Chapter 26: Crisis and Disaster My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 26: Crisis and Disaster

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A patient comes to the crisis clinic after an unexpected job termination. The patient paces around the room sobbing, cringes when approached, and responds to questions with only shrugs or monosyllables. Choose the nurses best initial comment to this patient.

a.

Everything is going to be all right. You are here at the clinic, and the staff will keep you safe.

b.

I see you are feeling upset. Im going to stay and talk with you to help you feel better.

c.

You need to try to stop crying and pacing so we can talk about your problems.

d.

Lets set some guidelines and goals for your visit here.

ANS: B

A crisis exists for this patient. The two primary thrusts of crisis intervention are to provide for the safety of the individual and use anxiety-reduction techniques to facilitate use of inner resources. The nurse offers therapeutic presence, which provides caring, ongoing observation relative to the patients safety, and interpersonal reassurance.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 505-507 (Table 26-4) and (Box 26-2) | Page 510-512 (Nursing Care Plan 26-1)

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

2. A patient being seen in the clinic for superficial cuts on both wrists is pacing and sobbing. After a few minutes, the patient is calmer. The nurse attempts to determine the patients perception of the precipitating event by asking:

a.

Tell me why you were crying.

b.

How did your wrists get injured?

c.

How can I help you feel more comfortable?

d.

What was happening just before you started to feel this way?

ANS: D

A clear definition of the immediate problem provides the best opportunity to find a solution. Asking about recent upsetting events permits assessment of the precipitating event. Why questions are non-therapeutic.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 501-502 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

3. A patient comes to the crisis center saying, Im in a terrible situation. I dont know what to do. The triage nurse can initially assume that the patient is:

a.

suicidal.

c.

misperceiving reality.

b.

anxious and fearful.

d.

potentially homicidal.

ANS: B

Individuals in crisis are universally anxious. They are often frightened and may be mildly confused. Perceptions are often narrowed with anxiety.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 499 | Page 502 | Page 505-506 (Table 26-2)

TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis/Analysis

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

4. An adolescent comes to the crisis clinic and reports sexual abuse by an uncle. The adolescent told both parents about the uncles behavior, but the parents did not believe the adolescent. What type of crisis exists?

a.

Maturational

c.

Situational

b.

Adventitious

d.

Organic

ANS: B

An adventitious crisis is a crisis of disaster that is not a part of everyday life. It is unplanned or accidental. Adventitious crises include natural disasters, national disasters, and crimes of violence. Sexual molestation falls within this classification. Maturational crisis occurs as an individual arrives at a new stage of development, when old coping styles may be ineffective. Situational crisis arises from an external source such as a job loss, divorce, or other loss affecting self-concept or self-esteem. Organic is not a type of crisis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 500-502 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

5. While conducting the initial interview with a patient in crisis, the nurse should:

a.

speak in short, concise sentences.

b.

convey a sense of urgency to the patient.

c.

be forthright about time limits of the interview.

d.

let the patient know the nurse controls the interview.

ANS: A

Severe anxiety narrows perceptions and concentration. By speaking in short concise sentences, the nurse enables the patient to grasp what is being said. Conveying urgency will increase the patients anxiety. Letting the patient know who controls the interview or stating that time is limited is non-therapeutic.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 506 (Table 26-3) | Page 507 (Box 26-2) | Page 510-512 (Nursing Care Plan 26-1)

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

6. An adult seeks counseling after the spouse was murdered. The adult angrily says, I hate the beast that did this. It has ruined my life. During the trial, I dont know what Ill do if the jury doesnt return a guilty verdict. What is the nurses highest priority response?

a.

Would you like to talk to a psychiatrist about some medication to help you cope during the trial?

b.

What resources do you need to help you cope with this situation?

c.

Do you have enough support from your family and friends?

d.

Are you having thoughts of hurting yourself or others?

ANS: D

The highest nursing priority is safety. The nurse should assess suicidal and homicidal potential. The distracters are options, but the highest priority is safety.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF: Page 501-502 | Page 505 (Table 26-2) | Page 506 (Table 26-3)

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

7. Six months ago, a woman had a prophylactic double mastectomy because of a family history of breast cancer. One week ago, this woman learned her husband was involved in an extramarital affair. The woman tearfully says to the nurse, What else can happen? What type of crisis is this person experiencing?

a.

Maturational

c.

Situational

b.

Adventitious

d.

Recurring

ANS: C

A situational crisis arises from an external source and involves a loss of self-concept or self-esteem. An adventitious crisis is a crisis of disaster, such as a natural disaster or crime of violence. Maturational crisis occurs as an individual arrives at a new stage of development, when old coping styles may be ineffective. No classification of recurring crisis exists.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 500-502 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

8. A woman said, I cant take anymore! Last year my husband had an affair, and now we dont communicate. Three months ago, I found a lump in my breast. Yesterday my daughter said shes quitting college. What is the nurses priority assessment?

a.

Identify measures useful to help improve the couples communication.

b.

The patients feelings about the possibility of having a mastectomy

c.

Whether the husband is still engaged in an extramarital affair

d.

Clarify what the patient means by I cant take anymore.

ANS: D

During crisis intervention, the priority concern is patient safety. This question helps assess personal coping skills. The other options are incorrect because the focus of crisis intervention is on the event that occurred immediately before the patient sought help.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 501-502 | Page 505 (Table 26-2) | Page 506 (Table 26-3)

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

9. Six months ago, a woman had a prophylactic double mastectomy because of a family history of breast cancer. One week ago, this woman learned her husband was involved in an extramarital affair. The woman tearfully, What else can happen? If the womans immediate family is unable to provide sufficient support, the nurse should:

a.

suggest hospitalization for a short period.

b.

ask what other relatives or friends are available for support.

c.

tell the patient, You are a strong person. You can get through this crisis.

d.

foster insight by relating the present situation to earlier situations involving loss.

ANS: B

The assessment of situational supports should continue. Even though the patients nuclear family may not be supportive, other situational supports may be available. If they are adequate, admission to an inpatient unit will be unnecessary. Psychotherapy is not appropriate for crisis intervention. Advice is usually non-therapeutic.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 501-503 | Page 506 (Table 26-3)

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

10. A woman says, I cant take anymore. Last year my husband had an affair, and now we do not communicate. Three months ago, I found a lump in my breast. Yesterday my daughter said shes quitting college and moving in with her boyfriend. Which issue should the nurse focus on during crisis intervention?

a.

The possible mastectomy

b.

The disordered family communication

c.

The effects of the husbands extramarital affair

d.

Coping with the reaction to the daughters events

ANS: D

The focus of crisis intervention is on the most recent problem: the straw that broke the camels back. The patient had coped with the breast lesion, the husbands infidelity, and the disordered communication. Disequilibrium occurred only with the introduction of the daughter leaving college and moving.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 501-504 (Box 26-1) TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

11. A patient who is visiting the crisis clinic for the first time asks, How long will I be coming here? The nurses reply should consider that the usual duration of crisis intervention is:

a.

1 to 2 weeks.

c.

4 to 8 weeks.

b.

3 to 4 weeks.

d.

8 to 12 weeks.

ANS: C

The disorganization associated with crisis is so distressing that it usually cannot be tolerated for more than 4 to 8 weeks. If it is not resolved by that time, the individual usually adopts dysfunctional behaviors that reduce anxiety without solving the problem. Crisis intervention can shorten the duration.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 505 | Page 507-508 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

12. A student falsely accused a college professor of sexual intimidation. The professor tells the nurse, I cannot teach nor do any research. My mind is totally preoccupied with these false accusations. What is the priority nursing diagnosis?

a.

Ineffective denial related to threats to professional identity

b.

Deficient knowledge related to sexual harassment protocols

c.

Impaired social interaction related to loss of teaching abilities

d.

Ineffective role performance related to distress from false accusations

ANS: D

This nursing diagnosis is the priority because it reflects the consequences of the precipitating event associated with the professors crisis. There is no evidence of denial. Deficient knowledge may apply, but it is not the priority. Data are not present to diagnose impaired social interaction.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 504-506 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis/Analysis

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

13. Which communication technique will the nurse use more in crisis intervention than traditional counseling?

a.

Role modeling

c.

Information giving

b.

Giving direction

d.

Empathic listening

ANS: B

The nurse working in crisis intervention must be creative and flexible in looking at the patients situation and suggesting possible solutions to the patient. Giving direction is part of the active role a crisis intervention therapist takes. The other options are used equally in crisis intervention and traditional counseling roles.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 501 (Box 26-1) | Page 506 (Table 26-3)

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

14. Which situation demonstrates use of primary care related to crisis intervention?

a.

Implementation of suicide precautions for a depressed patient

b.

Teaching stress reduction techniques to a first-year college student

c.

Assessing coping strategies used by a patient who attempted suicide

d.

Referring a patient with schizophrenia to a partial hospitalization program

ANS: B

Primary care-related crisis intervention promotes mental health and reduces mental illness. The incorrect options are examples of secondary or tertiary care.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 506-507 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

15. A victim of spousal violence comes to the crisis center seeking help. Crisis intervention strategies the nurse uses will focus on:

a.

supporting emotional security and reestablishing equilibrium.

b.

long-term resolution of issues precipitating the crisis.

c.

promoting growth of the individual.

d.

providing legal assistance.

ANS: A

Strategies of crisis intervention address the immediate cause of the crisis and restoration of emotional security and equilibrium. The goal is to return the individual to the pre-crisis level of function. Crisis intervention is, by definition, short term. The correct response is the most global answer. Promoting growth is a focus of long-term therapy. Providing legal assistance might or might not be applicable.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 498-499 | Page 501 (Box 26-1) | Page 506 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

16. After celebrating the fortieth birthday, an individual becomes concerned with the loss of youthful appearance. What type of crisis has occurred?

a.

Reactive

c.

Maturational

b.

Situational

d.

Adventitious

ANS: C

Maturational crises occur when a person arrives at a new stage of development and finds that old coping styles are ineffective but has not yet developed new strategies. Situational crises arise from sources external to the individual, such as divorce and job loss. There is no classification called reactive. Adventitious crises occur when disasters, such as natural disasters (e.g., floods, hurricanes), war, or violent crimes, disrupt coping.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 500-502 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

17. Which scenario is an example of an adventitious crisis?

a.

The death of a child from sudden infant death syndrome

b.

Being fired from a job because of company downsizing

c.

Retirement of a 55-year-old person

d.

A riot at a rock concert

ANS: D

The rock concert riot is unplanned, accidental, violent, and not a part of everyday life. The incorrect options are examples of situational or maturational crises.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 500-502 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

18. Which agency provides coordination in the event of a terrorist attack?

a.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

b.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

c.

National Incident Management System (NIMS)

d.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

ANS: C

The National Incident Management System (NIMS) provides a systematic approach to guide departments and agencies at all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector during disaster situations.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 508-509 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

19. During the initial interview at the crisis center, a patient says, Ive been served with divorce papers. Im so upset and anxious that I cant think clearly. Which comment should the nurse use to assess personal coping skills?

a.

In the past, how have you handled difficult or stressful situations?

b.

What would you like us to do to help you feel more relaxed?

c.

Tell me more about how it feels to be anxious and upset.

d.

Can you describe your role in the marital relationship?

ANS: A

The correct answer is the only option that assesses coping skills. The incorrect options are concerned with self-esteem, ask the patient to decide on treatment at a time when he or she cannot think clearly, and seek to explore issues tangential to the crisis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 502 | Page 504 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

20. An adult has cared for a debilitated parent for 10 years. The parents condition recently declined, and the health care provider recommended placement in a skilled nursing facility. The adult says, Ive always been able to care for my parents. Nursing home placement goes against everything I believe. Successful resolution of this persons crisis will most closely relate to:

a.

resolving the feelings associated with the threat to the persons self-concept.

b.

ability of the person to identify situational supports in the community.

c.

reliance on assistance from role models within the persons culture.

d.

mobilization of automatic relief behaviors by the person.

ANS: A

The patients crisis clearly relates to a loss of (or threatened change in) self-concept. Her capacity to care for her parents, regardless of the deteriorating condition, has been challenged. Crisis resolution will involve coming to terms with the feelings associated with this loss. Identifying situational supports is relevant, but less so than coming to terms with the threat to self-concept. Reliance on lessons from role models can be helpful but not the primary factor associated with resolution in this case. Automatic relief behaviors will not be helpful. Automatic relief behaviors are part of the fourth phase of crisis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 498-499 | Page 501 (Box 26-1) TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

21. The principle most useful to a nurse planning crisis intervention for any patient is that the patient:

a.

is experiencing a state of disequilibrium.

b.

is experiencing a type of mental illness.

c.

poses a threat of violence to others.

d.

has high potential for self-injury.

ANS: A

Disequilibrium is the only answer universally true for all patients in crisis. A crisis represents a struggle for equilibrium when problems seem unsolvable. Crisis does not reflect mental illness. Potential for self-violence or other-directed violence may or may not be a factor in crisis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 498-499 | Page 501 (Box 26-1) TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

22. A nurse assesses a patient in crisis. Select the most appropriate question for the nurse to ask to assess this patients situational support.

a.

Has anything upsetting occurred in the past few days?

b.

Who can be helpful to you during this time?

c.

How does this problem affect your life?

d.

What led you to seek help at this time?

ANS: B

Only the answer focuses on situational support. The incorrect options focus on the patients perception of the precipitating event.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 499 | Page 502-503 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

23. An adult comes to the crisis clinic after termination from a job of 15 years. The patient says, I dont know what to do. How can I get another job? Who will pay the bills? How will I feed my family? Which nursing diagnosis applies?

a.

Hopelessness

c.

Chronic low self-esteem

b.

Powerlessness

d.

Disturbed thought processes

ANS: B

The patient describes feelings of lack of control over life events. No direct mention is made of hopelessness or chronic low self-esteem. The patients thought processes are not altered at this point.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 504-506 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis/Analysis

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

24. A troubled adolescent pulled out a gun in a school cafeteria, fatally shooting three people and injuring many others. Hundreds of parents come to the school after hearing news reports. After police arrest the shooter, which action should occur next?

a.

Ask police to encircle the school campus with yellow tape to prevent parents from entering.

b.

Announce over the loudspeakers, The campus is now secure. Please return to your classrooms.

c.

Require parents to pass through metal detectors and then allow them to look for their children in the school.

d.

Designate zones according to the alphabet and direct students to the zones based on their surnames to facilitate reuniting them with their parents.

ANS: D

Chaos is likely among students and desperate parents. A directive approach is best. Once the scene is secure, creative solutions are needed. Creating zones by letters of the alphabet will assist anxious parents and their children to unite. Preventing parents from uniting with their children will further incite the situation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 501 (Box 26-1) | Page 506 (Table 26-3)

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

25. At the last contracted visit in the crisis intervention clinic, an adult says, Ive emerged from this a stronger person. You helped me get my life back in balance. The nurse responds, I think we should have two more sessions to explore why your reactions were so intense. Which analysis applies?

a.

The patient is experiencing transference.

b.

The patient demonstrates need for continuing support.

c.

The nurse is having difficulty terminating the relationship.

d.

The nurse is empathizing with the patients feelings of dependency.

ANS: C

The nurses remark is clearly an invitation to work on other problems and prolong contact with the patient. The focus of crisis intervention is the problem that precipitated the crisis, not other issues. The scenario does not describe transference. The patient shows no need for continuing support. The scenario does not describe dependency needs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 503 (Table 26-1) TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

26. Which health care worker should be referred for critical incident stress debriefing?

a.

A nurse who works at an oncology clinic where patients receive chemotherapy

b.

A case manager whose patients have serious mental illness and are cared for at home

c.

A health care employee who worked 12 hours at the information desk of a critical care unit

d.

An emergency medical technician (EMT) who treated victims of a car bombing at a mall

ANS: D

Although each of the individuals mentioned experiencing job-related stress on a daily basis, the person most in need of critical incident stress debriefing is the EMT, who experienced an adventitious crisis event by responding to a bombing and provided care to trauma victims.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF: Page 507-509 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A nurse driving home after work comes upon a serious automobile accident. The driver gets out of the car with no apparent physical injuries. Which assessment findings would the nurse expect from the driver immediately after this event? Select all that apply.

a.

Difficulty using a cell phone

b.

Long-term memory losses

c.

Fecal incontinence

d.

Rapid speech

e.

Trembling

ANS: A, D, E

Immediate responses to crisis commonly include shock, numbness, denial, confusion, disorganization, difficulty with decision making, and physical symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, tremors, profuse sweating, and dizziness associated with anxiety. Incontinence and long-term memory losses would not be expected.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF: Page 501 | Page 504-505 (Table 26-2)

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

2. A team of nurses report to the community after a category 5 hurricane devastates many homes and businesses. The nurses provide emergency supplies of insulin to persons with diabetes and help transfer patients in skilled nursing facilities to sites that have electrical power. Which aspects of disaster management have these nurses fulfilled? Select all that apply.

a.

Preparedness

b.

Mitigation

c.

Response

d.

Recovery

e.

Evaluation

ANS: B, C

This community has experienced a catastrophic event. There are five phases of the disaster management continuum. The nurses activities applied to mitigation (attempts to limit a disasters impact on human health and community function) and response (actual implementation of a disaster plan). Preparedness occurs before an event. Recovery actions focus on stabilizing the community and returning it to its previous status. Evaluation of the response efforts apply to the future.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 508-509 TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

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