Chapter 21: Introduction to Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Syndrome My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 21: Introduction to Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Syndrome

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A patient with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 would be considered to be in which weight category?

a.

Underweight

b.

Normal weight

c.

Overweight

d.

Obese

ANS: C

A BMI of less than 18.5 is considered underweight. A BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered normal weight. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight. A BMI of 30 to 34.9 is considered obesity, class I; 35 to 39.9 is considered obesity, class II; and more than 40 is considered extreme obesity.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 340 OBJ: 1

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

2. What is the most critical approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome?

a.

Psychotherapy

b.

Pharmacotherapy

c.

Lifestyle management

d.

Patient education

ANS: C

Lifestyle management is critical for managing metabolic syndrome; other approaches will not be effective without it. Psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and patient education are not the most critical approaches to treating metabolic syndrome.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 338 OBJ: 2

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

3. Healthy diets should include no more than which percentage of saturated fat based on total calories?

a.

30%

b.

10%

c.

7%

d.

2%

ANS: C

A healthy diet should have no more than 7% of calories from saturated fat. A diet with 30% or 10% saturated fat would not be considered a healthy diet. A diet can have up to 7% saturated fat before it is considered unhealthy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 342 OBJ: 3

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

4. Which ethnic group or gender is at greatest risk for developing metabolic syndrome?

a.

Hispanic women

b.

Asian men

c.

African American men

d.

White women

ANS: A

Hispanic women have the highest incidence rate of metabolic syndrome at 27%. Asian men, African American men, and white women are not at the highest risk for metabolic syndrome.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 339 OBJ: 1

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

5. What is the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the United States?

a.

1 in 4000

b.

1 in 400

c.

1 in 40

d.

1 in 4

ANS: D

The incidence of metabolic syndrome in the United States is 1 in 4, or about 50 million adults. One in 4000, one in 400, and one in 40 are each less than the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the United States.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 339 OBJ: 1

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

6. Which is the mechanism of action demonstrated by exercise in managing blood glucose levels?

a.

Exercise causes release of glucose and promotes a reduced blood glucose level.

b.

Exercise on a regular basis causes a reduction in lean body mass, which helps regulate blood glucose levels.

c.

Increased muscle mass and less fat tends to normalize blood glucose levels because glucose is used by muscle cells when exercising.

d.

Exercise stimulates the liver, the primary storage and utilization site of glucose, to release glucose.

ANS: C

Exercise leads to more muscle and less fat, so blood glucose levels tend to return to normal. Exercise increases the rate of glucose uptake in the contracting skeletal muscles. Exercise on a regular basis prevents reduction in lean body mass and protein wasting. The liver is not the primary storage and utilization site of glucose.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 342 OBJ: 3

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

7. Which instruction by the nurse is accurate to include in a patients care to manage metabolic syndrome?

a.

Encourage the client to exercise 20 minutes every day.

b.

Eliminate alcohol intake.

c.

Increase simple carbohydrates in the diet.

d.

Reduce stress.

ANS: D

Stress reduction is important in the management of metabolic syndrome. Twenty minutes of exercise is not adequate. Alcohol intake needs to be restricted but does not have to be eliminated. Complex carbohydrates are appropriate in the management of metabolic syndrome.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 340 OBJ: 2

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

8. What lifestyle choice(s) may aggravate metabolic syndrome? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Excessive tobacco smoking

b.

Inadequate hydration

c.

Excessive exercise

d.

Inadequate caloric intake

e.

Excessive consumption of alcohol

ANS: A, E

Smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol may aggravate metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is not directly affected by inadequate hydration. Metabolic syndrome is directly affected by a sedentary lifestyle, not excessive exercise. Metabolic syndrome is directly affected by increased, not inadequate, caloric intake.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 340 OBJ: 2

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

9. In addition to type 2 diabetes and heart disease, which condition(s) is/are associated with metabolic syndrome? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Dementia

b.

Insomnia

c.

Renal disease

d.

Obstructive sleep apnea

e.

Orthostatic hypotension

f.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

ANS: A, C, D, F

Dementia, renal disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and polycystic ovary syndrome are associated with metabolic syndrome. Insomnia and orthostatic hypotension are not associated with metabolic syndrome.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 339 OBJ: 1

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

10. Drug therapy for initial treatment of metabolic syndrome is targeted at controlling which condition(s)? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Obstructive sleep apnea

b.

Diabetes mellitus

c.

Hypertension

d.

Obesity

e.

Dyslipidemia

f.

Insulin resistance

ANS: B, C, E

Pharmacologic approaches to managing metabolic syndrome are targeted toward controlling diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. There is no pharmacologic intervention for obstructive sleep apnea. Obesity should be addressed before pharmacologic therapy begins. Insulin resistance is not dealt with pharmacologically in the early management of metabolic syndrome.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 342 OBJ: 3

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

11. Which cardiovascular condition(s) is/are related to coronary artery diseases (CADs)? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Angina pectoris

b.

Pulmonary stenosis

c.

Acute myocardial infarction

d.

Pericarditis

e.

Venous stasis ulcers

ANS: A, C

Angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction are considered CADs. Pulmonary stenosis is a congenital heart disease. Pericarditis is inflammation of the tissue surrounding the heart. Venous stasis ulcers are not related to CAD.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 338 OBJ: 1

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

12. Metabolic syndrome includes which key characteristic(s)? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Hyperglycemia

b.

Abdominal obesity

c.

Low high density lipoproteins

d.

Hypertension

e.

Osteoporosis

ANS: A, B, C, D

Metabolic syndrome is characterized by hyperglycemia, abdominal obesity, low high density lipoproteins, and hypertension. Osteoporosis is not a characteristic of metabolic syndrome.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 339 OBJ: 1

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

13. The mother of a school aged child asks the nurse how to help prevent her child from acquiring metabolic syndrome. The nurse informs the childs mother that education for children in primary grades should focus on which action(s)? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Treatment of dyslipidemia

b.

Prevention of smoking

c.

Importance of moderate activity

d.

Discouraging use of alcohol

e.

Increase in saturated fat

ANS: B, C, D

Primary prevention of metabolic syndrome is becoming a common thread in curriculum for children in the primary grades. This education focuses on the importance of moderate activity, dietary choices, and the prevention of alcohol and smoking. Treatment of dyslipidemia is not considered primary prevention. Diet should include reduced intake of saturated fat.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 342 OBJ: 3

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

OTHER

14. Weight: 140 pounds. Height: 5 feet 4 inches. What is the BMI?

ANS:

24.03

140 (64)2 703 = 24.03

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 340 OBJ: 1

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

15. Weight: 70 kilograms. Height: 164 cm (1.65 m). What is the BMI?

ANS:

25.71

70 (1.65)2 = 25.71

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 340 OBJ: 1

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

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