Chapter 28: Environmental Hazards and Associated Problems My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 28: Environmental Hazards and Associated Problems

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following is likely to result from lead poisoning?

a.

Damage to the brain and peripheral nerves

b.

Inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs

c.

Various cancers

d.

Displacement of oxygen from hemoglobin

ANS: A REF: 633

2. During the development of hyperthermia, the state of heat exhaustion is indicated when:

a.

body core temperature is very high.

b.

skeletal muscle spasms occur.

c.

hypovolemia and fainting occur.

d.

the cool-down process is too rapid.

ANS: C REF: 634

3. What is/are signs of hypothermia?

a.

Systemic vasodilation

b.

Lethargy and confusion

c.

Nausea and cramps

d.

Rapid but strong pulse

ANS: B REF: 635

4. Which of the following types of cells are most likely to be damaged by exposure to radiation?

a.

Bone and cartilage

b.

Skeletal and smooth muscle

c.

Peripheral and central neurons

d.

Epithelial tissue and bone marrow

ANS: D REF: 635

5. Which of the following events would most likely cause a person to faint and experience difficulty breathing?

a.

Exposure to gamma rays

b.

Eating fish containing mercury

c.

An insect sting

d.

Inhalation of asbestos particles

ANS: C REF: 636-637

6. Bites and stings cause disease in which three ways?

a.

Injection of toxins, transmission of infectious agents, or allergic reactions

b.

High fever and chills, transmission of infectious agents, or nausea and vomiting

c.

Bone marrow damage, extensive skin rashes, or allergic reactions

d.

Injection of neurotoxins, transmission of infectious agents, or kidney damage

ANS: A REF: 636-637

7. Which statement applies to food poisoning?

1. It results from consuming contaminated food and water.

2. It often causes gastroenteritis, including vomiting and diarrhea.

3. Outbreaks occur frequently in institutions.

4. It is often caused by Escherichia coli, normally found in the stomach.

a.

1, 3

b.

2, 4

c.

1, 2, 3

d.

1, 3, 4

ANS: C REF: 636

8. Institutions frequently have outbreaks of infection associated with poultry products contaminated by:

a.

E. coli

b.

Salmonella

c.

Listeria

d.

HIV

ANS: B REF: 636

9. The amount of radiation absorbed by the body is measured in rads, or _________.

a.

radiation-absorbed doses.

b.

roentgen-absorbed doses.

c.

radiation-emission number.

d.

radiation ionizing rate.

ANS: A REF: 635

10. The term pica refers to:

a.

the consumption of nonfood substances such as clay.

b.

diffuse edema and degeneration of neurons in the brain.

c.

particulates in the respiratory tract.

d.

high levels of mercury in the blood.

ANS: A REF: 633

11. Inhalants can be:

a.

a particulate such as asbestos.

b.

gaseous, such as sulfur dioxide.

c.

a solvent, such as benzene.

d.

A, B, and C

ANS: D REF: 633-634

12. Choose the correct effects of exposure of the ears to very cold temperatures:

a.

Loss of sensation

b.

Lethargy and confusion

c.

Vascular occlusions

d.

A and C

ANS: D REF: 635

13. During the development of hyperthermia, the stage of heat stroke is marked by:

a.

shock and coma.

b.

hypervolemia and headache.

c.

diaphoresis and decreasing body temperature.

d.

dizziness, fainting, and headache.

ANS: A REF: 634

14. Which of the following is a potential effect of a bite or sting?

a.

Immediate heart failure

b.

Anaphylaxis

c.

Severe nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

d.

Bone marrow damage

ANS: B REF: 636-637

15. Bites from both wild and domesticated animals may cause:

a.

anaphylaxis.

b.

Shigella outbreaks.

c.

rabies.

d.

severe pain and headache.

ANS: C REF: 636-637

16. Which of the following is considered carcinogenic?

a.

Lead

b.

Carbon monoxide

c.

Inhaled particulates

d.

Mercury

ANS: C REF: 633

17. Illness in institutions may be traced back to food handlers who:

a.

are carriers of pathogens.

b.

do not practice adequate hand-washing or sanitization.

c.

bring in pathogens from home or the community.

d.

A, B, and C

ANS: D REF: 636

18. A common illness for tourists in developing countries is travelers diarrhea, often caused by:

a.

Salmonella

b.

Shigella

c.

E. coli

d.

Listeria

ANS: C REF: 636

19. Radiation damage may occur from repeated exposure to:

a.

ultraviolet rays.

b.

X-rays.

c.

radioactive substances.

d.

A, B, and C

ANS: D REF: 635-636

20. Two types of eye damage that can be caused by a laser beam are:

a.

chemical and structural.

b.

thermal burn and photochemical damage.

c.

tissue necrosis and vascular occlusions.

d.

formation of deep lesions in the optic nerve and in the sclera.

ANS: B REF: 636

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