is exercising only 15 minutes once per week. The 8 year old is exercising 60 minutes per day, but only three times per week, which does not meet the criteria for 60 minutes of daily exercise. The 9 year old is only exercising for 20 minutes 5 days while playing kickball and 2 days of basketball, which does not meet the minimum criteria.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2.4: Describe goals, topic areas, and objectives in Healthy People 2020.

Question 10

Type: MCSA

The nurse is teaching a smoking cessation class and has included the following statements in the presentation: Everyone here tonight has the ability to control the urge to smoke. You are all rational people who understand that smoking is the cause of many significant health problems, and that it is a voluntary event that you are going to learn to do without. Regardless of your motivation, you will get help here to understand your triggers to smoke, and how to control them. The nurse is utilizing what type of theory/model to promote smoking cessation?

1. The Self-Efficacy Model

2. The Theory of Reasoned Action

3. The Health Promotion Model

4. The Health Belief Model

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Self-efficacy is part of the Health Belief Model, and not its own theory. Self-efficacy refers to how confident individuals are in their own ability to perform a behavior.

Rationale 2: The Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior is a prediction theory based on the assumptions that behavior is under volitional control and that people are rational beings. The theory also suggests that individuals are more likely to participate in healthy behaviors if they believe the benefit outweighs the cost of the behavior. The statement by the nurse indicates these principles.

Rationale 3: The Health Promotion Model depicts people as multidimensional in interactions with their environments and focuses on variables that impact behavior. Variables that impact behavior include personal factors such as age, strength, and agility; cognitive factors such as an individuals perceived benefit of a health promoting action; and intrapersonal influences such as the influence of family members, friends, or a health care provider. The statement by the nurse does not depict this model.

Rationale 4: The Health Belief Model relates to cues to action for a change in behavior. The cues to action in this model refer to internal and external stimuli that motivate a person to participate in health promoting behavior. An example of a cue to action is a female getting yearly mammograms due to a family member having breast cancer. The statement by the nurse does not depict this model.

Global Rationale: The Theory of Reasoned Action / Planned Behavior is a prediction theory based on the assumptions that behavior is under volitional control and that people are rational beings. The theory also suggests that individuals are more likely to participate in healthy behaviors if they believe the benefit outweighs the cost of the behavior. Self-efficacy refers to how confident individuals are in their own ability to perform a behavior, and is part of the Health Belief Model, not its own theory. The Health Promotion Model depicts people as multidimensional in interactions with their environments and focuses on variables that impact behavior. Variables that impact behavior include personal factors such as age, strength, and agility; cognitive factors such as an individuals perceived benefit of a health-promoting action; and intrapersonal influences such as the influence of family members, friends, or a health care provider. The Health Belief Model relates to cues to action. The cues to action in this model refer to internal and external stimuli that motivate a person to participate in health-promoting behavior. An example of a cue to action is a female getting yearly mammograms due to a family member having breast cancer.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2.3: Discuss perspectives of health promotion for the individual, family, and community.

Question 11

Type: MCSA

The nurse is working with several clients in a fitness setting. Which of the following individuals would the nurse know is meeting the age-appropriate recommendations for physical activity developed by the Centers for Disease Control?

1. A 37 year old who lifts weights for one hour twice per week

2. A 42 year old who walks at a slow pace for 60 minutes 4 days per week

3. A 45 year old who walks briskly for 30 minutes 6 days per week

4. A 57 year old who swims for 20 minutes twice per week

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: The weight lifter is not exercising the minimum number of hours per week of the recommended moderate-intensity physical activities for at least 2 hours and 30 minutes per week or 1 hour and 15 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week; or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity.

Rationale 2: The 42 year old who is walking at a slow pace is not meeting the minimum criteria for moderate exercise.

Rationale 3: The adult who walks briskly for 30 minutes 6 days per week is meeting the criteria of moderate-intensity physical activities for at least 2 hours and 30 minutes per week or 1 hour and 15 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week; or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, as well as the suggested aerobic activity occurring for at least 10 minute episodes throughout the week.

Rationale 4: The swimmer is only exercising twice per week for a total of 40 minutes, which does not meet the minimum requirements for moderate physical activity.

Global Rationale: The recommendations for physical activity for adults are: moderate-intensity physical activities for at least 2 hours and 30 minutes per week or 1 hour and 15 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. Aerobic activity should occur for at least 10-minute episodes throughout the week. Only the adult who walks briskly is meeting the criteria of moderate-intensity physical activities for at least 2 hours and 30 minutes per week or 1 hour and 15 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. The weight lifter is not exercising the minimum number of hours per week. The 42 year old who is walking at a slow pace is not meeting the minimum criteria for moderate exercise. The swimmer is only exercising twice per week for a total of 40 minutes.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2.4: Describe goals, topic areas, and objectives in Healthy People 2020.

Question 12

Type: MCSA

The nurse is working with a client in a fitness setting. Which of the following would be the correct maximum desired heart rate target zone for both moderate- and vigorous-intensity workouts for this 60-year-old female?

1. 6680, and 112124

2. 6085, and 85110

3. 80110, and 120130

4. 80112, and 112136

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Utilizing the proper calculation method, 6680, and 112124 beats per minute are not the desired heart rate target zones for moderate- and vigorous-intensity workouts for a 60 year old.

Rationale 2: Utilizing the proper calculation method, 6085, and 85110 beats per minute are not the desired heart rate target zones for moderate- and vigorous-intensity workouts for a 60 year old.

Rationale 3: Utilizing the proper calculation method, 80110, and 120130 beats per minute are not the desired heart rate target zones for moderate- and vigorous-intensity workouts for a 60 year old.

Rationale 4: Utilizing the proper calculation method, 80112, and 112136 beats per minute are the desired heart rate target zones for moderate- and vigorous-intensity workouts for a 60 year old.

Global Rationale: Moderate intensity exercise should raise the heart rate 5070%. Vigorous intensity exercise should raise the heart rate 7085%. To calculate the minimum and maximum targets zones from each type of activity, you must first determine the maximum heart rate. This is done by subtracting the individuals age from 220. Therefore, 220 60 = 160. 160 x 0.5 (50%) = 80. 160 x 0.7 (70%) = 112. For vigorous activity, 160 x 0.7 = 112. 160 x 0.85 (85%)= 136. Therefore, 80112 and 112136 is the correct answer.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2.4: Describe goals, topic areas, and objectives in Healthy People 2020.

Question 13

Type: MCSA

The nurse understands that the type of exercise that is most useful for strengthening larger muscle groups such as abdominals, gluteals, and quadriceps, and for endurance training is:

1. Aerobic

2. Isotonic

3. Resistive

4. Isometric

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Aerobic exercises refer to activities in which oxygen is metabolized to produce energy. Examples of aerobic activity include walking, jogging, swimming, and skating.

Rationale 2: Isotonic exercises increase tone, and involve activities such as running, walking, and cycling.

Rationale 3: Resistive exercises use resistance. An example of resistive exercise includes weight lifting.

Rationale 4: Isometric exercises include those that affect muscle tension but do not result in muscle or joint movement. Isometric exercises are useful for strengthening abdominal, gluteal, and quadriceps muscles, for maintaining strength of immobilized muscles, and for endurance training. Examples of isometric exercise would include tensing of thigh muscles and extending the arms and pushing against a wall.

Global Rationale: Isometric exercises include those that affect muscle tension but do not result in muscle or joint movement. Isometric exercises are useful for strengthening abdominal, gluteal, and quadriceps muscles, for maintaining strength of immobilized muscles, and for endurance training. Examples of isometric exercise would include tensing of thigh muscles and extending the arms and pushing against a wall. Aerobic exercises refer to activities in which oxygen is metabolized to produce energy. Examples of aerobic activity include walking, jogging, swimming, and skating. Isotonic exercises increase tone, and involve activities such as running, walking, and cycling. Resistive exercises use resistance. An example of resistive exercise includes weight lifting.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2.4: Describe goals, topic areas, and objectives in Healthy People 2020.

Question 14

Type: MCSA

The nurse is aware that which of the following is responsible for more deaths in the United States than all of the others combined?

1. HIV and AIDS

2. Cigarette smoking

3. Automobile crashes

4. Drug abuse

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: HIV and AIDS are not responsible for the most deaths in the United States.

Rationale 2: Cigarette smoking is responsible for more deaths in the United States than death from HIV/AIDS, drug abuse, homicide, suicide, automobile crashes, and fire combined.

Rationale 3: Automobile crashes are not responsible for the most deaths in the United States.

Rationale 4: Drug abuse is not responsible for the most deaths in the United States.

Global Rationale: Cigarette smoking is responsible for more deaths in the United States than death from HIV/AIDS, drug abuse, homicide, suicide, automobile crashes, and fire combined. Smoking is a risk factor for heart disease, breathing disorders, and lung cancer. Secondary smoke increases the incidence of asthma and bronchitis in children, and heart and lung diseases in adults.

Cognitive Level: Remembering

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2.4: Describe goals, topic areas, and objectives in Healthy People 2020.

Question 15

Type: MCSA

A nursing student is preparing an educational program concerning breast cancer. The focus of the program is primary prevention. Which of the following topics would be most appropriate?

1. A dietary discussion concerning the connection between breast cancer and dietary intake

2. Techniques for performing selfbreast examination

3. American Cancer Society recommendations for mammography

4. Treatment options available for breast cancer clients

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Primary prevention implies that an individual is healthy and focuses on health promotion and disease prevention. Primary prevention is demonstrated by the discussion of dietary recommendations for prevention of breast cancer.

Rationale 2: Secondary prevention emphasizes early diagnosis and treatment of health problems and includes screenings such as teaching clients about selfbreast examination.

Rationale 3: Secondary prevention emphasizes early diagnosis and treatment of health problems and includes screenings such as mammography recommendations.

Rationale 4: Tertiary prevention is aimed toward treatment of a condition and restoration of health to the highest level of wellness possible. Treatment options for breast cancer would be considered a form of tertiary prevention.

Global Rationale: Primary prevention has a focus geared toward health promotion and disease prevention, which is demonstrated by the discussion of dietary recommendations. Secondary prevention emphasizes early diagnosis and treatment of health problems and includes screenings such as teaching clients about selfbreast examination and mammography. Tertiary prevention is aimed toward treatment of a condition and restoration of health to the highest level of wellness possible. Treatment options for breast cancer would be considered a form of tertiary prevention.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss theories of wellness.

Question 16

Type: MCSA

During a routine health examination, a client reports concern about her potential for the development of heart disease. During the assessment, the nurse reviews the clients risk factors. Which of the following assessed risk factors are considered modifiable?

1. Age, heredity, and weight

2. Family history, self history of diabetes mellitus type I, and age

3. Weight, dietary intake, and environmental risks

4. Biological characteristics, lifestyle factors, and family history

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Age and heredity are nonmodifiable risk factors (cannot be changed by the clients actions); while weight is a modifiable risk factor (can be changed by the clients actions).

Rationale 2: Family history, self history of diabetes mellitus type I, and age are all nonmodifiable risk factors (cannot be changed by the clients actions).

Rationale 3: Weight, dietary intake, and environmental risks are all modifiable risk factor (can be changed by the clients actions).

Rationale 4: Biological characteristics and family history are nonmodifiable risk factors (cannot be changed by the clients actions); while lifestyle factors are modifiable risk factors (can be changed by the clients actions).

Global Rationale: Risk factors that can be controlled by client action are termed modifiable. Those risk factors which cannot be changed by the client, such as age, heredity, genetic factors, certain health conditions, and biological characteristics, are called nonmodifiable factors.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2.3: Discuss perspectives of health promotion for the individual, family, and community.

Question 17

Type: MCSA

The Health Promotion Model is being used by a nurse to analyze the potential impact of an educational program being provided regarding the importance of regular exercise. According to the model, which of the following participants is most likely to initiate and consistently participate in a successful program of exercise after attending the session?

1. An overweight female who has never participated in an exercise program

2. A 30-year-old male who admits frequently joining and quitting exercise groups

3. A teenaged male who has low self-esteem

4. A 24-year-old female who reports she is anxious to begin exercising with her husband

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: The overweight female who has never participated in an exercise program would most likely have less motivation to initiate and consistently participate in a successful exercise program than the 24-year-old female who is anxious to begin exercise with her husband, who would be a source of support, according to the Health Promotion Model.

Rationale 2: A 30-year-old male who frequently joins and quits exercise groups is less likely to initiate and consistently participate in a successful exercise program than the 24-year-old female who is anxious to begin exercise with her husband, who would be a source of support, according to the Health Promotion Model.

Rationale 3: A teenaged male with low self-esteem is less likely to initiate and consistently participate in a successful exercise program than the 24-year-old female who is anxious to begin exercise with her husband, who would be a source of support, according to the Health Promotion Model.

Rationale 4: The 24-year-old female who reports she is anxious to begin exercising with her husband displays the motivational characteristics of the Health Promotion Model to most likely initiate and consistently participate in a successful exercise program.

Global Rationale: The Health Promotion Model views persons as multidimensional and in interaction with interpersonal and physical environments as they pursue health. The model can be used to make inferences about peoples motivational and behavioral outcomes. The female who has a strong motivation and social support demonstrates the strongest likelihood of following through with the program. Variables such as low self-esteem, prior negative outcomes, and a lack of experience can reduce the individuals willingness to engage in the health-promoting activities.

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss health promotion in relation to the nursing process.

Question 18

Type: MCMA

The nurse is planning a presentation to a group of middle-school students regarding health promotion and wellness. The nurse would be correct in planning to discuss which of the following concepts with the students:

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Individuals are more knowledgeable in todays society in regard to health care issues.

2. 2. Consumers of health care in todays society demonstrate less decision-making capabilities concerning their health care than in the past.

3. The focus of Healthy People 2020 is on the early treatment of disease and pathologic conditions.

4. The roles of health care providers in todays society have expanded.

5. Individuals, in general, are proactive regarding health care practices and desire care that promotes health and prevents disease.

Correct Answer: 1,4,5

Rationale 1: Individuals in todays society are more knowledgeable regarding health care issues than in the past.

Rationale 2: Clients are actively involved in the decision-making process related to their health care.

Rationale 3: The focus of Healthy People 2020 is on health promotion and disease prevention rather than early treatment of disease and pathologic conditions.

Rationale 4: Due to the complexity of the health care system of today, the role of health care providers has changed and expanded.

Rationale 5: Individuals in todays society are proactive in regard to their health care needs and an emphasis is placed on health promotion and disease prevention.

Global Rationale: Individuals in todays society are more knowledgeable in regard to health care issues; thus, individuals demonstrate control in decision-making capabilities concerning their health care. Healthy People 2020 focuses on health and wellness, rather than early treatment of disease and pathologic conditions. Due to the complexity of todays health care system, the role of health care providers has changed and expanded. Lastly, individuals are more proactive in regard to health care practices of today and desire care that emphasizes health promotion.

Cognitive Level: Remembering

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 2.1: Describe the concepts of wellness and health promotion.

Question 19

Type: MCSA

A client who has recently experienced a fracture is concerned about maintaining muscle strength during recuperation. The nurse should encourage the client to perform which of the following activities?

1. Isometric exercises

2. Isotonic exercises

3. Resistive exercises

4. Anaerobic exercises

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Isometric exercises affect muscle tension. Joint movement does not occur during isometric exercises. This type of exercise can be used for strength maintenance for immobilized clients and can be achieved with tensing the muscles in the affected arm or extending the arm.

Rationale 2: Isotonic exercises increase tone and involve activities such as running, walking, and cycling. These types of activities may be contraindicated by clients having a fracture.

Rationale 3: Resistive exercises use resistance. An example of resistive exercise includes weight lifting. This activity may be contraindicated by a client with a fracture.

Rationale 4: Anaerobic exercises are activities used to promote endurance training by participating in short periods of vigorous activity. This type of activity would not be indicated for a client with a fracture.

Global Rationale: Isometric exercises affect muscle tension. Joint movement does not occur during isometric exercises. Examples of isometric exercise would include tensing of thigh muscles and extending the arms and pushing against a wall. For this client, the best isometric exercise would be tensing the muscles in the affected arm or extending the arm. This type of exercise can be used for strength maintenance for immobilized clients. Isotonic exercises increase tone and involve activities such as running, walking, and cycling. These types of activities may be contraindicated by clients having a fracture. Resistive exercises use resistance. An example of resistive exercise includes weight lifting. Anaerobic exercises are activities used to promote endurance.

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss health promotion in relation to the nursing process.

Question 20

Type: MCMA

The client reports having difficulty sleeping at night. The client asks the nurse for suggestions to assist him in getting a good nights sleep. Which of the following recommendations may be beneficial to the client?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Perform a short exercise routine 30 minutes prior to going to bed to promote fatigue.

2. Set a regular bedtime.

3. Establish a relaxation routine at bedtime.

4. Avoid alcohol.

5. Watch television to assist in falling asleep.

Correct Answer: 2,3,4

Rationale 1: Performing exercises 30 minutes prior to going to bed will most likely stimulate the individual rather than promote sleep.

Rationale 2: Setting a regular bedtime, as well as a regular waking time, promotes a more restful sleep.

Rationale 3: A relaxation routine prior to bedtime promotes sleep.

Rationale 4: Avoiding alcohol will promote restful sleep since alcohol interferes with a normal sleep pattern.

Rationale 5: Watching television prior to attempting to fall asleep will most likely stimulate the individual rather than promote sleep.

Global Rationale: Establishing a routine including a regular bedtime and relaxation promote a restful sleep. Alcohol may be associated with altered sleep patterns. Performing exercises prior to going to bed and watching television will stimulate the individual rather than promote sleep.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss health promotion in relation to the nursing process.

Question 21

Type: MCSA

During a routine well-child health examination, the parents of a 4-year-old child report being concerned their child is not getting enough rest. The nursing assessment reveals the child usually gets 9 hours of sleep per night. Which of the responses by the nurse is most appropriate?

1. The recommendation for children of this age is at least 11 hours per night.

2. Your child should be fine with the 9 hours he is getting.

3. Taking a nap will benefit your child.

4. I would not recommend making any bedtime changes for your child.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Sleeping 11 to 13 hours per night is recommended for children ages 3 to 5 years. This child is not receiving the recommended hours of sleep necessary for a 4 year old; therefore, the nurses response is correct.

Rationale 2: The nurses response is incorrect since 9 hours of sleep per night is under the recommended 11 to 13 hours for a 4-year-old child.

Rationale 3: Napping will not meet the recommended 11 to 13 hours of sleep for a 4-year-old child who is receiving only 9 hours of sleep per night; therefore, the nurses response is incorrect.

Rationale 4: This response is incorrect since the child is not receiving the recommended 11 to 13 hours of sleep per night.

Global Rationale: The sleep requirement for a child of this age is 11 to 13 hours per night. Nine hours does not meet the recommendations. Napping does not meet the childs needs. Changes appear to be warranted for this child.

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2.4: Describe goals, topic areas, and objectives in Healthy People 2020.

Question 22

Type: MCSA

The parents of a 7month-old child, being seen at the clinic for the administration of a hepatitis B vaccine, ask if their child be can also be given a vaccine to prevent the chickenpox during this visit. The best response by the nurse is:

1. It will be less stressful to administer both shots during this visit.

2. The additional injection will make your child run a fever.

3. You really should wait and come back next month for this immunization.

4. This immunization is not offered until after the age of 12 months.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: This response by the nurse is incorrect since the first dose of varicella vaccine cannot be given until 12 to 15 months of age.

Rationale 2: This response by the nurse is incorrect since the first dose of varicella vaccine cannot be given until 12 to 15 months of age.

Rationale 3: The child will only be 8 months old if returning to the office in one month; therefore, this response by the nurse is incorrect since the first dose of varicella vaccine cannot be given until 12 to 15 months of age.

Rationale 4: This response by the nurse is correct since the first dose of varicella vaccine cannot be given until 12 to 15 months of age.

Global Rationale: The first dose of varicella vaccine is given at 12 to 15 months of age. Providing the vaccine prior to that time is contraindicated.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 2.4: Describe goals, topic areas, and objectives in Healthy People 2020.

Question 23

Type: MCSA

The nurse is performing a health assessment. Which of the questions will provide the greatest assistance in the determination of discharge planning needs?

1. Do you live alone?

2. Did you graduate from high school?

3. Are you involved in any types of exercise programs?

4. What steps have you taken to ensure your care when you go home?

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: This question is a closed question that limits the responses of the client to a yes or no answer and will prevent the nurse from determining the discharge planning needs of this client.

Rationale 2: This question is a closed question that limits the response of the client to a yes or no answers and will prevent the nurse from determining discharge planning needs of this client.

Rationale 3: Information regarding whether or not the client is involved in an exercise program will not help the nurse in determining the clients discharge planning needs.

Rationale 4: What steps have you taken to ensure your care when you go home? is an open-ended question that will allow the nurse to determine the clients discharge planning needs.

Global Rationale: Open-ended questions will solicit the greatest amount of information for discharge planning needs. Options 1 and 2 represent closed questions. The determination of participation in exercise programs will not provide information concerning discharge planning needs.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss health promotion in relation to the nursing process.

Question 24

Type: MCSA

A group of clients attend an educational program at which prevention and screening activities for breast cancer is discussed. Using the Health Belief Model, which participant is most likely to engage in the available health screenings?

1. The client whose mother and grandmother have a history of breast cancer

2. The client who is attending the program as a course requirement

3. The client attending in support of the presenter

4. The client who agreed to attend in support of another participant

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: According to the Health Belief Model, mediating variables determine the likelihood of an individual to actively participate in prevention of illness. The client whose family members have a history of breast cancer is most vulnerable to the disease and is thus most likely to engage in the available health screenings.

Rationale 2: According to the Health Belief Model, the client who is attending the program as a course requirement will be less influenced to participate in the health screenings than the client who has the positive family history of breast cancer.

Rationale 3: According to the Health Belief Model, the client who is attending the program in support of the presenter will be less influenced to participate in the health screenings than the client who has the positive family history of breast cancer.

Rationale 4: According to the Health Belief Model, the client who agreed to attend the program in support of another participant will be less influenced to participate in the health screenings than the client who has the positive family history of breast cancer.

Global Rationale: According to the Health Belief Model, mediating variables determine the likelihood of an individual to actively participate in prevention of illness. The client whose family members have a history of breast cancer is most vulnerable to the disease and is thus most likely to engage in the available health screenings. The remaining participants do not have the same high level of mediating factors to influence their participation. The client who is attending the program as a course requirement will be less influenced to participate in the health screenings than the client who has the positive family history of breast cancer. Similarly, the client who is attending the program in support of the presenter and the client who agreed to attend the program in support of another participant will be less influenced to participate in the health screenings than the client who has the positive family history of breast cancer.

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 2.3: Discuss perspectives of health promotion for the individual, family, and community.

Question 25

Type: MCSA

The nurse is counseling a 52-year-old female client who has been instructed by her healthcare provider to have a screening mammogram performed. The nurse outlines this procedure for the client as which type of prevention?

1. Primary

2. Tertiary

3. Prepathologic

4. Secondary

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Primary prevention implies health and high level wellness prior to the development of a disease or pathology. Examples of primary prevention include immunizations and eating a healthy diet. Screening mammograms are considered secondary prevention.

Rationale 2: Tertiary prevention occurs following the development of a disease or pathologic condition and is aimed at restoring an individual to the highest level of health possible. An example of tertiary prevention would be physical rehabilitation therapy for a client who has had a stroke. Screening mammograms are considered secondary prevention.

Rationale 3: Prepathologic prevention is the same as primary prevention, which implies health and high-level wellness prior to the development of a disease or pathology. Examples of primary prevention include immunizations and eating a healthy diet. Screening mammograms are considered secondary prevention.

Rationale 4: The goals of secondary prevention are early diagnosis and prompt treatment of health problems. Examples of secondary prevention include screenings such as mammograms, blood tests, surgery, and dental care.

Global Rationale: Secondary prevention involves early diagnosis of health problems. Due to an increased risk of breast cancer in women over 50, routine screening is recommended yearly. Screening mammograms are considered secondary prevention. Other examples of secondary prevention include screenings such as blood tests, surgery, and dental care. Prepathologic is another name for primary prevention, which implies health and high-level functioning prior to development of pathology. Examples of primary prevention include immunizations and eating a healthy diet. Tertiary prevention occurs following the development of a disease or pathologic condition and is aimed at restoring an individual to the highest level of health possible. An example of tertiary prevention would be physical rehabilitation therapy for a client who has had a stroke.

Cognitive Level: Remembering

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss theories of wellness.

Question 26

Type: MCMA

The nurse is planning to develop a campaign to raise awareness on the benefits of regular physical activity. Based on Healthy People 2020 reports, the nurse should target which of the following populations?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Individuals of Hispanic descent attending English as a Second Language course

2. Individuals who are enrolled in a masters degree program at a local college

3. Females attending a mothers support group ranging from ages 25 to 35 years

4. Males employed at an investment company ranging from ages 35 to 45 years

5. Adolescents participating in after-school programs for low-income families

Correct Answer: 1,3,5

Rationale 1: Individuals of Hispanic descent attending English as a Second Language course. These individuals fall into one of the groups identified by Healthy People 2020 as getting less physical activity than other populations.

Rationale 2: Individuals who are enrolled in a masters degree program at a local college. These individuals do not fall into one of the groups identified by Healthy People 2020 as getting less physical activity than other populations.

Rationale 3: Females attending a mothers support group ranging from ages 25 to 35 years. These individuals fall into one of the groups identified by Healthy People 2020 as getting less physical activity than other populations.

Rationale 4: Males employed at an investment company ranging from ages 35 to 45 years. These individuals do not fall into one of the groups identified by Healthy People 2020 as getting less physical activity than other populations.

Rationale 5: Adolescents participating in after-school programs for low-income families. These individuals fall into one of the groups identified by Healthy People 2020 as getting less physical activity than other populations.

Global Rationale: According to reports in Healthy People 2020, individuals who get the least amount of physical activity include women, lower income and lower educated populations, and African American and Hispanic populations. Therefore, the nurse would be most effective in targeting the individuals of Hispanic descent who are attending English as a Second Language course, the group of females attending a mothers support group, and the adolescents participating in after school programs for low-income families.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2.4: Describe goals, topic areas, and objectives in Healthy People 2020.

Question 27

Type: MCSA

The nurse is working with an older adult client who has osteoarthritis that affects the mobility of both hips. In developing a plan of care, the nurse must consider the recommended levels of physical activity according to the CDC. The best goal for this client is:

1. The client will bicycle at 10 mph for 1 hour or more every day.

2. The client will jog for 15 minutes per day 5 days per week.

3. The client will walk at least 5 mph for 15 minutes per day.

4. The client will swim for 15 minutes per day 5 days per week.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Bicycling at 10 mph for 1 hour or more every day is considered vigorous physical activity according to the CDC guidelines and would most likely place excess strain on the clients hip joints that are affected by the osteoarthritis.

Rationale 2: Jogging for 15 minutes per day 5 days per week is considered vigorous physical activity according to the CDC guidelines and would place excess strain on the clients hip joints that are affected by the osteoarthritis.

Rationale 3: Walking at least 5 mph for 15 minutes per day is considered vigorous physical activity according to the CDC guidelines and would most likely place excess strain on the clients hip joints that are affected by the osteoarthritis.

Rationale 4: The CDC recommends that older adults follow the same guidelines for physical activity as adults (moderate intensity physical activity at least 2 hours and 30 minutes per week or 1 hour and 15 minutes of vigorous activity or a combination of moderate and vigorous physical activity per week); if chronic conditions cause limitations, older adults should participate in as much physical activity as their condition allows. Swimming would place the least amount of strain on the hip joints affected by the osteoarthritis, and 15 minutes per day 5 days per week is moderate physical activity that would help maintain joint mobility.

Global Rationale: The CDC recommends that older adults follow the same guidelines for physical activity as adults (moderate intensity physical activity at least 2 hours and 30 minutes per week or 1 hour and 15 minutes of vigorous activity or a combination of moderate and vigorous physical activity per week); if chronic conditions cause limitations, older adults should participate in as much physical activity as their condition allows. Swimming would place the least amount of strain on the hip joints affected by the osteoarthritis, and 15 minutes per day 5 days per week is moderate physical activity that would help maintain joint mobility. The options of bicycling, jogging, and walking at the paces described would be considered vigorous physical activity and would place strain on the clients hips.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss health promotion in relation to the nursing process.

Question 28

Type: MCSA

The adult client is effectively demonstrating concepts of wellness, self-responsibility, and decision making through which of the following actions?

1. Planning a menu that includes large portions of an assortment of foods from each of the food groups.

2. Decreasing the number of cigarettes smoked from 3 packs per day to 1.5 packs per day.

3. Practicing sexual abstinence or using a condom during sexual intercourse.

4. Walking at a pace of 3 to 4.5 mph for 15 minutes 3 times per week.

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Menu planning should include appropriate rather than large portions of food from each of the food groups in order to practice good nutrition as a wellness concept.

Rationale 2: Decreasing the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day from 3 to 1.5 will not significantly lower the health risks of smoking; therefore, this action does not demonstrate the wellness concepts of responsibility and good decision-making skills in regards to health care issues.

Rationale 3: Wellness concepts are demonstrated through individuals being responsible and able to make good decisions regarding areas such as nutrition, physical activity, safety issues, stress management, emotional growth and well-being, and health care issues in general. Sexual abstinence or use of a condom during sexual intercourse demonstrates responsibility and good decision-making skills in regards to sexual and reproductive health.

Rationale 4: Walking at a pace of 3 to 4.5 mph is considered moderate physical activity; walking this pace for 15 minutes 3 times per week does not meet the CDC recommended 2 hours and 30 minutes per week for moderate physical activity; therefore, this action does not demonstrate the wellness concepts of responsibility and good decision-making skills in regards to health care issues.

Global Rationale: Wellness concepts are demonstrated through individuals being responsible and able to make good decisions regarding areas such as nutrition, physical activity, safety issues, stress management, emotional growth and well-being, and health care issues in general. Sexual abstinence or use of a condom during sexual intercourse demonstrates responsibility and good decision-making skills in regards to sexual and reproductive health. Menu planning should include appropriate rather than large portions of food from each of the food groups in order to practice good nutrition. Decreasing the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day from 3 to 1.5 will not significantly lower the health risks of smoking. Walking at a pace of 3 to 4.5 mph is considered moderate physical activity; walking this pace for 15 minutes three times per week does not meet the CDC recommended 2 hours and 30 minutes per week for moderate physical activity.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 2.1: Describe the concepts of wellness and health promotion.

Question 29

Type: MCSA

Based on the Health Promotion Model, which of the following adult clients is demonstrating an activity-related affect variable for choosing to no longer attend a class on stress-reduction techniques?

1. The client whose family members are nonsupportive of the techniques the client has learned during the class.

2. The client who reflects on the last session of the class and feels that she is not benefitting from the techniques learned.

3. The client who resents that there is a no-smoking policy for participants during the class session.

4. The client who feels that the homework given during class is taking too much time.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Based on the Health Promotion Model, the client who chooses to stop attending the stress-reduction technique class based on lack of family support is demonstrating the variable of interpersonal influence.

Rationale 2: The premise of the Health Promotion Model is that individual characteristics, behaviors, and other variables impact the motivation for an individual to participate in health promoting activities. The client that determines the techniques are not beneficial after reflecting on the last session of the stress-reduction technique class is demonstrating subjective feelings about the activity, which is referred to as an activity-related affect variable.

Rationale 3: Based on the Health Promotion Model, the client who chooses to stop attending the stress-reduction technique class based on the resentment felt due to the no-smoking policy represents a situational influence variable.

Rationale 4: Based on the Health Promotion Model, the client who chooses to stop attending the stress-reduction technique class based on the time necessary for class homework represents the variable of perceived barriers.

Global Rationale: The premise of the Health Promotion Model is that individual characteristics, behaviors, and other variables impact the motivation for an individual to participate in health promoting activities. The client who determines that the techniques are not beneficial after reflecting on the last session of the stress-reduction technique class is demonstrating subjective feelings about the activity, which is referred to as an activity-related affect variable. Quitting the class based on lack of family support refers to the variable on interpersonal influence; the client who quits the course based on resentment of the no-smoking policy represents a situational influence variable; and perceived barriers to action is the variable described by the client who feels the class homework is taking too much time.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 2.3: Discuss perspectives of health promotion for the individual, family, and community.

Question 30

Type: MCMA

During the admission assessment of a new client, which of the following factors should alert the nurse to possibility that the client is depressed and further evaluation is necessary?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. The client reports a history of rheumatoid arthritis and type 2 diabetes, which are both well controlled.

2. The client has been late for work several times due to oversleeping during the last month.

3. The client reports a family history of depression.

4. The client has had difficulty falling asleep for the last 7 days.

5. The client reports a generalized feeling of muscle aches that have occurred over the last 3 weeks.

Correct Answer: 2,3,5

Rationale 1: The client reports a history of rheumatoid arthritis and type 2 diabetes, which are both well controlled. Well-controlled chronic illnesses that cause no impairment in social or work functioning is not an indication of depression. Two or more chronic illnesses with impairment in social or work functioning are one of the series of symptoms that may indicate depression and warrants further evaluation.

Rationale 2: The client has been late for work several times due to oversleeping during the last month. Depression is indicated if a client reports a series of symptoms that have persisted for more than 2 weeks and have caused impairment in social and/or work functioning. Fatigue and a disturbance in sleep patterns for 3 weeks may indicate depression and warrants further evaluation of the client.

Rationale 3: The client reports a family history of depression. A family history of depression is one factor that can contribute to depression, warranting further evaluation of the client.

Rationale 4: The client has had difficulty falling asleep for the last 7 days. A disturbance in sleep patterns for more than 2 weeks is one of the symptoms of depression. This client reports difficulty falling asleep for only 7 days.

Rationale 5: The client reports a generalized feeling of muscle aches that have occurred over the last 3 weeks. Depression is indicated if a client reports a series of symptoms that have persisted for more than 2 weeks and have caused impairment in social and/or work functioning. Multiple vague symptoms such as generalized aches are one of the symptoms. This client reports that these symptoms have lasted for 3 weeks; therefore, further evaluation for depression is warranted.

Global Rationale: Depression is indicated if a client reports a series of symptoms that have persisted for more than 2 weeks and have caused impairment in social and/or work functioning. Being late for work several times over the last month, a family history of depression, and generalized muscle aches over 3 weeks could indicate depression and warrants further evaluation. Two or more chronic illnesses that cause social or work impairment are one of the symptoms of depression. This client reports these illnesses are well controlled with no indication of social or work impairment. Difficulty falling asleep for 1 week is not a symptom of depression.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss health promotion in relation to the nursing process.

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