Chapter 24 Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System My Nursing Test Banks

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e, (Tortora)

Chapter 24   Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System

24.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

1) The lower respiratory tract is protected by all of the following EXCEPT

A) competition with the normal flora of the lungs.

B) IgA antibodies.

C) mucous secretions.

D) the ciliary escalator.

E) alveolar macrophages.

Answer:  A

Section:  24.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  24.1

2) Which of the following is mismatched?

A) pharyngitis sore throat

B) laryngitis voice loss

C) epiglottitis sore throat

D) sinusitis headache and nasal mucous

E) otitis media earache

Answer:  C

Section:  24.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  24.3

3) Members of the group A streptococci (GAS) cause all of the following EXCEPT

A) strep throat.

B) scarlet fever.

C) rheumatic fever.

D) pharyngitis.

E) epiglottitis.

Answer:  E

Section:  24.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.3

4) Which of the following statements about mycoplasmal pneumonia is TRUE?

A) The causative agent is a virus.

B) The symptoms resemble pneumococcal pneumonia.

C) The causative agent cannot be cultured.

D) Treatment is tetracyclines.

E) Annual vaccination can prevent infection.

Answer:  D

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  24.7

Global Outcome:  7

5) Which of the following is NOT a typical symptom of influenza?

A) fever

B) chills

C) headache

D) diarrhea

E) muscle aches

Answer:  D

Section:  24.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.9

6) Which of the following is mismatched?

A) Corynebacterium gram-positive rod

B) Mycobacterium acid-fast rod

C) Mycoplasma gram-positive pleomorphic rod

D) Bordetella gram-negative pleomorphic rod

E) Haemophilus gram-negative rod

Answer:  C

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  24.7

7) Which of the following microorganisms causes symptoms most like tuberculosis?

A) Histoplasma

B) Coccidioides

C) Legionella

D) Mycoplasma

E) Influenza virus

Answer:  A

Section:  24.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.3

Learning Outcome:  24.10

Global Outcome:  2

8) All of the following can lead to a positive tuberculin skin test EXCEPT

A) vaccination.

B) current tuberculosis infection.

C) previous tuberculosis infection.

D) immunity to tuberculosis.

E) being near someone with tuberculosis.

Answer:  E

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  24.6

9) Which of the following diseases is NOT correctly matched to its vaccine?

A) tuberculosis toxoid

B) whooping cough heat-killed bacteria

C) diphtheria toxoid

D) influenza viruses grown in embryonated eggs

E) pneumococcal pneumonia capsular polysaccharides

Answer:  A

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  24.6

Global Outcome:  7

10) Which of the following diseases has a cutaneous form, especially in individuals over 30 years of age?

A) coccidioidomycosis

B) diphtheria

C) legionellosis

D) scarlet fever

E) psittacosis

Answer:  B

Section:  24.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.4

11) Which of the following requires treatment with both antibiotics and antitoxins?

A) diphtheria

B) tuberculosis

C) whooping cough

D) scarlet fever

E) psittacosis

Answer:  A

Section:  24.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.4

Global Outcome:  7

12) Which of the following is mismatched?

A) epiglottitis Haemophilus

B) Q fever Rickettsia

C) psittacosis Chlamydia

D) whooping cough Bordetella

E) melioidosis Burkholderia

Answer:  B

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.6

13) Which of the following does NOT cause otitis media?

A) Streptococcus pneumoniae

B) Haemophilus influenzae

C) Streptococcus pyogenes

D) Moraxella catarrhalis

E) Coxiella burnetii

Answer:  E

Section:  24.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.4

14) Which of the following causes opportunistic infections in AIDS patients?

A) Pneumocystis

B) Aspergillus

C) Rhizopus

D) Mucor

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Section:  24.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.10

15) Which of the following diseases is NOT correctly matched to its reservoir?

A) tuberculosis cattle

B) histoplasmosis soil

C) psittacosis parakeets

D) coccidioidomycosis air

E) pneumocystis humans

Answer:  D

Section:  24.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.10

Global Outcome:  2

16) All of the following are true of the common cold EXCEPT

A) it is caused by rhinoviruses and coronaviruses.

B) it is transmitted via aerosols and contact.

C) early treatment will drastically reduce the disease symptoms.

D) complications include laryngitis and otitis media.

E) the duration of symptoms is approximately one week.

Answer:  C

Section:  24.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.5

17) Which one of the following causes a disease characterized by the catarrhal, paroxysmal, and convalescent stages?

A) Bordetella pertussis

B) Corynebacterium diphtheriae

C) Mycobacterium tuberculosis

D) Streptococcus pyogenes

E) respiratory syncytial virus

Answer:  A

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.6

18) Which one of the following is an irregular, gram-positive rod?

A) Bordetella pertussis

B) Corynebacterium diphtheriae

C) Burkholderia pseudomallei

D) Streptococcus pyogenes

E) Pneumocystis jirovecii

Answer:  B

Section:  24.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.1

Learning Outcome:  24.4

19) Infection by which of the following results in the formation of Ghon complexes?

A) Bordetella pertussis

B) Corynebacterium diphtheriae

C) Mycobacterium tuberculosis

D) Streptococcus pyogenes

E) Blastomyces dermatidis

Answer:  C

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.6

20) Which one of the following produces the most potent exotoxin?

A) Bordetella pertussis

B) Corynebacterium diphtheriae

C) Mycobacterium tuberculosis

D) Streptococcus pyogenes

E) Streptococcus pneumoniae

Answer:  B

Section:  24.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.4

21) The most effective means of preventing influenza is

A) annual vaccination.

B) isolation of carriers.

C) vector control.

D) pasteurization of milk.

E) administration of amantadine.

Answer:  A

Section:  24.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  24.9

Global Outcome:  7

22) Which of the following is an opportunistic pathogen?

A) Pneumocystis

B) Legionella

C) Histoplasma

D) Mycoplasma

E) rhinovirus

Answer:  A

Section:  24.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.3

Learning Outcome:  24.10

Global Outcome:  7

23) Which of the following etiologic agents results in the formation of abscesses?

A) Staphylococcus

B) Mycoplasma

C) Streptococcus

D) Blastomyces

E) Coccidioides

Answer:  D

Section:  24.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.10

24) The primary victims of the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 were

A) members of the military.

B) infants and the elderly.

C) residents of Spain; therefore, it was known as the Spanish Flu.

D) young adults.

E) residents of the U.S.

Answer:  D

Section:  24.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.9

25) All of the following are used as first-line drugs for treating tuberculosis EXCEPT

A) ethambutol.

B) isoniazid.

C) fluoroquinolones.

D) rifampin.

E) pyrazinamide.

Answer:  C

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  24.6

Global Outcome:  5

26) Infection by which of the following is often confused with viral pneumonia?

A) Blastomyces

B) Coccidioides

C) Mycoplasma

D) Streptococcus

E) Mycobacterium

Answer:  C

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  24.7

27) Which one of the following causes a disease characterized by a red rash?

A) Blastomyces

B) Coccidioides

C) Mycoplasma

D) Streptococcus

E) RSV

Answer:  D

Section:  24.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.4

Global Outcome:  2

28) Inhalation of arthroconidia is responsible for infection by which of the following organisms?

A) Blastomyces

B) Coccidioides

C) Mycoplasma

D) Streptococcus

E) Chlamydophila

Answer:  B

Section:  24.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.10

29) Soil is a reservoir for all of the following EXCEPT

A) Q fever.

B) melioidosis.

C) blastomycosis.

D) histoplasmosis.

E) coccidioidomycosis.

Answer:  A

Section:  24.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.3

Learning Outcome:  24.10

Global Outcome:  2

30) A patient has pneumonia. Gram-negative rods are cultured on nutrient agar from a sputum sample. The etiology is

A) Burkholderia pseudomallei.

B) Chlamydophila psittaci.

C) Haemophilus influenzae.

D) Legionella pneumophila.

E) Staphylococcus aureus.

Answer:  A

Section:  24.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  24.8

Global Outcome:  2

31) The patient is suffocating because of an inflamed epiglottis. What is the etiology of the symptoms?

A) Corynebacterium

B) Haemophilus

C) Bordetella

D) Mycobacterium

E) RSV

Answer:  B

Section:  24.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.3

Global Outcome:  2

32) The patient has a sore throat. What is the etiology of the symptoms?

A) Corynebacterium

B) Rhinovirus

C) Bordetella

D) Streptococcus

E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

Answer:  E

Section:  24.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  24.3

Global Outcome:  2

33) The patient is suffocating because of the accumulation of dead tissue and fibrin in her throat. What is the etiology of the symptoms?

A) Corynebacterium

B) Haemophilus

C) Bordetella

D) Mycobacterium

E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

Answer:  A

Section:  24.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.4

Global Outcome:  2

34) Which of the following is mismatched?

A) Burkholderia melioidosis

B) Coxiella Q fever

C) Mycoplasma walking pneumonia

D) Chlamydophila psittacosis

E) Mycobacterium whooping cough

Answer:  E

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  24.6

35) All of the following are classified as fungi EXCEPT

A) Blastomyces.

B) Coccidioides.

C) Histoplasma.

D) Mycobacterium.

E) Pneumocystis.

Answer:  D

Section:  24.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  24.10

36) Microscopic examination of a lung biopsy shows thick-walled cysts. What is the etiology of the symptoms?

A) Blastomyces

B) Coccidioides

C) Histoplasma

D) Mycobacterium

E) Pneumocystis

Answer:  E

Section:  24.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.1

Learning Outcome:  24.10

Global Outcome:  2

37) Microscopic examination of a lung biopsy shows spherules. What is the etiology of the symptoms?

A) Blastomyces

B) Coccidioides

C) Histoplasma

D) Mycobacterium

E) Pneumocystis

Answer:  B

Section:  24.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  24.10

Global Outcome:  2

38) Which of the following statements regarding tuberculosis is FALSE?

A) Nearly 1/3 of the worlds population is infected with tuberculosis.

B) Nearly 1/3 of the worlds population shows symptoms of tuberculosis.

C) It is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths per year.

D) At least 1/3 of those who are TB-positive are also HIV-positive.

E) Treatment requires at least six months of antibiotic therapy.

Answer:  B

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.6

39) A patient has a paroxysmal cough and mucus accumulation. What is the etiology of the symptoms?

A) Bordetella

B) Corynebacterium

C) Burkholderia

D) Mycobacterium

E) Mycoplasma

Answer:  A

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.6

Global Outcome:  2

40) A patient who presents with red throat and tonsils can be diagnosed as having

A) streptococcal pharyngitis.

B) scarlet fever.

C) diphtheria.

D) the common cold.

E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

Answer:  E

Section:  24.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.3

Global Outcome:  2

41) A patient has fever, difficulty breathing, chest pains, fluid in the alveoli, and a positive tuberculin skin test. Gram-positive cocci are isolated from the sputum. The patient most likely has

A) tuberculosis.

B) influenza.

C) pneumococcal pneumonia.

D) mycoplasmal pneumonia.

E) the common cold.

Answer:  C

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.7

Global Outcome:  2

42) Which of the following is responsible for epidemics of respiratory disease in infants?

A) rhinovirus

B) adenovirus

C) respiratory syncytial virus

D) influenza

E) Mycoplasma

Answer:  C

Section:  24.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.9

43) Which of the following is NOT an intracellular parasite?

A) Chlamydophila

B) Coccidioides

C) Coxiella

D) Influenza virus

E) RSV

Answer:  B

Section:  24.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.9

44) Which one of the following produces small fried-egg colonies on medium containing horse serum and yeast extract?

A) Chlamydophila

B) Legionella

C) Mycobacterium

D) Mycoplasma

E) Streptococcus

Answer:  D

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  24.7

45) Legionella is transmitted by

A) airborne transmission.

B) foodborne transmission.

C) person-to-person contact.

D) fomites.

E) vectors.

Answer:  A

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.7

24.2   True/False Questions

1) It is common for a normal, healthy individual to carry potentially pathogenic organisms in their upper respiratory tract.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.2

2) Most cases of sinusitis and otitis media will not resolve unless they are treated with antibiotics.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  24.3

3) The symptoms of diphtheria are due to an exotoxin that blocks proteins synthesis in host cells.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.4

4) The most common causative agent of bacterial pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.7

5) A positive tuberculosis skin test indicates that the patient has active tuberculosis.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  24.6

6) Vaccination with the influenza vaccine confers lifelong immunity to influenza virus.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  24.9

7) Coccidioides immitis causes Valley fever, a disease that is endemic to the Mississippi Valley.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  24.10

8) Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes atypical pneumonia, also known as walking pneumonia.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.7

9) Risks for Q fever include contact with infected cattle and drinking unpasteurized milk.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.7

10) Infections with Legionella pneumophila are usually transmitted via aerosols from contaminated air conditioning systems, showers, and humidifiers.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  24.7

24.3   Essay Questions

1) Compare and contrast antigenic shift and antigenic drift in influenza virus. How do antigenic shifts and drifts contribute to the need for annual vaccinations to prevent influenza?

Section:  24.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3a

Learning Outcome:  24.9

Global Outcome:  8

2) Pneumonia is diagnosed by the presence of fluid (dark shadows in an X-ray image) in the alveoli. Given that pneumonia usually is caused by a microorganism, what causes the fluid accumulation? Name a bacterium, a virus, a fungus, a protozoan, and a helminth that can cause pneumonia.

Section:  24.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3a

Learning Outcome:  24.8

Global Outcome:  8

3) Using diphtheria and whooping cough as examples, discuss why it is necessary to continue to vaccinate against diseases that are relatively rare in the U.S. today.

Section:  24.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3a

Learning Outcome:  24.6

Global Outcome:  8

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