Chapter 28 Applied and Industrial Microbiology My Nursing Test Banks

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e (Tortora)

Chapter 28   Applied and Industrial Microbiology

28.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

1) A baker forgets to put yeast in his bread dough.  Which of the following do you expect to happen to the bread as a result?

A) It will take longer to bake.

B) Bacterial contaminants will now be able to grow.

C) The bread will not rise.

D) The bread will look normal but will be tough.

E) The bread will have a sour taste.

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

2) Spoilage of canned foods stored at high temperatures, accompanied by gas production, is

A) thermophilic anaerobic spoilage.

B) flat sour spoilage.

C) spoilage by mesophilic bacteria.

D) caused by acid-tolerant fungi.

E) putrefactive anaerobic spoilage.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.3

Learning Outcome:  28.1

3) Spoilage of canned foods due to inadequate processing, NOT accompanied by gas production, is

A) thermophilic anaerobic spoilage.

B) flat sour spoilage.

C) spoilage by mesophilic bacteria.

D) caused by acid-tolerant fungi.

E) putrefactive anaerobic spoilage.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.1

4) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A) Propionibacterium Swiss cheese

B) Penicillium blue cheese

C) Lactobacillus yogurt

D) Acetobacter vinegar

E) Bacillus beer

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

5) Which of the following pertains to an improperly canned food product on a store shelf that has a bad odor and putrefaction of the canned material?

A) mesophilic spoilage

B) flat sour spoilage

C) bacterial soft rot

D) thermophilic anaerobic spoilage

E) hydrogen sulfide spoilage

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  28.2

6) All of the following are fuels produced by microorganisms EXCEPT

A) cellulose.

B) ethanol.

C) hydrogen.

D) methane.

E) oil from algae.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.8

Global Outcome:  5

7) Microorganisms play an active role in the formation of industrial products. Which of the following is mismatched?

A) Penicillium treatment of disease

B) Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation

C) Rhizobium increases nitrogen in the soil

D) Bacillus thuringiensis insecticide

E) algae citric acid

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  28.6

8) Which of the following is an undesirable contaminant in wine-making?

A) Acetobacter

B) lactic acid bacteria

C) Clostridium botulinum endospores

D) Saccharomyces

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  2

9) Commercial sterilization differs from complete sterilization in that commercial sterilization

A) kills all microorganisms.

B) kills only bacteria.

C) may result in the survival of thermophiles.

D) employs a higher temperature.

E) may result in the survival of fungal spores.

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  5

Figure 28.1

10) In Figure 28.1, assume the cells are your desired product and you want to maintain a continuous culture. Remember, the top lines/markings indicate the different phases observed in the curve below them. When would you harvest cells to maximize your yield?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

Answer:  B

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  3

11) In Figure 28.1, assume that a secondary metabolite is your desired product. Remember, the top lines/markings indicate the different phases observed in the curve below them. When would you be able to obtain it?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

Answer:  C

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.5

Global Outcome:  3

12) In Figure 28.1, assume the cells are producing penicillin which is collected during the idiophase. Remember, the top lines/markings indicate the different phases observed in the curve below them. When would you be able to collect the penicillin?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

Answer:  C

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.5

Global Outcome:  3

13) Which of the following reactions is performed by yeast in wine-making?

A) sugar ethanol

B) ethanol acetic acid

C) malic acid lactic acid

D) carbon dioxide sucrose

E) sugar CO2 + H2O

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

14) Which of the following reactions makes wine less acidic, and is important for good flavor when grapes with higher acidity are used?

A) sugar ethanol

B) ethanol acetic acid

C) malic acid lactic acid

D) carbon dioxide sucrose

E) sugar CO2 + H2O

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

15) Commercial sterilization of processed canned foods uses a 12D treatment which is based upon a theoretical population of 1012 C. botulinum endospores in a can of food. After treatment, there would theoretically be how many endospores left?

A) 120 endospores

B) 10 endospores

C) 100 endospores

D) 12 endospores

E) 1 endospore

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  4

16) All of the following are advantages of a bioreactor instead of a flask culture EXCEPT

A) larger culture volumes can be grown.

B) instrumentation for monitoring environmental conditions.

C) uniform aeration and mixing.

D) aseptic sampling.

E) None of the answers is correct; all of these are advantages of using a bioreactor instead of a flask culture.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  8.5

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  2

17) Microbial products can be improved by all of the following EXCEPT

A) isolating new strains.

B) mutating existing strains.

C) genetically modifying strains.

D) modifying culture conditions.

E) sterilization.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.1

Learning Outcome:  28.7

Global Outcome:  5

18) Which of the following microorganisms is usually used in the fermentation of alcoholic beverages?

A) Propionobacterium

B) Lactobacillus

C) Rhizopus

D) Saccharomyces

E) Penicillium

Answer:  D

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  5

19) All of the following are true of irradiation methods used for food preservation and sterilization EXCEPT

A) they prolong shelf-life of fruits and vegetables.

B) residual radioactivity is left behind on many foods.

C) ionizing radiation such as X rays or gamma rays is used.

D) they are used for the sterilization of many spices.

E) they greatly reduce the number of pathogens present in meats and poultry.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  5

20) All of the following are industrial products produced by microbes EXCEPT

A) amino acids in food supplements.

B) antibiotics.

C) industrial enzymes.

D) uranium.

E) vitamin B12 and riboflavin.

Answer:  D

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

21) All of the following are industrial products produced using microbial fermentations EXCEPT

A) aspartic acid.

B) citric acid.

C) glutamic acid.

D) riboflavin.

E) saccharin.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

22) All of the following foods are produced using microbial fermentations EXCEPT

A) sauerkraut.

B) ketchup.

C) sour cream.

D) yogurt.

E) coffee.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  5

23) Which of the following microbes produces a natural biopesticide?

A) Penicillium chryssogenum

B) Saccharomyces cerevisiae

C) Bacillus thuringiensis

D) Lactobacillus buggaricus

E) Thiobacillus ferroxidans

Answer:  C

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

24) Biomass is a renewable energy source derived from the organic matter produced by living organisms.  All of the following are sources of biomass EXCEPT

A) oxidation of metals.

B) crops.

C) bacteria.

D) landfill sites.

E) algae.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.8

Global Outcome:  5

25) All of the following are industrial enzymes made by microbial fermentations EXCEPT

A) glucose isomerase.

B) rennin.

C) proteases.

D) amylases.

E) vitamin C.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

26) What process does yeast use to produce ethanol for automobile fuel from corn?

A) anaerobic respiration

B) fermentation

C) the Krebs cycle

D) oxidation

E) photosynthesis

Answer:  B

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.8

Global Outcome:  5

27) The following steps are required for making cheese. What is the second step, which helps to provide the characteristic flavors and aromas of the cheese?

A) enzymatic coagulation of milk

B) fermentation of curd

C) inoculation with lactic acid bacteria

D) inoculation with Penicillium

E) separation of curds and whey

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

28) As cheese ages, it gets

A) more acidic.

B) more whey.

C) more protein.

D) saltier.

E) more alcoholic.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.2

Learning Outcome:  28.3

29) Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is used for the recovery of ________ from ore.

A) sulfur

B) copper

C) iron

D) sulfuric acid

E) gold

Answer:  B

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.7

Global Outcome:  5

30) What role do lactic acid bacteria play in cheese production?

A) curd formation

B) production of holes in Swiss cheese

C) ripening the cheese

D) providing characteristic flavor and smell

E) Lactic acid bacteria carry out each of these roles in cheese production.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

31) You are growing Bacillus subtilis, an aerobic bacterium that can also carry out fermentation when required, in a bioreactor and notice that the growth rate has slowed and the pH has decreased. You suspect the bacteria are

A) using the Krebs cycle.

B) fermenting.

C) photosynthesizing.

D) using proteins.

E) dead.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  2

32) You are growing Bacillus subtilis, an aerobic bacterium that can also carry out fermentation when required, in a bioreactor and notice that the growth rate has slowed and the pH has decreased. What could you add?

A) glucose

B) lactose

C) peptides

D) oxygen

E) lactic acid

Answer:  D

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  2

33) Aseptic packaging utilizes which of the following to sterilize laminated paper or plastic prior to filling with food?

A) hot HCl solution

B) gamma radiation

C) hot hydrogen peroxide solution

D) X rays

E) autoclave

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

34) All of the following are uses for ionizing or ultraviolet radiation EXCEPT

A) heating cold food.

B) sterilizing spices.

C) inactivation of Trichinella larvae.

D) killing of insect eggs and larva.

E) prevention of sprouting.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  2

35) Canning preserves food

A) through use of aseptic packaging.

B) by exposure to chemicals.

C) by exposure to high heat.

D) by exposure to radiation.

E) by exposure to high pH.

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

36) Microorganisms themselves are commercial products. Which of the following microbes is available as a product sold in retail stores?

A) Bacillus thuringiensis

B) Lactobacillus

C) Rhizobium

D) Saccharomyces

E) All of these organisms can be found in various commercial products.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  5

Figure 28.3

37) Figure 28.3 shows the growth curves of Acetobacter under different conditions. Which culture would produce the highest amount of the primary metabolite acetic acid?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

Answer:  A

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.5

Global Outcome:  3

38) Which of the growth curves in Figure 28.3 will give the highest yield of a secondary metabolite?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

Answer:  C

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.5

Global Outcome:  3

39) Canning works to preserve foods through

A) creation of an anaerobic environment.

B) creation of an anaerobic environment and exposure to high heat.

C) exposure to high heat.

D) mutation of bacterial DNA.

E) increasing pH.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

40) Aseptic packaging (where the packaging itself is rendered sterile) helps to preserve foods through

A) creation of an anaerobic environment in the packaging.

B) creation of an anaerobic environment in the packaging and exposure of the packaging to high heat.

C) exposure of the packaging to high heat.

D) mutation of bacterial DNA by exposure to the packaging material.

E) increasing pH in the food contained in the packaging.

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  2

41) Radiation works to preserve foods through

A) creation of an anaerobic environment.

B) creation of an anaerobic environment and high heat.

C) exposure to high heat.

D) lethal mutation of bacterial DNA.

E) increasing pH.

Answer:  D

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  2

42) All of the following are reasons for utilizing algae for biofuel production EXCEPT

A) they do not take up land needed for food production.

B) they produce more energy per acre than corn.

C) their main requirement is abundant light.

D) they can utilize agriculturally poor land.

E) they produce a nondegradable waste product.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.8

Global Outcome:  5

43) What will be produced if wine is aerated and inoculated with bacteria of the genera Acetobacter and Gluconobacter?

A) ethanol + CO2

B) CO2 + H2O

C) CH4

D) acetic acid

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

44) Bioreactors are widely used for industrial fermentation. Which of the following conditions must be closely monitored for optimal fermentation?

A) temperature

B) oxygen levels

C) pH

D) both temperature and pH

E) temperature, pH, and oxygen levels

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.3

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  2

45) Xanthan used in household products is produced by bacteria

A) that were genetically modified.

B) that were irradiated to mutate them.

C) selected for their ability to utilize lactose rather than glucose.

D) that are plant pathogens.

E) selected for their ability to utilize lactose rather than glucose and that are plant pathogens.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  5

28.2   True/False Questions

1) The blue-green clumps observed in Roquefort cheese are a result of mold growth.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  28.3

2) The longer interior-ripened cheeses are permitted to ripen, the milder the taste of the cheese.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

3) Mesophilic bacteria grow best at temperatures of 60C.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.3

Learning Outcome:  28.1

4) High-pressure processing of foods such as deli meats and precooked chicken strips targets pathogens such as Salmonella and Listeria.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  2

5) Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium are mixed with peat moss to increase nitrogen fixation.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.7

6) The production of vinegar relies on the microbial oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  28.3

7) Industrial canning, as opposed to home canning, is achieved using a pressure cooker which operates in a manner similar to an autoclave.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  5

8) A large industry exists based on the synthesis of amino acids by microorganisms.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

9) If an industrial microbiologist works with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, he is likely to be involved in copper mining.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.7

Global Outcome:  5

10) Vitamins A and E are commonly produced by microorganisms.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.5

Global Outcome:  5

28.3   Essay Questions

1) Discuss the production of four different foods that require microbial fermentation in their products. In your discussion, name the specific microorganisms used and describe the fermentation by-product(s) needed for the production of each food item.

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

2) Discuss the production of three different non-food/beverage substances that utilize microorganisms in their production. Your discussion should include the specific microorganisms involved and their role in the production of each substance.

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  8

3) Explain how ionizing radiation can be used to preserve foods. Discuss its advantage over canning as a method of preservation.

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  8

4) Vessels used for industrial fermentation reactions are known as bioreactors. Explain the difference between batch production and continuous flow production using a bioreactor.

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  8

Leave a Reply