Chapter 27 Environmental Microbiology My Nursing Test Banks

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e (Tortora)

Chapter 27   Environmental Microbiology

27.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

1) All of the following are habitats for extremophiles EXCEPT

A) an acid mine wash.

B) the topmost portions of the Atlantic Ocean.

C) inside rock.

D) a salt-evaporating pond.

E) 100C water.

Answer:  B

Section:  27.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.1

Learning Outcome:  27.1

2) Which of the following organisms is using sulfur as a source of energy?

A) Thiobacillus: H2S S0

B) Desulfovibrio: SO42- H2S

C) Proteus: Amino acids H2S

D) Redwood tree: SO42- Amino acids

E) Photosynthetic bacteria: H2S S0

Answer:  A

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  27.8

Global Outcome:  2

3) Which of the following is NOT a symbiotic pair of organisms?

A) elk and rumen bacteria

B) orchid and mycorrhizae

C) onions and arbuscules

D) bean plant and Rhizobium

E) sulfur and Thiobacillus

Answer:  E

Section:  27.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.1

Learning Outcome:  27.2

Global Outcome:  2

4) All of the following are true of mycorrhizae EXCEPT

A) they are fungi that form beneficial relationships with plants.

B) an example is the food delicacy truffles.

C) the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are a type of ectomycorrhizae.

D) they enable plants to absorb soil nutrients.

E) ectomycorrhizae extend the surface area of roots for nutrient absorption.

Answer:  C

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.1

Learning Outcome:  27.3

5) The guano deposited by seabirds is used a source for which of the following fertilizer components?

A) phosphate

B) nitrate

C) sulfate

D) carbonate

E) potassium

Answer:  A

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  27.10

6) Adding untreated sewage to a freshwater lake would cause the biochemical oxygen demand to

A) increase.

B) decrease.

C) stay the same.

D) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

Answer:  A

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.2

Learning Outcome:  27.20

Global Outcome:  2

7) In freshwater lakes and ponds, the majority of photosynthetic microbes are located in the ________ zone(s).

A) benthic

B) profundal

C) limnetic

D) littoral

E) benthic and profundal

Answer:  C

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.1

Learning Outcome:  27.13

8) All of the following are used in secondary sewage treatment EXCEPT

A) trickling filters.

B) sludge granules or floc formation.

C) aeration.

D) anaerobic digestion.

E) activated sludge.

Answer:  D

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.18

Global Outcome:  5

9) 6H2S + 6CO2  6S0 + glucose

A) takes place under aerobic conditions.

B) takes place under anaerobic conditions.

C) The amount of oxygen does not make any difference.

Answer:  B

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  27.8

Global Outcome:  2

10) Which of the following requires aerobic conditions?

A) nitrogen fixation

B) sludge digestion

C) primary sewage treatment

D) secondary sewage treatment

E) water treatment

Answer:  D

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.18

Global Outcome:  5

11) All of the following organisms are involved in carbon fixation EXCEPT

A) green and purple sulfur bacteria.

B) cyanobacteria.

C) lichens.

D) algae.

E) mycorrhizae.

Answer:  E

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.1

Learning Outcome:  27.10

Global Outcome:  2

12) What stage of sewage treatment produces methane?

A) primary treatment

B) secondary treatment

C) tertiary treatment

D) sludge digestion

E) None of the stages of sewage treatment produce methane.

Answer:  D

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.19

13) NH3 NO2

A) takes place under aerobic conditions.

B) takes place under anaerobic conditions.

C) The amount of oxygen does not make any difference.

Answer:  A

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  27.7

14) Bioremediation of petroleum

A) takes place under aerobic conditions.

B) takes place under anaerobic conditions.

C) The amount of oxygen does not make any difference.

Answer:  A

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.12

Global Outcome:  5

15) Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of the

A) number of bacteria present in a water sample.

B) amount of oxygen present in a water sample.

C) amount of organic matter present in a water sample.

D) amount of undissolved solid matter present in a water sample.

E) amount of nitrogen in a water sample.

Answer:  C

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.2

Learning Outcome:  27.20

16) For the biogeochemical cycles of the following elements, which does NOT have an atmospheric cycle?

A) carbon

B) phosphorus

C) sulfur

D) nitrogen

Answer:  B

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.1

Learning Outcome:  27.10

17) Which of the following is required for composting?

A) addition of non-biodegradable materials

B) addition of nitrogen and phosphorus sources

C) periodic turning or raking of the compost pile

D) addition of thermophilic microbes

E) constant anaerobic conditions

Answer:  C

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.11

Figure 27.1

18) Which step in Figure 27.1 represents anaerobic respiration?

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV

E) V

Answer:  B

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  27.6

Global Outcome:  2

19) Which term in Figure 27.1 describes step V?

A) ammonification

B) denitrification

C) dissimilation

D) nitrification

E) nitrogen fixation

Answer:  E

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  27.6

Global Outcome:  2

20) Which step in Figure 27.1 represents the following reaction: amino acid (-NH2) NH3?

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV

E) V

Answer:  C

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.1

Learning Outcome:  27.6

Global Outcome:  2

21) Nitrification is beneficial to farmers. It is represented by which step in Figure 27.1?

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV

E) V

Answer:  A

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.1

Learning Outcome:  27.6

Global Outcome:  2

22) Which of the following terms describes step III in Figure 27.1?

A) ammonification

B) denitrification

C) nitrification

D) nitrogen fixation

E) assimilation

Answer:  A

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  27.6

Global Outcome:  2

23) Which of the following terms describes NO3 NO2 N2O N2?

A) ammonification

B) denitrification

C) nitrification

D) nitrogen fixation

E) anaerobic respiration

Answer:  B

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  27.6

Global Outcome:  2

24) Which of the following is an assimilation process?

A) Thiobacillus: H2S S0

B) Desulfovibrio: SO42- H2S

C) Proteus: Sulfhydryl-containing amino acids H2S

D) Redwood tree: SO42- Sulfhydryl groups of amino acids

E) Photosynthetic bacteria: H2S S0

Answer:  D

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  27.8

25) Which wastewater treatment process is responsible for removal of most of the BOD in sewage?

A) anaerobic sludge digestion

B) primary sewage treatment

C) secondary sewage treatment

D) tertiary sewage treatment

E) water treatment

Answer:  C

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.18

Global Outcome:  5

26) Which wastewater treatment process produces BOD-containing effluent used for irrigation?

A) anaerobic sludge digestion

B) primary sewage treatment

C) secondary sewage treatment

D) tertiary sewage treatment

E) water treatment

Answer:  C

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.18

Global Outcome:  5

27) Residual chlorine must be maintained in

A) anaerobic sludge digestion.

B) primary sewage treatment.

C) secondary sewage treatment.

D) tertiary sewage treatment.

E) water treatment.

Answer:  E

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  27.17

Global Outcome:  5

28) Sedimentation of sludge occurs in

A) anaerobic sludge digestion.

B) primary sewage treatment.

C) secondary sewage treatment.

D) tertiary sewage treatment.

E) water treatment.

Answer:  B

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.18

Global Outcome:  5

29) The product of which process contains the highest BOD?

A) anaerobic sludge digestion

B) primary sewage treatment

C) secondary sewage treatment

D) tertiary sewage treatment

E) water treatment

Answer:  B

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.18

Global Outcome:  5

30) Zoogloea form flocculent masses in

A) anaerobic sludge digestion.

B) primary sewage treatment.

C) activated sludge digestion.

D) tertiary sewage treatment.

E) water treatment.

Answer:  C

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.18

Global Outcome:  5

31) Drinking water supplies are routinely tested for the presence of

A) Giardia.

B) Cryptosporidium.

C) fecal coliforms.

D) fecal viruses.

E) Vibrio.

Answer:  C

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.16

Global Outcome:  5

32) Aerobic respiration occurs in

A) anaerobic sludge digestion.

B) primary sewage treatment.

C) secondary sewage treatment.

D) tertiary sewage treatment.

E) water treatment.

Answer:  C

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.18

Global Outcome:  5

33) In the ONPG and MUG test for fecal coliforms, a sample that is positive for E. coli will be

A) positive for ONPG; fluorescent in UV light.

B) negative for ONPG; fluorescent in UV light.

C) positive for ONPG; non-fluorescent in UV light.

D) negative for ONPG; non-fluorescent in UV light.

Answer:  A

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.16

Global Outcome:  5

34) Filtration to remove protozoa occurs in

A) anaerobic sludge digestion.

B) primary sewage treatment.

C) secondary sewage treatment.

D) tertiary sewage treatment.

E) water treatment.

Answer:  E

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  27.17

Global Outcome:  5

35) Which of the following do NOT fix atmospheric nitrogen?

A) cyanobacteria

B) lichens

C) mycorrhizae

D) Rhizobium

E) Azotobacter

Answer:  C

Section:  27.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  27.6

36) Which of the following is mismatched?

A) CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + 2H2O Methane-producing bacteria

B) 2 NO2 + O2 2 NO3 Nitrobacter

C) 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 Clostridium

D) N2 + 6H+ 2NH3 Beijerinckia

E) SO42- + 10H+ H2S + 4H2O Desulfovibrio

Answer:  C

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  27.10

Global Outcome:  2

37) Bacteria can increase the Earths temperature by

A) generating a great deal of heat in metabolism.

B) producing CH4, which is a greenhouse gas.

C) using the greenhouse gas CO2.

D) providing nutrients for plant growth.

E) oxidizing CH4.

Answer:  B

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.2

Learning Outcome:  27.5

Global Outcome:  7

38) Which of the following is NOT characteristic of fecal coliforms?

A) gram-negative

B) non-spore forming

C) rod-shaped

D) lactose-fermenting

E) pathogenic

Answer:  E

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  27.16

39) Which one of the following processes in sewage treatment requires bacterial metabolism?

A) chlorination

B) primary treatment

C) removal of BOD

D) sedimentation

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.18

Global Outcome:  5

Figure 27.2

40) Where are photosynthetic bacteria most likely to be found in Figure 27.2?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) a and b

E) b and c

Answer:  A

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.1

Learning Outcome:  27.13

41) Where are the benthic microbes such as Desulfovibrio and Clostridium most likely to be found in Figure 27.2?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) a and b

E) b and c

Answer:  C

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.1

Learning Outcome:  27.13

42) In the early 1900s, cities such as Philadelphia reduced the incidence of typhoid fever by

A) isolating human carriers.

B) using tertiary water treatment systems.

C) filtering municipal drinking water through sand-bed filters.

D) requiring residents to boil drinking water.

E) mass vaccination of residents.

Answer:  C

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  27.17

Global Outcome:  5

43) The release of phosphate-containing detergents into a river would

A) kill algae.

B) increase algal growth.

C) kill bacteria.

D) improve the water quality.

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  B

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  27.15

44) Untreated sewage is released into a river. Which of the following statements is FALSE?

A) The untreated sewage is a health hazard.

B) The untreated sewage increases the BOD.

C) The untreated sewage decreases the dissolved oxygen.

D) The untreated sewage kills bacteria.

E) All of the statements are true.

Answer:  D

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  27.14

45) Bacteria that are used as biosensors

A) migrate to the hazardous chemical.

B) do not emit light in the presence of a hazardous chemical.

C) degrade hazardous chemicals.

D) have chlorophyll.

E) may use the lux operon.

Answer:  E

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.16

Global Outcome:  5

27.2   True/False Questions

1) In water treatment, the purpose of flocculation is to remove microbes, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  27.18

Global Outcome:  5

2) Bioremediation involves the use of microbes to degrade or detoxify pollutants.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  27.12

Global Outcome:  5

3) The water from tertiary sewage treatment can be used as drinking water.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  27.18

Global Outcome:  5

4) The purpose of tertiary sewage treatment is to remove all of the phosphorus, nitrogen, and BOD left from secondary treatment.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  27.18

Global Outcome:  5

5) The BOD is a measurement of the amount of bacteria present before and after the sewage treatment process.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  27.18

6) The bacteriological safety of drinking water is determined by testing water samples for the presence of human pathogens.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  27.16

Global Outcome:  5

7) The dense growth of algae in an algal bloom leads to increased oxygen levels in lakes that enhance the habitat for fish.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.2

Learning Outcome:  27.15

8) Microorganisms in deep-sea vents and caves serve as autotrophic primary producers in the absence of sunlight.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  27.9

9) Nitrogen fixation by bacteria occurs only in the root nodules of leguminous plants.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  27.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  27.6

10) In small communities lacking municipal sewage systems, sewage is treated in septic systems or oxidation ponds.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  27.20

Global Outcome:  5

27.3   Essay Questions

1) What is the effect of discharging primary-treated sewage on the BOD and dissolved O2 (DO) of the receiving body of water? What is the effect of secondary-treated sewage on the BOD and DO?

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.2

Learning Outcome:  27.14

Global Outcome:  8

2) A newspaper headline reported Algal Bloom Kills Fish. What actually caused fish death, given that the algae were not toxic? What could have caused the algal bloom?

Section:  27.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.2

Learning Outcome:  27.15

Global Outcome:  8

3) Based on your knowledge of extremophiles and endoliths, describe the characteristics you would expect of microorganisms capable of living on Mars or other non-Earth environments.

Section:  27.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.2

Learning Outcome:  27.1

Global Outcome:  8

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