Chapter 23: Life Span Development My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 23: Life Span Development

Cooper and Gosnell: Foundations and Adult Health Nursing, 7th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.The nurse tells a mother that the blueprint for all inherited traits, such as height, is found in which of the following?

a. Sperm
b. Ovary
c. Chromosomes
d. Nucleus of the cell

ANS: C

The blueprint for all inherited traits is found in the chromosomes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 699

OBJ: 4 TOP: Growth KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2.The nurse discovers during the intake assessment of a 5-year-old child that the child lives with his biologic parents and siblings. How would the nurse categorize this family type?

a. Extended family
b. Blended family
c. Social family
d. Nuclear family

ANS: D

The nuclear family is considered the traditional family pattern.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 700

OBJ: 4 TOP: Family KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3.A newborn baby weighs 7 lb at birth. What does the nurse anticipate the babys weight will be at 1 year of age?

a. 14 lb
b. 17 lb
c. 21 lb
d. 25 lb

ANS: C

By 1 year, birth weight is expected to triple. Thus, the weight at 1 year would be 7 lb times three, which would equal 21 lb.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 706

OBJ: 4 TOP: Growth KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4.The mother of a 5-month-old child is concerned because the child cannot sit by himself. The nurse explains that sitting alone is not expected until the baby reaches what age?

a. 6 months
b. 7 months
c. 8 months
d. 9 months

ANS: B

By the end of the seventh month, most babies can sit up without support.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 707

OBJ:4TOPevelopment

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5.A young mother asks the nurse how long she should wait before introducing solid food to her infant. The nurse explains that breast milk will provide all the nutrition her infant needs for how many months?

a. 2 to 3 months
b. 4 to 6 months
c. 7 to 9 months
d. 10 to 12 months

ANS: B

Breast milk or formula is the only nutrition needed for the first 4 to 6 months of an infants life.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 708

OBJ: 4 TOP: Nutrition KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6.When a mother asks the nurse about introducing solid foods into the childs diet, which of the following would be the best answer?

a. Introduce meat first.
b. Introduce one solid food at a time several days apart.
c. Introduce solid foods by mixing two or three foods together.
d. Introduce solid foods by adding strained food to the infants bottle.

ANS: B

The best advice is to introduce one solid at a time, allowing several days between. Cereals should be introduced first, followed by fruits and vegetables. Meats should be introduced last. Avoid mixing foods to allow the infant to develop an interest in different tastes. Strained foods should not be added to a bottle.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 709

OBJ: 4 TOP: Nutrition KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

7.A babys muscular development progresses in what type of pattern?

a. Regressive
b. Erratic
c. Cephalocaudal
d. Unpredictable

ANS: C

Muscular development proceeds from head to foot (cephalocaudal).

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 699

OBJ: 4 TOP: Growth KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8.At what age does a child typically possess the physiological, neuromuscular, and psychological maturity necessary to master toilet training?

a. 6 to 10 months
b. 10 to 14 months
c. 14 to 18 months
d. 18 to 24 months

ANS: D

Children reach psychological and physiological maturity for toilet training by 18 to 24 months.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 711

OBJ:5TOP:Toilet training

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9.How can a family best assist a toddler who is attempting to feed himself?

a. Encourage the child to use a fork
b. Feed the child themselves using a fork
c. Encourage large portions for easier handling
d. Offer the child finger foods

ANS: D

Toddlers need to develop autonomy and do things for themselves in a trial-and-error method. Finger foods allow the child a feeling of independence.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 712

OBJ:5TOPevelopment

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10.In response to a mothers concern about the development of a food allergy in her 5-month-old, the nurse should suggest the delay of which foods?

a. Oat cereals
b. Potatoes
c. Citrus fruits
d. Green vegetables

ANS: C

The general guideline for foods to avoid until the baby is 6 months old are egg whites, citrus fruits, and wheat flour. Cereals and vegetables are the first foods that should be introduced.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 709

OBJ: 4 TOP: Allergy KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

11.A 5-year-old who has an imaginary friend with whom he converses frequently is displaying characteristics consistent with which of Piagets stages of cognitive development?

a. Operational stage
b. Preoperational stage
c. Formal operations stage
d. Concrete operations stage

ANS: B

Piagets preoperational stage describes the preschooler as imaginative and egocentric, believing in magical thinking.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 714

OBJ:3TOPevelopment

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12.A 14-year-old male patient has undergone a leg amputation. What should be the primary focus of the patients care plan?

a. Nutritional status
b. Academic progress
c. Body image
d. Socialization needs

ANS: C

Body image is a major developmental task of the adolescent. Nutritional status, academic progress, and socialization should be addressed, but they would not be the primary focus.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 720

OBJ: 10 TOP: Adolescent KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

13.According to Piaget, what is the cognitive developmental level of the adolescent?

a. Concrete operational stage
b. Sensorimotor stage
c. Preoperational stage
d. Formal operational stage

ANS: D

The formal operational stage is the cognitive developmental level of adolescence.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 720

OBJ: 3 TOP: Cognitive development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14.The nurse performing a routine physical assessment on a 25-year-old understands that the patient is most likely experiencing which of the following?

a. A gradual decline in physical capabilities
b. Optimal level of functioning
c. Slight diminishing of visual acuity
d. Minimal hearing loss

ANS: B

During early adult years, the body is at an optimal level of functioning. The gradual decline in physical capabilities, diminishing of visual acuity, and hearing loss will not occur until later in adulthood.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 722

OBJ:6TOP:Early adulthood

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15.Erikson identifies intimacy as a developmental task of adulthood. What will occur if intimacy is not established?

a. Inferiority
b. Isolation
c. Mistrust
d. Guilt

ANS: B

Intimacy versus isolation is a developmental task of adulthood.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 723

OBJ: 8 TOP: Erikson KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16.What is the leading cause of death in young adults?

a. Diabetes
b. Accidents
c. Hypertension
d. Testicular cancer

ANS: B

The leading cause of death in young adults is accidents.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 724

OBJ: 11 TOP: Accidents KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

17.A 53-year-old woman complains of night sweats and mood swings. The nurse recognizes that these symptoms most likely relate to which condition?

a. Menopause
b. Weight problems
c. Dietary problems
d. Thyroid problems

ANS: A

Signs and symptoms of menopause may include sweats and mood swings.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 724

OBJ: 6 TOP: Menopause KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

18.A 58-year-old male is concerned about some hearing loss he is experiencing. The nurse recognizes that this might be due to a sensory change of this age group known as which of the following?

a. Presbycusis
b. Otitis externa
c. Presbyopia
d. Otitis media

ANS: A

Presbycusis is a normal age-related loss of hearing. Otitis externa and otitis media are infections of the ear. Presbyopia is a condition in which it becomes difficult to focus on objects nearby.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 724

OBJ: 6 TOP: Middle age KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

19.What is the correct term for prejudice against older adults?

a. Socialism
b. Sexism
c. Racism
d. Ageism

ANS: D

Ageism is a form of discrimination and prejudice against the older adult.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 727

OBJ: 13 TOP: Late adulthood KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

20.What theory claims that there is a hereditary basis for aging?

a. Activity theory
b. Physiological theory
c. Disengagement theory
d. Biologic programming theory

ANS: D

Biologic programming theory suggests a hereditary basis for aging.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 728

OBJ: 14 TOP: Aging KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

21.The nurse reminds an older adult patient that the task for the older adult is to achieve ego integrity. Failure to achieve this task results in which of the following?

a. Failure
b. Despair
c. Reminiscing
d. Accomplishment

ANS: B

The challenge of late adulthood is integrity versus despair.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 729

OBJ: 8 TOP: Older adult KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

22.When assessing the home for fall risks and increased safety for an 85-year-old, what should be a suggestion of the home health nurse?

a. Bright lights be kept on at all times
b. Sponge baths be taken rather than showers
c. Excess furniture be removed
d. Loose, comfortable shoes be worn

ANS: C

Clearing the home of excess furniture and scatter rugs, the use of night-lights, and wearing supportive shoes reduce the risk of falls in older adults. It is not necessary to keep bright lights on at all times. It is not necessary to avoid showers.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 732

OBJ: 7 TOP: Older adult KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

23.The home health nurse assesses an older adults respiratory function carefully because age-related changes in the respiratory system could result in which of the following?

a. Vital capacity
b. Susceptibility to respiratory infections
c. Expiratory capacity due to increased chest size
d. Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange

ANS: B

Older adults are more susceptible to respiratory infections.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 730, Table 23-4

OBJ: 6 TOP: Older adult KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

24.What is the family pattern in which the relationships are unequal and the parents attempt to control the children with strict, rigid rules and expectations?

a. Autocratic family pattern
b. Patriarchal family pattern
c. Matriarchal family pattern
d. Democratic family pattern

ANS: A

In the autocratic family pattern the relationships are unequal. The parents attempt to control the children with strict, rigid rules and expectations. This family pattern is least open to outside influence.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Pages 701-702

OBJ: 1 TOP: Family patterns KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

25.Which family pattern is least open to outside influence?

a. Autocratic family pattern
b. Patriarchal family pattern
c. Matriarchal family pattern
d. Democratic family pattern

ANS: A

In the autocratic family pattern the relationships are unequal. The parents attempt to control the children with strict, rigid rules and expectations. This family pattern is least open to outside influence.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Pages 701-702

OBJ: 1 TOP: Family patterns KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

26.What is the family pattern in which the male usually assumes the dominant role and functions in the work role, controls the finances, and makes most of the decisions?

a. Autocratic family pattern
b. Patriarchal family pattern
c. Matriarchal family pattern
d. Democratic family pattern

ANS: B

In the patriarchal family pattern, the male usually assumes the dominant role. The male member functions in the work role, is responsible for control of finances, and makes most decisions.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 702

OBJ: 1 TOP: Family patterns KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

27.What is the family pattern in which the female assumes primary dominance in the areas of child care and homemaking, as well as financial decision making?

a. Autocratic family pattern
b. Patriarchal family pattern
c. Matriarchal family pattern
d. Democratic family pattern

ANS: C

In the matriarchal family pattern, the female assumes primary dominance in areas of child care and homemaking, as well as financial decision making.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 702

OBJ: 1 TOP: Family patterns KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

28.What is the family pattern in which the adult members function as equals?

a. Autocratic family pattern
b. Patriarchal family pattern
c. Matriarchal family pattern
d. Democratic family pattern

ANS: D

In the democratic family pattern, the adult members function as equals. Children are treated with respect and recognized as individuals. This style encourages joint decision making, and it recognizes and supports the uniqueness of each individual member. This family pattern favors negotiation, compromise, and growth.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 702

OBJ: 1 TOP: Family patterns KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

29.What is the stage of family development that begins when the couple acknowledges that they are considering marriage?

a. Expectant stage
b. Parenthood stage
c. Establishment stage
d. Engagement/commitment stage

ANS: D

The engagement/commitment stage begins when the couple acknowledges to themselves and others that they are considering marriage. At this time, opposition or support will be evident from friends and parents. Wedding plans must be arranged. Housing, work, and furnishings are some of the items discussed and explored.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 702

OBJ: 1 TOP: Family development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

30.What is the stage of family development that extends from the wedding until the birth of the first child?

a. Expectant stage
b. Parenthood stage
c. Establishment stage
d. Engagement/commitment stage

ANS: C

The establishment stage extends from the wedding until the birth of the first child. During this phase, one of the important tasks is the adjustment from the single independent to the married, interdependent state. The challenges facing the newly married couple include learning to live with another person, decision making, conflict resolution, and communication.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 702

OBJ: 1 TOP: Family development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

31.What is the stage of family development that begins when conception begins and continues through the pregnancy?

a. Expectant stage
b. Parenthood stage
c. Establishment stage
d. Engagement/commitment stage

ANS: A

The expectant stage begins when conception occurs and continues through the pregnancy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 702

OBJ: 1 TOP: Family development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

32.What is the stage of family development that begins at the birth or adoption of the first child?

a. Expectant stage
b. Parenthood stage
c. Establishment stage
d. Engagement/commitment stage

ANS: B

The parenthood stage begins at the birth or adoption of the first child.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 703

OBJ: 1 TOP: Family development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

33.What stage of family development involves the grown children departing from home?

a. Expectant stage
b. Senescence stage
c. Establishment stage
d. Disengagement stage

ANS: D

The disengagement stage of parenthood is the period of family life when the grown children depart from the home.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 703

OBJ: 1 TOP: Family development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

34.What is known as the last stage in the life cycle?

a. Expectant stage
b. Senescence stage
c. Establishment stage
d. Disengagement stage

ANS: B

The senescence stage is the last stage of the life cycle, which requires the individual to cope with a large range of changes. For the older adult the family unit continues to be a major source of satisfaction and pleasure. Most older adults prefer to live independently.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 703

OBJ: 1 TOP: Family development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

35.The nurse recognizes that during the first 5 months of life, an infant is expected to gain approximately how many pounds per month?

a. 0.5
b. 1
c. 1.5
d. 2

ANS: C

The infant is expected to gain about 1.5 lb per month until 5 months.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 706

OBJ: 4 TOP: Growth and development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

36.A nurse is caring for a neonate who weighs 7 lb 3 oz at birth. What should the infants weight be at 1 year?

a. 10 lb 3 oz
b. 14 lb 6 oz
c. 21 lb 9 oz
d. 28 lb 12 oz

ANS: C

By the time the baby is 1 year of age, the birth weight should have tripled.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 706

OBJ: 4 TOP: Growth and development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

37.A nurse is caring for a neonate who is 22 inches in height. What will the childs expected height be at 1 year?

a. 29 inches
b. 33 inches
c. 44 inches
d. 56 inches

ANS: B

Height increases by about 1 inch per month for the first 6 months. By 12 months of age, the infants birth length has increased about 50%.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 707

OBJ: 4 TOP: Growth and development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

38.What is the average apical heart rate for a 2-month-old infant?

a. 80 bpm
b. 100 bpm
c. 120 bpm
d. 150 bpm

ANS: C

At 2 months of age, the average apical rate is about 120 bpm.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 707

OBJ: 4 TOP: Growth and development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

39.What is the average resting respiratory rate for a 12-month-old child?

a. 15 breaths/min
b. 20 breaths/min
c. 30 breaths/min
d. 50 breaths/min

ANS: C

Average resting respiratory rate for the 12-month-old  is about 30 breaths/min.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 707

OBJ: 4 TOP: Growth and development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

40.A nurse assessing a 2-month-old infant would expect the infant to do which of the following?

a. Crawl on the floor
b. Creep on the floor
c. Sit up steadily without support
d. Hold its head up while in the prone position

ANS: D

At 2 months the infant is able to hold the head up while in the prone position. Infants may crawl at 7 months and creep at about 9 months. By the end of the seventh month, infants can sit up steadily without support.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 707

OBJ:4TOP:Growth and development

KEY:Nursing Process Step: AssessmentMSC:NCLEX: N/A

41.A nurse assessing a 4-month-old infant would expect the infant to do which of the following?

a. Crawl up the stairs
b. Creep on the floor at least 30 feet
c. Walk upright with a waddling gait
d. Hold head at a 90-degree angle while prone

ANS: D

At 4 months the infant is able to hold the head up steadily to a 90-degree angle while in the prone position. Infants may crawl at 7 months and creep at about 9 months. Standing with support and walking occur at about 8 months to 15 months.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 707

OBJ:4TOP:Growth and development

KEY:Nursing Process Step: AssessmentMSC:NCLEX: N/A

42.A nurse teaching the mother about infant oral hygiene instructs the mother to offer the infant sips of:

a. cola.
b. milk.
c. juice.
d. water.

ANS: D

Oral hygiene for the young infant consists of offering sips of clear water and wiping and massaging the infants gums. Cola, milk, and juice should not be introduced at this young age.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 707

OBJ: 4 TOP: Dentition KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

43.A mother asks the nurse when she should introduce solid foods into her infants diet. What would be the most correct response?

a. Introduce fruits and vegetables first.
b. Mix foods to allow the infant variety.
c. Introduce only one new food at a time.
d. Introduce new foods at 24-hour intervals.

ANS: C

Only one new food should be introduced at a time, followed by several days between new foods. Cereals should be introduced first, followed by fruits and vegetables, and last meats. Food should not be mixed to allow the infant to develop interest in different foods and tastes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 709

OBJ: 4 TOP: Diet KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

44.What is the leading cause of injury and death among infants and young children?

a. Accidents
b. Child abuse
c. Drug abuse
d. Adolescent parents

ANS: A

Accidents are the leading cause of injury and death of infants and young children.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 710

OBJ: 11 TOP: Prevention KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

45.A nurse assessing a toddler should consider which finding abnormal?

a. Lumbar lordosis
b. Cyanotic nail beds
c. A protruding abdomen
d. A convex lumbar curve

ANS: B

Normal assessment findings in a toddler include lumbar lordosis (convex lumbar curve) and a protruding abdomen. Cyanotic nail beds are an abnormal finding.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 710

OBJ: 4 TOP: Abnormal findings KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

46.Which theory of aging suggests that the body becomes less able to tolerate the self?

a. Free radical theory
b. Autoimmunity theory
c. Wear-and-tear theory
d. Biologic programming theory

ANS: B

The autoimmunity theory holds that with aging, the body becomes less able to recognize or tolerate the self. As a result the immune system produces antibodies that act against the self.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 728

OBJ: 14 TOP: Theories of aging KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

47.Which theory of aging suggests that there should be a natural withdrawal between the individual and society?

a. Free radical theory
b. Autoimmunity theory
c. Wear-and-tear theory
d. Disengagement theory

ANS: D

According to supporters of the disengagement theory of aging, there should be a natural withdrawal, or disengagement, between the individual and society.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 728

OBJ: 14 TOP: Theories of aging KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

48.Which theory of aging suggests that the older person who is more socially active is more likely to adjust well to aging?

a. Activity theory
b. Autoimmunity theory
c. Wear-and-tear theory
d. Disengagement theory

ANS: A

According to the activity theory, the older person who is more active socially is more likely to adjust well to aging.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 728

OBJ: 14 TOP: Theories of aging KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

49.Which theory of aging suggests that previously developed coping abilities and the ability to maintain previous roles and activities are critical to adjustment to old age?

a. Continuity theory
b. Autoimmunity theory
c. Wear-and-tear theory
d. Disengagement theory

ANS: A

Supporters of the continuity theory suggest that the critical factors in adjustment to old age are previously developed coping abilities and the ability to maintain previous roles and activities.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 728

OBJ: 14 TOP: Theories of aging KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

50.Which of the following measures would be included in a teaching plan to instruct new parents on reducing the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome?

a. Bottle-feed an infant at night
b. Place infants on their stomach to sleep
c. Keep an infants room well ventilated
d. Place soft bedding and pillows in an infants crib

ANS: C

Steps to reduce the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome include placing infants on their back to sleep, avoiding exposure to cigarette smoke, avoiding using soft bedding or pillows, keeping rooms well ventilated, breastfeeding if possible, and maintaining regular medical checkups for infants.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 709

OBJ: 4 TOP: Safety KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

51.A nurse instructing a group of parents about safety rules for infants and young children should include which of the following measures in the teaching plan?

a. Remove plants from the childs reach
b. Provide the infant with a pillow at night
c. Use a plastic covering on the infants mattress
d. Keep the crib sides up and set the mattress at the highest setting

ANS: A

Safety rules for infants and young children include keeping the crib sides up and the mattress set at the lowest setting, never using plastic bags or coverings on mattresses or near the infants playthings, avoiding the use of pillows with small infants, and removing plants from the childs reach.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 711

OBJ: 4 TOP: Safety KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

52.A child who uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world is displaying characteristics consistent with which stage of Piaget cognitive development?

a. Sensorimotor stage of cognitive development
b. Preoperational stage of cognitive development
c. Formal operational stage of cognitive development
d. Concrete operational stage of cognitive development

ANS: A

The Piaget sensorimotor stage of cognitive development uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world; this period begins with reflexes and coordinates sensorimotor skills.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 705, Box 23-6

OBJ: 3 TOP: Piaget KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

53.A child who has just begun to demonstrate object permanence is in which of the Piaget stages of cognitive development?

a. Sensorimotor
b. Preoperational thought
c. Formal operational thought
d. Concrete operational thought

ANS: A

The Piaget sensorimotor stage of cognitive development uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world; this period begins with reflexes and coordinates sensorimotor skills. While in this stage, a child learns that an object still exists when it is out of sight (object permanence).

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 705, Box 23-6

OBJ: 3 TOP: Piaget KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

54.A child who has just begun to demonstrate egocentric thinking is in which of the Piaget stages of cognitive development?

a. Sensorimotor
b. Preoperational thought
c. Formal operational thought
d. Concrete operational thought

ANS: B

The Piaget preoperational stage of cognitive development includes the development of egocentric thinking (understanding the world from only one perspective, that of the self).

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 705, Box 23-6

OBJ: 3 TOP: Piaget KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

55.A child who has just begun to demonstrate the ability to understand and apply logical operations to help interpret specific experiences or perceptions is in which of the Piaget stages of cognitive development?

a. Sensorimotor
b. Preoperational thought
c. Formal operational thought
d. Concrete operational thought

ANS: D

The Piaget concrete operational stage of cognitive development includes the ability to understand and apply logical operations or principles to help interpret specific experiences or perceptions.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 705, Box 23-6

OBJ: 3 TOP: Piaget KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

56.A child who is able to use a systematic, scientific problem-solving approach is in which of the Piaget stages of cognitive development?

a. Sensorimotor
b. Preoperational thought
c. Formal operational thought
d. Concrete operational thought

ANS: C

The Piaget formal operational stage of cognitive development includes the ability to use a systematic, scientific problem-solving approach.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 705, Box 23-6

OBJ: 3 TOP: Piaget KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

57.According to Erikson, an infant who was abandoned by his or her primary caregiver is at risk for developing which of the following?

a. Guilt
b. Mistrust
c. Isolation
d. Confusion

ANS: B

During infancy a childs developmental task is basic trust versus mistrust.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 703, Box 23-2

OBJ: 8 TOP: Erikson KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

58.Separation anxiety includes which stage(s)? (Select all that apply.)

a. Detachment
b. Protest
c. Anger
d. Despair
e. Withdrawal

ANS: A, B, D

The phases of separation anxiety are protest, despair, and detachment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 708

OBJ:9TOP:Separation anxiety

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

59.The nurse informs a group of college students that young adults will face which challenges in this particular time of life? (Select all that apply.)

a. Starting a family
b. Selecting housing
c. Job security
d. Relations with extended family
e. Establishing intimacy

ANS: A, B, C, D, E

All options are developmental tasks of the young adult of today.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 722, Box 23-19, 723

OBJ: 11 TOP: Young adult KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

COMPLETION

60.The process that refers to gradual change and differentiation is _____________.

ANS:

development

Development is the process of gradual change and differentiation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 699

OBJ: 4 TOP: Development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

61.Any substance such as a drug, alcohol, or virus that interferes with fetal development is called a(n) _____________.

ANS:

teratogen

A teratogen is any substance that interferes with fetal development, such as a drug, alcohol, or a virus.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 699

OBJ: 4 TOP: Teratogen KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

62.Growth and development that proceeds from the head toward the feet is known as _____________________.

ANS:

cephalocaudal

Cephalocaudal is defined as growth and development that proceeds from the head toward the feet.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 699

OBJ: 4 TOP: Development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

63.Growth and development that moves from the center toward the outside is known as ____________________.

ANS:

proximodistal

Proximodistal refers to growth and development that moves from the center toward the outside.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 699

OBJ: 4 TOP: Development KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC:NCLEX: N/A

Leave a Reply