Chapter 21 My Nursing Test Banks

Ball/Bindler/Cowen, Principles of Pediatric Nursing: Caring for Children 5th Edition Test Bank
Chapter 21

Question 1

Type: MCSA

The nurse has admitted a child with tricuspid atresia. The nurse would expect the initial lab result to show

1. A high hemoglobin.

2. A low hematocrit.

3. A high white blood cell count.

4. A low platelet count.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The childs bone marrow responds to chronic hypoxemia by producing more red blood cells to increase the amount of hemoglobin available to carry oxygen to the tissues. This occurs in cases of cyanotic heart defects such as tricuspid atresia. Therefore, the hematocrit would not be low, the white blood cell count would not be high (unless an infection is present), and the platelets would be normal.

Rationale 2: The childs bone marrow responds to chronic hypoxemia by producing more red blood cells to increase the amount of hemoglobin available to carry oxygen to the tissues. This occurs in cases of cyanotic heart defects such as tricuspid atresia. Therefore, the hematocrit would not be low, the white blood cell count would not be high (unless an infection is present), and the platelets would be normal.

Rationale 3: The childs bone marrow responds to chronic hypoxemia by producing more red blood cells to increase the amount of hemoglobin available to carry oxygen to the tissues. This occurs in cases of cyanotic heart defects such as tricuspid atresia. Therefore, the hematocrit would not be low, the white blood cell count would not be high (unless an infection is present), and the platelets would be normal.

Rationale 4: The childs bone marrow responds to chronic hypoxemia by producing more red blood cells to increase the amount of hemoglobin available to carry oxygen to the tissues. This occurs in cases of cyanotic heart defects such as tricuspid atresia. Therefore, the hematocrit would not be low, the white blood cell count would not be high (unless an infection is present), and the platelets would be normal.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: LO 02. Contrast the pathophysiology associated with congenital heart defects with increased pulmonary circulation, decreased pulmonary circulation, and obstructed systemic blood flow.

Question 2

Type: MCSA

A child has been admitted to the hospital unit in congestive heart failure (CHF). Symptoms related to this admission diagnosis would include

1. Weight loss.

2. Bradycardia.

3. Tachycardia.

4. Increased blood pressure.

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Tachycardia is a sign of congestive heart failure because the heart attempts to improve cardiac output by beating faster. Bradycardia is a serious sign and can indicate impending cardiac arrest. Blood pressure does not increase in CHF, and the weight, instead of decreasing, increases because of retention of fluids.

Rationale 2: Tachycardia is a sign of congestive heart failure because the heart attempts to improve cardiac output by beating faster. Bradycardia is a serious sign and can indicate impending cardiac arrest. Blood pressure does not increase in CHF, and the weight, instead of decreasing, increases because of retention of fluids.

Rationale 3: Tachycardia is a sign of congestive heart failure because the heart attempts to improve cardiac output by beating faster. Bradycardia is a serious sign and can indicate impending cardiac arrest. Blood pressure does not increase in CHF, and the weight, instead of decreasing, increases because of retention of fluids.

Rationale 4: Tachycardia is a sign of congestive heart failure because the heart attempts to improve cardiac output by beating faster. Bradycardia is a serious sign and can indicate impending cardiac arrest. Blood pressure does not increase in CHF, and the weight, instead of decreasing, increases because of retention of fluids.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: LO 06. Plan the nursing care for a child with congestive heart failure.

Question 3

Type: MCSA

A toddler has been started on digoxin (Lanoxin) for cardiac failure. If the child develops digoxin (Lanoxin) toxicity, the first sign the nurse might note would be

1. Lowered blood pressure.

2. Tinnitus.

3. Ataxia.

4. A change in heart rhythm.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: An early sign of digoxin (Lanoxin) toxicity is a change in heart rhythm. Digoxin (Lanoxin) toxicity does not cause lowered blood pressure, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), or ataxia (unsteady gait).

Rationale 2: An early sign of digoxin (Lanoxin) toxicity is a change in heart rhythm. Digoxin (Lanoxin) toxicity does not cause lowered blood pressure, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), or ataxia (unsteady gait).

Rationale 3: An early sign of digoxin (Lanoxin) toxicity is a change in heart rhythm. Digoxin (Lanoxin) toxicity does not cause lowered blood pressure, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), or ataxia (unsteady gait).

Rationale 4: An early sign of digoxin (Lanoxin) toxicity is a change in heart rhythm. Digoxin (Lanoxin) toxicity does not cause lowered blood pressure, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), or ataxia (unsteady gait).

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: LO 05.Recognize the signs of congestive heart failure in an infant and child.

Question 4

Type: MCSA

The nurse is checking peripheral perfusion to a childs extremity following a cardiac catheterization. If there is adequate peripheral circulation, the nurse would find that the extremity

1. Has a capillary refill of greater than three seconds.

2. Has a palpable dorsalis pedis pulse but a weak posterior tibial pulse.

3. Has decreased sensation with a weakened dorsalis pedis pulse.

4. Is warm, with a capillary refill of less than three seconds.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: The nurse checks the extremity to determine adequacy of circulation following a cardiac catheterization. An extremity that is warm with capillary refill of less than three seconds has adequate circulation. Other indicators of adequate circulation include palpable pedal (dorsalis and posterior tibial) pulses, adequate sensation, and pinkness of skin color. If the capillary refill is over three seconds; if any of the pedal pulses are absent and/or weakened; or if the extremity is cool, cyanotic, or lacking sensation, circulation may not be adequate.

Rationale 2: The nurse checks the extremity to determine adequacy of circulation following a cardiac catheterization. An extremity that is warm with capillary refill of less than three seconds has adequate circulation. Other indicators of adequate circulation include palpable pedal (dorsalis and posterior tibial) pulses, adequate sensation, and pinkness of skin color. If the capillary refill is over three seconds; if any of the pedal pulses are absent and/or weakened; or if the extremity is cool, cyanotic, or lacking sensation, circulation may not be adequate.

Rationale 3: The nurse checks the extremity to determine adequacy of circulation following a cardiac catheterization. An extremity that is warm with capillary refill of less than three seconds has adequate circulation. Other indicators of adequate circulation include palpable pedal (dorsalis and posterior tibial) pulses, adequate sensation, and pinkness of skin color. If the capillary refill is over three seconds; if any of the pedal pulses are absent and/or weakened; or if the extremity is cool, cyanotic, or lacking sensation, circulation may not be adequate.

Rationale 4: The nurse checks the extremity to determine adequacy of circulation following a cardiac catheterization. An extremity that is warm with capillary refill of less than three seconds has adequate circulation. Other indicators of adequate circulation include palpable pedal (dorsalis and posterior tibial) pulses, adequate sensation, and pinkness of skin color. If the capillary refill is over three seconds; if any of the pedal pulses are absent and/or weakened; or if the extremity is cool, cyanotic, or lacking sensation, circulation may not be adequate.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: LO 01. Describe the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, focusing on the flow of blood and action of the heart valves.

Question 5

Type: MCSA

The nurse has admitted a child with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) to the unit. An appropriate nursing diagnosis for this child is

1. Impaired Gas Exchange Related to Pulmonary Congestion Secondary to the Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow.

2. Deficient Fluid Volume Related to Hyperthermia Secondary to the Congenital Heart Defect.

3. Acute Pain Related to the Effects of a Congenital Heart Defect.

4. Hypothermia Related to Decreased Metabolic State.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Because of the increased pulmonary congestion, impaired gas exchange would be an appropriate nursing diagnosis. Ventricular septal defects do not cause pain, fever, or deficient fluid volume.

Rationale 2: Because of the increased pulmonary congestion, impaired gas exchange would be an appropriate nursing diagnosis. Ventricular septal defects do not cause pain, fever, or deficient fluid volume.

Rationale 3: Because of the increased pulmonary congestion, impaired gas exchange would be an appropriate nursing diagnosis. Ventricular septal defects do not cause pain, fever, or deficient fluid volume.

Rationale 4: Because of the increased pulmonary congestion, impaired gas exchange would be an appropriate nursing diagnosis. Ventricular septal defects do not cause pain, fever, or deficient fluid volume.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: LO 02. Contrast the pathophysiology associated with congenital heart defects with increased pulmonary circulation, decreased pulmonary circulation, and obstructed systemic blood flow.

Question 6

Type: MCSA

The nurse is teaching the parents of a group of cardiac patients. The nurse includes in the information that any child who has undergone cardiac surgery

1. Should be restricted from most play activities.

2. Should be evaluated to determine if prophylactic antibiotics for dental, oral, or upper-respiratory-tract procedures are necessary.

3. Should not receive routine immunizations.

4. Can be expected to have a fever for several weeks following the surgery.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Parents should be taught that the child may need prophylactic antibiotics for some dental procedures, according to the American Heart Association, to prevent endocarditis. The child should live a normal and active life following repair of a cardiac defect. Immunizations should be provided according to the schedule, and any unexplained fever should be reported.

Rationale 2: Parents should be taught that the child may need prophylactic antibiotics for some dental procedures, according to the American Heart Association, to prevent endocarditis. The child should live a normal and active life following repair of a cardiac defect. Immunizations should be provided according to the schedule, and any unexplained fever should be reported.

Rationale 3: Parents should be taught that the child may need prophylactic antibiotics for some dental procedures, according to the American Heart Association, to prevent endocarditis. The child should live a normal and active life following repair of a cardiac defect. Immunizations should be provided according to the schedule, and any unexplained fever should be reported.

Rationale 4: Parents should be taught that the child may need prophylactic antibiotics for some dental procedures, according to the American Heart Association, to prevent endocarditis. The child should live a normal and active life following repair of a cardiac defect. Immunizations should be provided according to the schedule, and any unexplained fever should be reported.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: LO 04.Plan the nursing care for the child undergoing open heart surgery.

Question 7

Type: MCMA

An infant with tetralogy of Fallot is having a hypercyanotic episode (tet spell). Appropriate management of tetralogy of Fallot includes:

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Place the child in knee-chest position.

2. Draw blood for a serum hemoglobin.

3. Administer oxygen.

4. Administer morphine and propranolol intravenously as ordered.

5. Administer Benadryl as ordered.

Correct Answer: 1,3,4

Rationale 1: When an infant with tetralogy of Fallot has a hypercyanotic episode, interventions should be geared toward decreasing the pulmonary vascular resistance. Therefore, the nurse would place the infant in knee-chest position (to decrease venous blood return from the lower extremities), and administer oxygen, morphine, and propranolol (to decrease the pulmonary vascular resistance). The nurse would not draw blood until the episode had subsided, because unpleasant procedures are postponed. Benadryl is not appropriate for this child.

Rationale 2: When an infant with tetralogy of Fallot has a hypercyanotic episode, interventions should be geared toward decreasing the pulmonary vascular resistance. Therefore, the nurse would place the infant in knee-chest position (to decrease venous blood return from the lower extremities), and administer oxygen, morphine, and propranolol (to decrease the pulmonary vascular resistance). The nurse would not draw blood until the episode had subsided, because unpleasant procedures are postponed. Benadryl is not appropriate for this child.

Rationale 3: When an infant with tetralogy of Fallot has a hypercyanotic episode, interventions should be geared toward decreasing the pulmonary vascular resistance. Therefore, the nurse would place the infant in knee-chest position (to decrease venous blood return from the lower extremities), and administer oxygen, morphine, and propranolol (to decrease the pulmonary vascular resistance). The nurse would not draw blood until the episode had subsided, because unpleasant procedures are postponed. Benadryl is not appropriate for this child.

Rationale 4: When an infant with tetralogy of Fallot has a hypercyanotic episode, interventions should be geared toward decreasing the pulmonary vascular resistance. Therefore, the nurse would place the infant in knee-chest position (to decrease venous blood return from the lower extremities), and administer oxygen, morphine, and propranolol (to decrease the pulmonary vascular resistance). The nurse would not draw blood until the episode had subsided, because unpleasant procedures are postponed. Benadryl is not appropriate for this child.

Rationale 5: When an infant with tetralogy of Fallot has a hypercyanotic episode, interventions should be geared toward decreasing the pulmonary vascular resistance. Therefore, the nurse would place the infant in knee-chest position (to decrease venous blood return from the lower extremities), and administer oxygen, morphine, and propranolol (to decrease the pulmonary vascular resistance). The nurse would not draw blood until the episode had subsided, because unpleasant procedures are postponed. Benadryl is not appropriate for this child.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: LO 02. Contrast the pathophysiology associated with congenital heart defects with increased pulmonary circulation, decreased pulmonary circulation, and obstructed systemic blood flow.

Question 8

Type: MCSA

A child has had a heart transplant. The nurse recognizes that postoperative teaching has been successful when the parents state that the child is on cyclosporin A to

1. Reduce serum-cholesterol level.

2. Prevent rejection.

3. Treat hypertension.

4. Treat infections.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Cyclosporin A is given to prevent rejection. Lovastatin is given to reduce serum-cholesterol level, calcium channel blockers may be used to treat hypertension, and an antibiotic may be given to treat an infection.

Rationale 2: Cyclosporin A is given to prevent rejection. Lovastatin is given to reduce serum-cholesterol level, calcium channel blockers may be used to treat hypertension, and an antibiotic may be given to treat an infection.

Rationale 3: Cyclosporin A is given to prevent rejection. Lovastatin is given to reduce serum-cholesterol level, calcium channel blockers may be used to treat hypertension, and an antibiotic may be given to treat an infection.

Rationale 4: Cyclosporin A is given to prevent rejection. Lovastatin is given to reduce serum-cholesterol level, calcium channel blockers may be used to treat hypertension, and an antibiotic may be given to treat an infection.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: LO 04.Plan the nursing care for the child undergoing open heart surgery.

Question 9

Type: MCSA

An athletic activity the nurse could recommend for a school-age child with pulmonary-artery hypertension is

1. Cross-country running.

2. Soccer.

3. Golf.

4. Basketball.

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: A child with pulmonary-artery hypertension should have exercise tailored to avoid dyspnea. Golf would require less exertion than soccer, basketball, or cross-country running.

Rationale 2: A child with pulmonary-artery hypertension should have exercise tailored to avoid dyspnea. Golf would require less exertion than soccer, basketball, or cross-country running.

Rationale 3: A child with pulmonary-artery hypertension should have exercise tailored to avoid dyspnea. Golf would require less exertion than soccer, basketball, or cross-country running.

Rationale 4: A child with pulmonary-artery hypertension should have exercise tailored to avoid dyspnea. Golf would require less exertion than soccer, basketball, or cross-country running.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: LO 07. Differentiate between the heart diseases acquired during childhood and congenital heart defects.

Question 10

Type: MCSA

A child is admitted with infective endocarditis. The nurse is prepared to

1. Start an intravenous line.

2. Place the child in contact isolation.

3. Place the child on seizure precautions.

4. Assist with a lumbar puncture.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Infective endocarditis is treated with intravenous antibiotics for two to eight weeks. It is not contagious, so the child is not placed in contact isolation. Seizures are not a risk of infective endocarditis. A lumbar puncture is not a diagnostic test done for infective endocarditis.

Rationale 2: Infective endocarditis is treated with intravenous antibiotics for two to eight weeks. It is not contagious, so the child is not placed in contact isolation. Seizures are not a risk of infective endocarditis. A lumbar puncture is not a diagnostic test done for infective endocarditis.

Rationale 3: Infective endocarditis is treated with intravenous antibiotics for two to eight weeks. It is not contagious, so the child is not placed in contact isolation. Seizures are not a risk of infective endocarditis. A lumbar puncture is not a diagnostic test done for infective endocarditis.

Rationale 4: Infective endocarditis is treated with intravenous antibiotics for two to eight weeks. It is not contagious, so the child is not placed in contact isolation. Seizures are not a risk of infective endocarditis. A lumbar puncture is not a diagnostic test done for infective endocarditis.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: LO 01. Describe the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, focusing on the flow of blood and action of the heart valves.

Question 11

Type: MCSA

The mother of a child with a heart defect is questioning the nurse about the childs medication. When discussing the diuretic the child is on, the nurse should place an emphasis on teaching about:

1. Close monitoring of output.

2. The digitalization process.

3. The possibility that pulses in the child might be weak.

4. The childs increased appetite.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: It is important to monitor the output of the child on a diuretic to determine effectiveness of the drug. Digitalization pulses are not associated with diuretics. The child will usually have a decreased appetite.

Rationale 2: It is important to monitor the output of the child on a diuretic to determine effectiveness of the drug. Digitalization pulses are not associated with diuretics. The child will usually have a decreased appetite.

Rationale 3: It is important to monitor the output of the child on a diuretic to determine effectiveness of the drug. Digitalization pulses are not associated with diuretics. The child will usually have a decreased appetite.

Rationale 4: It is important to monitor the output of the child on a diuretic to determine effectiveness of the drug. Digitalization pulses are not associated with diuretics. The child will usually have a decreased appetite.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: LO 02. Contrast the pathophysiology associated with congenital heart defects with increased pulmonary circulation, decreased pulmonary circulation, and obstructed systemic blood flow.

Question 12

Type: MCSA

On initial exam of a child with newly diagnosed Kawasaki disease, the nurse would expect to document:

1. Dry, swollen, fissured lips.

2. Non-palpable lymph nodes.

3. Conjunctivitis with exudates.

4. Cyanosis of the hands and feet.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Dry, swollen, fissured lips are symptoms of Kawasaki disease. Lymph nodes can be palpable, conjunctivitis is present but without exudates, and hands and feet are typically erythematous.

Rationale 2: Dry, swollen, fissured lips are symptoms of Kawasaki disease. Lymph nodes can be palpable, conjunctivitis is present but without exudates, and hands and feet are typically erythematous.

Rationale 3: Dry, swollen, fissured lips are symptoms of Kawasaki disease. Lymph nodes can be palpable, conjunctivitis is present but without exudates, and hands and feet are typically erythematous.

Rationale 4: Dry, swollen, fissured lips are symptoms of Kawasaki disease. Lymph nodes can be palpable, conjunctivitis is present but without exudates, and hands and feet are typically erythematous.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: LO 07. Differentiate between the heart diseases acquired during childhood and congenital heart defects.

Question 13

Type: MCSA

The nurse finds that an infant has stronger pulses in the upper extremities than in the lower extremities, and higher blood pressure readings in the arms than in the legs. The next assessment the nurse should perform would be:

1. Pedal pulses.

2. Pulse oximetry level.

3. Review hemoglobin and hematocrit values.

4. Assess blood pressure of the four extremities.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Coarctation of the aorta can present with stronger pulses in the upper extremities than in the lower extremities and higher blood pressure readings in the arms than in the legs because of obstruction of circulation to the lower extremities. Blood pressure values of the four limbs should be the next assessment data collected. Pedal pulses, pulse oximetry, and labs themselves will not provide the data needed.

Rationale 2: Coarctation of the aorta can present with stronger pulses in the upper extremities than in the lower extremities and higher blood pressure readings in the arms than in the legs because of obstruction of circulation to the lower extremities. Blood pressure values of the four limbs should be the next assessment data collected. Pedal pulses, pulse oximetry, and labs themselves will not provide the data needed.

Rationale 3: Coarctation of the aorta can present with stronger pulses in the upper extremities than in the lower extremities and higher blood pressure readings in the arms than in the legs because of obstruction of circulation to the lower extremities. Blood pressure values of the four limbs should be the next assessment data collected. Pedal pulses, pulse oximetry, and labs themselves will not provide the data needed.

Rationale 4: Coarctation of the aorta can present with stronger pulses in the upper extremities than in the lower extremities and higher blood pressure readings in the arms than in the legs because of obstruction of circulation to the lower extremities. Blood pressure values of the four limbs should be the next assessment data collected. Pedal pulses, pulse oximetry, and labs themselves will not provide the data needed.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: LO 02. Contrast the pathophysiology associated with congenital heart defects with increased pulmonary circulation, decreased pulmonary circulation, and obstructed systemic blood flow.

Question 14

Type: MCSA

Initial management for an infant who has supraventricular tachycardia is:

1. Application of ice to the face.

2. Perform Valsalvas maneuver.

3. Administer a beta blocker.

4. Preparation for cardioversion.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Supraventricular tachycardia episodes are initially treated with vagal maneuvers to slow the heart rate when the infant is stable. In stable infants, the application of ice or iced saline solution to the face can reduce the heart rate. The infant is not capable of performing Valsalvas maneuver. Calcium channel blockers, not beta blockers, are the drugs of choice. Cardioversion is used in an urgent situation, but is not typically the initial treatment.

Rationale 2: Supraventricular tachycardia episodes are initially treated with vagal maneuvers to slow the heart rate when the infant is stable. In stable infants, the application of ice or iced saline solution to the face can reduce the heart rate. The infant is not capable of performing Valsalvas maneuver. Calcium channel blockers, not beta blockers, are the drugs of choice. Cardioversion is used in an urgent situation, but is not typically the initial treatment.

Rationale 3: Supraventricular tachycardia episodes are initially treated with vagal maneuvers to slow the heart rate when the infant is stable. In stable infants, the application of ice or iced saline solution to the face can reduce the heart rate. The infant is not capable of performing Valsalvas maneuver. Calcium channel blockers, not beta blockers, are the drugs of choice. Cardioversion is used in an urgent situation, but is not typically the initial treatment.

Rationale 4: Supraventricular tachycardia episodes are initially treated with vagal maneuvers to slow the heart rate when the infant is stable. In stable infants, the application of ice or iced saline solution to the face can reduce the heart rate. The infant is not capable of performing Valsalvas maneuver. Calcium channel blockers, not beta blockers, are the drugs of choice. Cardioversion is used in an urgent situation, but is not typically the initial treatment.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: LO 02. Contrast the pathophysiology associated with congenital heart defects with increased pulmonary circulation, decreased pulmonary circulation, and obstructed systemic blood flow.

Ball/Bindler/Cowen, Principles of Pediatric Nursing 5th Ed. Test Bank

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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