Chapter 23 Pharmacologic Pain Management My Nursing Test Banks

Olds Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Womens Health, 10e (Davidson)

Chapter 23 Pharmacologic Pain Management

1) Which of the following is a common barbiturate used in labor?

1. Seconal

2. Valium

3. Phenergan

4. Vistaril

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. The most common barbiturates used in labor are secobarbital (Seconal) and zolpidem tartrate (Ambien).

Page Ref: 544

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need/Sub: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Ante/Intra/Postpartum and Newborn Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. A. 1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 3. Implement holistic, patient-centered care that reflects an understanding of human growth and development, pathophysiology, pharmacology, medical management, and nursing management across the health-illness continuum, across lifespan, and in all healthcare settings. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Apply professional standards; show accountability for nursing judgment and actions; develop advocacy skills. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 2 Describe the use of systemic analgesics to promote pain relief during labor.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

1

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

2) The nurse is assessing a client before administering an analgesic. What are some of the factors the nurse should consider?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.

Select all that apply.

1. The client is willing to receive medication after being advised about it.

2. The clients vital signs are stable.

3. The partner agrees to use of the medication.

4. The client has no known allergies to the medication.

5. The client is aware of the contraindications of the medication.

Answer: 1, 2, 4, 5

Explanation: 1. Medication should be explained to the client before it is administered.

2. Vital signs need to be stable before any analgesic medication is administered.

4. Ask the client about allergies before administering any medications.

5. Clients should always be aware of the contraindications of the medication.

Page Ref: 543

Cognitive Level: Evaluating

Client Need/Sub: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 1. Elicit patient values, preferences, and expressed needs as part of clinical interview, implementation of care plan, and evaluation of care. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Apply professional standards; show accountability for nursing judgment and actions; develop advocacy skills. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1 Discuss the nurses role in supporting pharmaceutical pain relief measures in labor.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

2

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

3) A client in labor is requesting pain medication. The nurse assesses her labor status first, focusing on which of the following?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.

Select all that apply.

1. Contraction pattern

2. Amount of cervical dilatation

3. When the labor began

4. Whether the membranes are intact or ruptured

5. Fetal presenting part

Answer: 1, 2, 5

Explanation: 1. The client should have a good contraction pattern before receiving an analgesic.

2. The nurse should evaluate the amount of cervical dilatation before analgesic medication is administered.

5. If normal parameters are absent or if nonreassuring maternal or fetal factors are present, the nurse may need to complete further assessments with the physician/CNM.

Page Ref: 543

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need/Sub: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 1. Elicit patient values, preferences, and expressed needs as part of clinical interview, implementation of care plan, and evaluation of care. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Apply professional standards; show accountability for nursing judgment and actions; develop advocacy skills. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1 Discuss the nurses role in supporting pharmaceutical pain relief measures in labor.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

3

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

4) A woman in active labor is given nalbuphine hydrochloride (Nubain) 14 mg IV for pain relief. Half an hour later, her respirations are at 8 per minute. The physician would likely order which medication for this client?

1. Narcan

2. Reglan

3. Benadryl

4. Vistaril

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. Narcan is useful for respiratory depression caused by nalbuphine (Nubain).

Page Ref: 547

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need/Sub: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 2. Demonstrate effective use of strategies to reduce risk of harm to self or others. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Apply professional standards; show accountability for nursing judgment and actions; develop advocacy skills. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2 Describe the use of systemic analgesics to promote pain relief during labor.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

5) An analgesic medication has been administered intramuscularly to a client in labor. How would the nurse evaluate if the medication was effective?

1. The client dozes between contractions.

2. The client is moaning during contractions.

3. The contractions decrease in intensity.

4. The contractions decrease in frequency.

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. If the client dozes between contractions, the analgesic is effective. Analgesics decrease discomfort and increase relaxation.

Page Ref: 542

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 7. Initiate effective treatments to relieve pain and suffering in light of patient values, preferences, and expressed needs. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Apply professional standards; show accountability for nursing judgment and actions; develop advocacy skills. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 2 Describe the use of systemic analgesics to promote pain relief during labor.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

4

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

6) A client is having contractions that last 20-30 seconds and that are occurring every 8-20 minutes. The client is requesting something to help relieve the discomfort of contractions. What should the nurse suggest?

1. That a mild analgesic be administered

2. An epidural

3. A local anesthetic block

4. Nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief

Answer: 4

Explanation: 4. For this pattern of labor, nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief should be suggested. These can include back rubs, providing encouragement, and clean linens.

Page Ref: 542

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 7. Initiate effective treatments to relieve pain and suffering in light of patient values, preferences, and expressed needs. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Apply professional standards; show accountability for nursing judgment and actions; develop advocacy skills. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1 Discuss the nurses role in supporting pharmaceutical pain relief measures in labor.

MNL LO: 3.3.2 Determine nonpharmacologic measures that can be used to relieve pain during labor.

5

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

7) Two hours after an epidural infusion has begun, a client complains of itching on her face and neck. What should the nurse do?

1. Remove the epidural catheter and apply a Band-Aid to the injection site.

2. Offer the client a cool cloth and let her know the itching is temporary.

3. Recognize that this is a common side effect, and follow protocol for administration of Benadryl.

4. Call the anesthesia care provider to re-dose the epidural catheter.

Answer: 3

Explanation: 3. Itching is a side effect of the medication used for an epidural infusion. Benadryl, an antihistamine, can be administered to manage pruritus.

Page Ref: 556

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 7. Initiate effective treatments to relieve pain and suffering in light of patient values, preferences, and expressed needs. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Apply professional standards; show accountability for nursing judgment and actions; develop advocacy skills. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 3 Compare the major types of regional analgesia and anesthesia, including the area affected, advantages, disadvantages, techniques, and nursing implications.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

6

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

8) A client has just been admitted for labor and delivery. She is having mild contractions lasting 30 seconds every 15 minutes. The client wants to have a medication-free birth. When discussing medication alternatives, the nurse should be sure the client understands which of the following?

1. In order to respect her wishes, no medication will be given.

2. Pain relief will allow a more enjoyable birth experience.

3. The use of medications allows the client to rest and be less fatigued.

4. Maternal pain and stress can have a more adverse effect on the fetus than would a small amount of analgesia.

Answer: 4

Explanation: 4. The nurse can explain to the couple that, although pharmacologic agents do affect the fetus, so do the pain and stress experienced by the laboring mother. If the womans pain and anxiety are more than she can cope with, the adverse physiologic effects on the fetus may be as great as would occur with the administration of a small amount of an analgesic agent. Once the effects are explained, however, it is still the clients choice whether to receive medication.

Page Ref: 542

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. C. 8. Recognize that patient expectations influence outcomes in management of pain or suffering. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 21. Engage in caring and healing techniques that promote a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship. | NLN Competencies: Relationship-Centered Care: Respect the patients dignity, uniqueness, integrity, and self-determination, and his or her own power and self-healing process. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1 Discuss the nurses role in supporting pharmaceutical pain relief measures in labor.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

7

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

9) A nurse is checking the postpartum orders. The doctor has prescribed bed rest for 6-12 hours. The nurse knows this is an appropriate order if the client had which type of anesthesia?

1. Spinal

2. Pudendal

3. General

4. Epidural

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. Following the birth, the woman may be kept flat. Although the effectiveness of the supine position to avoid headache following a spinal is controversial, the physicians orders may include lying flat for 6 to 12 hours.

Page Ref: 561

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. A. 1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 5. Deliver compassionate, patient-centered, evidence-based care that respects patient and family preferences. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Apply professional standards; show accountability for nursing judgment and actions; develop advocacy skills. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 4 Summarize possible complications of regional anesthesia.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

10) Toward the end of the first stage of labor, a pudendal block is administered transvaginally. What will the nurse anticipate the clients care will include?

1. Monitoring for hypotension every 15 minutes

2. Monitoring FHR every 15 minutes

3. Monitoring for bladder distention

4. No additional assessments

Answer: 4

Explanation: 4. Because a pudendal block is done using a local anesthetic, there is no need for additional monitoring of the mother or the fetus.

Page Ref: 561

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 7. Initiate effective treatments to relieve pain and suffering in light of patient values, preferences, and expressed needs. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Apply professional standards; show accountability for nursing judgment and actions; develop advocacy skills. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 3 Compare the major types of regional analgesia and anesthesia, including the area affected, advantages, disadvantages, techniques, and nursing implications.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain

8

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

relief.

11) Narcotic analgesia is administered to a laboring client at 10:00 a.m. The infant is delivered at 12:30 p.m. What would the nurse anticipate that the narcotic analgesia could do?

1. Be used in place of preoperative sedation

2. Result in neonatal respiratory depression

3. Prevent the need for anesthesia with an episiotomy

4. Enhance uterine contractions

Answer: 2

Explanation: 2. Analgesia given too late is of no value to the woman and may cause neonatal respiratory depression.

Page Ref: 543

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 2. Demonstrate effective use of strategies to reduce risk of harm to self or others. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 12. Create a safe environment that results in high quality patient outcomes. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Apply professional standards; show accountability for nursing judgment and actions; develop advocacy skills. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 3 Compare the major types of regional analgesia and anesthesia, including the area affected, advantages, disadvantages, techniques, and nursing implications.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

12) After nalbuphine hydrochloride (Nubain) is administered, labor progresses rapidly, and the baby is born less than 1 hour later. The baby shows signs of respiratory depression. Which medication should the nurse be prepared to administer to the newborn?

1. Fentanyl (Sublimaze)

2. Butorphanol tartrate (Stadol)

3. Naloxone (Narcan)

4. Pentobarbital (Nembutal)

Answer: 3

Explanation: 3. Narcan is useful for respiratory depression caused by nalbuphine (Nubain). Respiratory depression in the mother or fetus/newborn can be improved by the administration of naloxone (Narcan), which is a specific antagonist for this agent.

Page Ref: 545, 547

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 2. Demonstrate effective use of strategies to reduce risk of harm to self or others. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Apply professional standards; show accountability for nursing judgment and actions; develop advocacy skills. | Nursing/Integrated Con

9

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

cepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 3 Compare the major types of regional analgesia and anesthesia, including the area affected, advantages, disadvantages, techniques, and nursing implications.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

13) The nurse has presented a session on pain relief options to a prenatal class. Which statement indicates that additional teaching is needed?

1. An epidural can be continuous or can be given in one dose.

2. A spinal is usually used for a cesarean birth.

3. Pudendal blocks are effective when a vacuum is needed.

4. Local anesthetics provide good labor pain relief.

Answer: 4

Explanation: 4. Local anesthetics are not used for labor pain relief. They are used prior to episiotomy and for laceration repair.

Page Ref: 561

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Ante/Intra/Postpartum and Newborn Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 10. Engage patients or designated surrogates in active partnerships that promote health, safety and well-being, and self-care management. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 7. Provide appropriate patient teaching that reflects developmental stage, age, culture, spirituality, patient preferences, and health literacy considerations to foster patient engagement in their care. | NLN Competencies: Relationship-Centered Care: Communicate information effectively; listen openly and cooperatively. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 1 Discuss the nurses role in supporting pharmaceutical pain relief measures in labor.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

14) What is the major adverse side effect of epidural anesthesia?

1. Maternal hypotension

2. Decrease in variability of the FHR

3. Vertigo

4. Decreased or absent respiratory movements

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. The major adverse effect of epidural anesthesia is maternal hypotension caused by a spinal blockade, which lowers peripheral resistance, decreases venous return to the heart, and subsequently lessens cardiac output and lowers blood pressure.

Page Ref: 552

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. A. 1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care. | AACN Essentials Competencies: I. 3. Use skills of inquiry, analysis, and information li

10

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

teracy to address practice issues. | NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 4 Summarize possible complications of regional anesthesia.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

11

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

15) Prior to receiving lumbar epidural anesthesia, the nurse would anticipate placing the laboring client in which position?

1. On her right side in the center of the bed with her back curved

2. Lying prone with a pillow under her chest

3. On her left side with the bottom leg straight and the top leg slightly flexed

4. Sitting on the edge of the bed

Answer: 4

Explanation: 4. The woman is positioned on her left or right side, at the edge of the bed with the assistance of the nurse, with her legs slightly flexed, or she is asked to sit on the edge of the bed.

Page Ref: 553

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. A. 1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 1 Discuss the nurses role in supporting pharmaceutical pain relief measures in labor.

MNL LO: 3.3.4 Compare the use of various regional anesthetics/analgesia used to relieve pain during labor.

12

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

16) The laboring client brought a written birth plan indicating that she wanted to avoid pain medications and an epidural. She is now at 6 cm and states, I cant stand this anymore! I need something for pain! How will an epidural affect my baby? What is the nurses best response?

1. The narcotic in the epidural will make both you and the baby sleepy.

2. It is unlikely that an epidural will decrease your babys heart rate.

3. Epidurals tend to cause low blood pressure in babies after birth.

4. I cant get you an epidural, because of your birth plan.

Answer: 2

Explanation: 2. Maternal hypotension results in uteroplacental insufficiency in the fetus, which is manifested as late decelerations on the fetal monitoring strip. The risk of hypotension can be minimized by hydrating the vascular system with 500 to 1000 mL of IV solution before the procedure and changing the womans position and/or increasing the IV rate afterward.

Page Ref: 555

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Ante/Intra/Postpartum and Newborn Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. C. 14. Appreciate shared decision-making with empowered patients and families, even when conflicts occur. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 7. Provide appropriate patient teaching that reflects developmental stage, age, culture, spirituality, patient preferences, and health literacy considerations to foster patient engagement in their care. | NLN Competencies: Relationship-Centered Care: Communicate information effectively; listen openly and cooperatively. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 3 Compare the major types of regional analgesia and anesthesia, including the area affected, advantages, disadvantages, techniques, and nursing implications.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

17) After administration of an epidural anesthetic to a client in active labor, it is most important to assess the mother immediately for which of the following?

1. Hypotension

2. Headache

3. Urinary retention

4. Bradycardia

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. The most common complication of an epidural is maternal hypotension.

Page Ref: 552

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 1. Demonstrate effective use of technology and standardized practices that support safety and quality. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Use technologies that contribute to safety. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 3 Compare the major types of regional analgesia and anesthesia, including the area

13

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

affected, advantages, disadvantages, techniques, and nursing implications.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

18) A laboring client has received an order for epidural anesthesia. In order to prevent the most common complication associated with this procedure, what would the nurse expect to do?

1. Observe fetal heart rate variability

2. Hydrate the vascular system with 500-1000 mL of intravenous fluids

3. Place the client in the semi-Fowlers position

4. Teach the client appropriate breathing techniques

Answer: 2

Explanation: 2. The risk of hypotension can be minimized by hydrating the vascular system with 500 to 1000 mL of IV solution before the procedure and changing the womans position and/or increasing the IV rate afterward.

Page Ref: 555

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 7. Initiate effective treatments to relieve pain and suffering in light of patient values, preferences, and expressed needs. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Apply professional standards; show accountability for nursing judgment and actions; develop advocacy skills. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 3 Compare the major types of regional analgesia and anesthesia, including the area affected, advantages, disadvantages, techniques, and nursing implications.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

14

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

19) The nurse knows that which of the following are advantages of spinal block?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct answers and no incorrect answers are selected.

Select all that apply.

1. Intense blockade of sympathetic fibers

2. Relative ease of administration

3. Maternal compartmentalization of the drug

4. Immediate onset of anesthesia

5. Larger drug volume

Answer: 2, 3, 4

Explanation: 2. One of advantages of spinal block is the relative ease of administration.

3. One of the advantages of spinal block is the maternal compartmentalization of the drug.

4. One of the advantages of spinal block is the immediate onset of anesthesia.

Page Ref: 559

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. A. 3. Demonstrate comprehensive understanding of the concepts of pain and suffering, including physiologic models of pain and comfort. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 3 Compare the major types of regional analgesia and anesthesia, including the area affected, advantages, disadvantages, techniques, and nursing implications.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

15

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

20) A client had an epidural inserted 2 hours ago. It is functioning well, the client is stable, and labor is progressing. Which parts of the nurses assessment have the highest priority?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.

Select all that apply.

1. Assess blood pressure every hour.

2. Assess the pulse rate every hour.

3. Palpate the bladder.

4. Auscultate the lungs.

5. Assess the reflexes.

Answer: 1, 3

Explanation: 1. Blood pressure should be monitored every 1 to 2 minutes for the first 10 minutes and then every 5 to 15 minutes until the block wears off because hypotension is the most common side effect of epidural anesthesia.

3. Nursing care following an epidural block includes frequent assessment of the bladder to avoid bladder distention. Catheterization may be necessary, because most women are unable to void.

Page Ref: 554, 557

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 7. Initiate effective treatments to relieve pain and suffering in light of patient values, preferences, and expressed needs. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Communicate potential risk factors and actual errors. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 3 Compare the major types of regional analgesia and anesthesia, including the area affected, advantages, disadvantages, techniques, and nursing implications.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

16

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

21) For what common side effects of epidural anesthesia should the nurse watch?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.

Select all that apply.

1. Elevated maternal temperature

2. Urinary retention

3. Nausea

4. Long-term back pain

5. Local itching

Answer: 1, 2, 3, 5

Explanation: 1. Elevated maternal temperature is a potential side effect of epidural anesthesia.

2. Urinary retention is a potential side effect of epidural anesthesia.

3. Nausea is a potential side effect of epidural anesthesia.

5. Pruritus may occur at any time during the epidural infusion. It usually appears first on the face, neck, or torso and is generally the result of the agent used in the epidural infusion. Benadryl, an antihistamine, can be administered to manage pruritus.

Page Ref: 556

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 7. Initiate effective treatments to relieve pain and suffering in light of patient values, preferences, and expressed needs. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 4 Summarize possible complications of regional anesthesia.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

17

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

22) A client dilated to 5 cm has just received an epidural for pain. She complains of feeling lightheaded and dizzy within 10 minutes after the procedure. Her blood pressure was 120/80 before the procedure and is now 80/52. In addition to the bolus of fluids she has been given, which medication is preferred to increase her BP?

1. Epinephrine

2. Terbutaline

3. Ephedrine

4. Epifoam

Answer: 3

Explanation: 3. Ephedrine is the medication of choice to increase maternal blood pressure.

Page Ref: 557

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 7. Initiate effective treatments to relieve pain and suffering in light of patient values, preferences, and expressed needs. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Use technologies that contribute to safety. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 4 Summarize possible complications of regional anesthesia.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

23) A client received epidural anesthesia during the first stage of labor. The epidural is discontinued immediately after delivery. This client is at increased risk for which problem during the fourth stage of labor?

1. Nausea

2. Bladder distention

3. Uterine atony

4. Hypertension

Answer: 2

Explanation: 2. Nursing care following an epidural block includes frequent assessment of the bladder to avoid bladder distention.

Page Ref: 557

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 3. Provide patient-centered care with sensitivity and respect for the diversity of human experience. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Communicate potential risk factors and actual errors. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 4 Summarize possible complications of regional anesthesia.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

18

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

19

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

24) When general anesthesia is necessary for a cesarean delivery, what should the nurse be prepared to do?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.

Select all that apply.

1. Administer an antacid to the client.

2. Place a wedge under her thigh.

3. Apply cricoid pressure during anesthesia intubation.

4. Preoxygenate for 3-5 minutes before anesthesia.

5. Place a Foley catheter in the clients bladder.

Answer: 1, 3, 4, 5

Explanation: 1. Prophylactic antacid therapy is given to reduce the acidic content of the stomach before general anesthesia.

3. During the process of rapid induction of anesthesia, the nurse applies cricoid pressure.

4. The woman should be preoxygenated with 3 to 5 minutes of 100% oxygen.

5. Urinary retention can be treated with the placement of an indwelling Foley catheter.

Page Ref: 549, 563

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 1. Demonstrate effective use of technology and standardized practices that support safety and quality. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 12. Create a safe environment that results in high quality patient outcomes. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Communicate potential risk factors and actual errors. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1 Discuss the nurses role in supporting pharmaceutical pain relief measures in labor.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

20

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

25) The client at 39 weeks gestation is undergoing a cesarean birth due to breech presentation. General anesthesia is being used. Which situation requires immediate intervention?

1. The babys hands and feet are blue at 1 minute after birth.

2. The fetal heart rate is 70 prior to making the skin incision.

3. Clear fluid is obtained from the babys oropharynx.

4. The neonate cries prior to delivery of the body.

Answer: 2

Explanation: 2. Fetal bradycardia occurs when the fetal heart rate falls below 110 beats/minute during a 10-minute period of continuous monitoring. When fetal bradycardia is accompanied by decreased variability, it is considered ominous and could be a sign of fetal compromise.

Page Ref: 558

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Ante/Intra/Postpartum and Newborn Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 1. Demonstrate effective use of technology and standardized practices that support safety and quality. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 12. Create a safe environment that results in high quality patient outcomes. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Communicate potential risk factors and actual errors. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 6 Delineate the major complications of general anesthesia.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

26) The nurse is providing preoperative teaching to a client for whom a cesarean birth under general anesthesia is scheduled for the next day. Which statement by the client indicates that she requires additional information?

1. General anesthesia can be accomplished with inhaled gases.

2. General anesthesia usually involves administering medication into my IV.

3. General anesthesia will provide good pain relief after the birth.

4. General anesthesia takes effect faster than an epidural.

Answer: 3

Explanation: 3. General anesthesia provides no pain relief after birth, as regional anesthesia does.

Page Ref: 562

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 10. Engage patients or designated surrogates in active partnerships that promote health, safety and well-being, and self-care management. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 7. Provide appropriate patient teaching that reflects developmental stage, age, culture, spirituality, patient preferences, and health literacy considerations to foster patient engagement in their care. | NLN Competencies: Relationship-Centered Care: Communicate information effectively; listen openly and cooperatively. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 1 Discuss the nurses role in supporting pharmaceutical pain relief measures in labor.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain

21

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

relief.

27) A cesarean section is ordered for a pregnant client. Because the client is to receive general anesthesia, what is the primary danger with which the nurse is concerned?

1. Fetal depression

2. Vomiting

3. Maternal depression

4. Uterine relaxation

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. A primary danger of general anesthesia is fetal depression. The depression in the fetus is directly proportional to the depth and duration of the anesthesia.

Page Ref: 563

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 2. Demonstrate effective use of strategies to reduce risk of harm to self or others. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 12. Create a safe environment that results in high quality patient outcomes. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Communicate potential risk factors and actual errors. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 6 Delineate the major complications of general anesthesia.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

22

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

28) A cesarean section is ordered for the laboring client with whom the nurse has worked all shift. The client will receive general anesthesia. The nurse knows that potential complications of general anesthesia include which of the following?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.

Select all that apply.

1. Fetal depression that is directly proportional to the depth and duration of the anesthesia

2. Poor fetal metabolism of anesthesia, which inhibits use with preterm infants

3. Uterine relaxation

4. Increased gastric motility

5. Itching of the face and neck

Answer: 1, 2, 3

Explanation: 1. A primary danger of general anesthesia is fetal depression, because the medication reaches the fetus in about 2 minutes. The depression is directly proportional to the depth and duration of anesthesia.

2. The poor fetal metabolism of general anesthetic agents is similar to that of analgesic agents administered during labor. General anesthesia is not advocated when the fetus is considered to be at high risk, particularly in preterm birth.

3. Most general anesthetic agents cause some degree of uterine relaxation.

Page Ref: 563

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 1. Demonstrate effective use of technology and standardized practices that support safety and quality. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 12. Create a safe environment that results in high quality patient outcomes. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Communicate potential risk factors and actual errors. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 6 Delineate the major complications of general anesthesia.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

23

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

29) The client with a normal pregnancy had an emergency cesarean birth under general anesthesia 2 hours ago. The client now has a respiratory rate of 30, pale blue nail beds, a pulse rate of 110, and a temperature of 102.6F, and is complaining of chest pain. The nurse understands that the client most likely is experiencing which of the following?

1. Pulmonary embolus

2. Pneumococcal pneumonia

3. Pneumonitis

4. Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Answer: 3

Explanation: 3. Even when food and fluids have been withheld, the gastric juice produced during fasting is highly acidic and can produce chemical pneumonitis if aspirated. This pneumonitis is known as Mendelson syndrome. The signs and symptoms are chest pain, respiratory distress, cyanosis, fever, and tachycardia. Women undergoing emergency cesarean births appear to be at considerable risk for adverse events.

Page Ref: 563

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. A. 1. Integrate understanding of multiple dimensions of patient centered care. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 8. Implement evidence-based nursing interventions as appropriate for managing the acute and chronic care of patients and promoting health across the lifespan. | NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Value evidence-based approaches to yield best practices for nursing. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 6 Delineate the major complications of general anesthesia.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

24

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

30) The nurse is inducing the labor of a client with severe preeclampsia. As labor progresses, fetal intolerance of labor develops. The induction medication is turned off, and the client is prepared for cesarean birth. Which statement should the nurse include in her preoperative teaching?

1. Because of your preeclampsia you are at higher risk for hypotension after an epidural anesthesia.

2. Because of your preeclampsia you might develop hypertension after a spinal anesthesia.

3. Because of your preeclampsia your baby might have decreased blood pressure after birth.

4. Because of your preeclampsia your husband will not be allowed into the operating room.

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. Pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia are high-risk situations. The woman with mild preeclampsia usually may have the analgesia or anesthesia of choice, although the incidence of hypotension with epidural anesthesia is increased. If hypotension occurs with the epidural block, it provides further stress on an already compromised cardiovascular system.

Page Ref: 564

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Ante/Intra/Postpartum and Newborn Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: I. B. 10. Engage patients or designated surrogates in active partnerships that promote health, safety and well-being, and self-care management. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 7. Provide appropriate patient teaching that reflects developmental stage, age, culture, spirituality, patient preferences, and health literacy considerations to foster patient engagement in their care. | NLN Competencies: Relationship-Centered Care: Communicate information effectively; listen openly and cooperatively. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 7 Identify contraindications to specific types of analgesia and anesthesia for high-risk mothers.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

25

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

31) An anesthesiologist informs the nurse that a client scheduled for a caesarean section will be having general anesthesia with postoperative self-controlled analgesia. For which clients would a general anesthesia be recommended?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.

Select all that apply.

1. The client with a history of hypertension

2. The client who has had a lower back fusion

3. The client who is 13 years old

4. The client who is allergic to morphine sulfate

5. The client who has had surgery for scoliosis

Answer: 2, 5

Explanation: 2. Contraindications for epidural block include patients with previous back surgery.

5. Contraindications for epidural block include patients with previous back surgery.

Page Ref: 553

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need/Sub: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 4. Communicate observations or concerns related to hazards and errors to patients, families, and the health care team. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 12. Create a safe environment that results in high quality patient outcomes. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Communicate potential risk factors and actual errors. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 7 Identify contraindications to specific types of analgesia and anesthesia for high-risk mothers.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

32) To reduce possible side effects from a cesarean section under general anesthesia, clients are routinely given which type of medication?

1. Antacids

2. Tranquilizers

3. Antihypertensives

4. Anticonvulsants

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. Antacids are routinely administered before surgery for a cesarean section.

Page Ref: 563

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need/Sub: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 2. Demonstrate effective use of strategies to reduce risk of harm to self or others. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 12. Create a safe environment that results in high quality patient outcomes. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Communicate potential risk factors and actual errors. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 1 Discuss the nurses role in supporting pharmaceutical pain relief measures in labor.

26

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

33) The nurse is caring for a laboring client with thrombocytopenia. During labor, it is determined that the client requires a cesarean delivery. The nurse is preparing the client for surgery, and should instruct the client that the recommended method of anesthesia is which of the following?

1. General anesthesia

2. Epidural anesthesia

3. Spinal anesthesia

4. Regional anesthesia

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. General anesthesia will be recommended. Women with thrombocytopenia should avoid regional blocks.

Page Ref: 564

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 4. Communicate observations or concerns related to hazards and errors to patients, families, and the health care team. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 4. Communicate effectively with all members of the healthcare team, including the patient and the patients support network. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Communicate potential risk factors and actual errors. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 3 Compare the major types of regional analgesia and anesthesia, including the area affected, advantages, disadvantages, techniques, and nursing implications.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

34) Which of the following is a major side effect of butorphanol tartrate (Stadol)?

1. Blurred vision

2. Agitation

3. Feelings of dysphoria

4. Drowsiness

Answer: 3

Explanation: 3. Feelings of dysphoria are a major side effect of Stardol.

Page Ref: 545

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need/Sub: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 1. Demonstrate effective use of technology and standardized practices that support safety and quality. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 12. Create a safe environment that results in high quality patient outcomes. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Communicate potential risk factors and actual errors. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 3 Compare the major types of regional analgesia and anesthesia, including the area affected, advantages, disadvantages, techniques, and nursing implications.

27

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

28

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

35) The primary physician orders a narcotic analgesic for a client in labor. Which situations would lead the nurse to hold the medication?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct and no incorrect choices are selected.

Select all that apply.

1. Contraction pattern every 3 minutes for 60 seconds

2. Fetal monitor tracing showing late decelerations

3. Client sleeping between contractions

4. Blood pressure 150/90

5. Blood pressure 80/42

Answer: 2, 5

Explanation: 2. Maternal hypotension results in uteroplacental insufficiency in the fetus, which is manifested as late decelerations on the fetal monitoring strip.

5. This would be a contraindication, as a narcotic can lower the blood pressure even more.

Page Ref: 555

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need/Sub: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Standards: QSEN Competencies: V. B. 4. Demonstrate effective use of technology and standardized practices that support safety and quality. | AACN Essentials Competencies: IX. 12. Create a safe environment that results in high quality patient outcomes. | NLN Competencies: Quality and Safety: Communicate potential risk factors and actual errors. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 3 Compare the major types of regional analgesia and anesthesia, including the area affected, advantages, disadvantages, techniques, and nursing implications.

MNL LO: 3.3.3 Examine the use, advantages, and disadvantages of anesthesia and analgesia for pain relief.

Leave a Reply