Chapter 2: Gerontological Nursing History, Education, and Roles(FREE) My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 2: Gerontological Nursing History, Education, and Roles

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Identify the best statement about gerontological nursing.

a.

Nurses have only recently become involved in the care of the older adult.

b.

Gerontological care was the second specialty in which the American Nurses Association (ANA) offered a certification program.

c.

Purposes of gerontological nursing include the promotion of health and support for maximal independence.

d.

ANA certification is available only for gerontological nurses in research positions.

ANS: C

Promoting health and fostering independence are purposes of the practice, as reflected, for example, in the ANA Scope and Standards. Nurses have always cared for older patients. The ANAs gerontological nursing certification program was the organizations first and includes a variety of positions, such as nurse practitioners, clinical specialists, researchers, and administrators.

PTS:1DIF:RememberREF:8-9

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. Which gerontological nursing organization welcomes nurses from all educational backgrounds?

a.

The National Gerontological Nursing Association (NGNA)

b.

The National Conference of Gerontological Nurse Practitioners (NCGNP)

c.

The National Association of Directors of Nursing Administration in Long-Term Care (NADONA/LTC)

d.

The American Society on Aging (ASA)

ANS: A

The NGNA was formed specifically for all levels of nursing personnel: registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), licensed vocational nurses (LVNs), and certified nursing assistants (CNAs). The NCGNP is, as its name implies, limited to nurse practitioners. The NADONA/LTC is, as its name implies, limited to directors and assistant directors of nursing. The ASA is an interdisciplinary organization not limited to nurses.

PTS:1DIF:RememberREF:15-16

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. Which is an accurate statement regarding gerontological nursing education?

a.

Gerontological nursing content has long been integrated into the curriculum of the typical school of nursing.

b.

Undergraduate nursing programs extensively cover gerontological nursing in dedicated courses, comparable with the coverage of psychiatric nursing.

c.

When content is integrated throughout a curriculum, less than 25% is devoted to geriatric care.

d.

Accreditation of a nursing program guarantees that appropriate amounts of gerontological nursing content are included in the curriculum.

ANS: C

When content is integrated throughout the curriculum, less than 25% of the content is devoted to geriatric care. Only recently has gerontological nursing content begun to appear in nursing school curricula. Most nursing schools still do not have such courses. At present, no minimum requirements exist for the coverage of care of older adults.

PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: 6-7 TOP: Teaching/Learning

MSC:Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. Based on current demographic data, which of the following statements identifies a predictive trend regarding the health care needs of society?

a.

Most nurses will not need to care for older persons.

b.

More nursing services will be required to serve the needs of the population older than 85 years of age.

c.

Fewer nurses will be needed to care for older adults.

d.

Older adults expect their quality of life to be less than that of earlier generations at their ages.

ANS: B

Projections are that 20% of the American population will be older than 65 years of age by 2050, with those older than 85 years showing the greatest increase in numbers. Most nurses can expect to care for older people during the course of their careers. By 2050, the United Nations predicts that more Americans will be over the age of 60 years than those under the age of 15 years. Older people are better educated and more affluent and expect a higher quality of life than their elders had at their age.

PTS:1DIF:RememberREF:2

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. A case manager is likely to have how many years of nursing education?

a.

1 to 1.5

c.

4 to 6

b.

2

d.

8 or more

ANS: C

A case manager typically has a bachelors or masters degree. This amount of training is typical for an LPN, who typically practices at a nursing home or on a home nursing staff. This amount of training, resulting in an Associates Degree in Nursing (ADN), is typical for an associate RN, who is typically found on hospital, home, and nursing home staffs. A nurse with 8 or more years of education, as well as a doctorate, is typically involved in research and teaching.

PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: 8-14 TOP: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Safe, Effective Care Environment

6. Which was the first formal action the ANA took in relation to gerontological nursing?

a.

Established a national geriatric nursing group

b.

Defined educational standards for gerontology

c.

Created the ANA Division of Geriatric Nursing

d.

Formed the Council of Long Term Care Nurses

ANS: A

The first formal act of the ANA to promote gerontological nursing was to form a national geriatric nursing group in 1962. In 1973, the ANA defined educational standards for geriatric nursing. The ANA Division of Geriatric Nursing was begun in 1966. In 1979, the ANA formed the Council of Long Term Care Nurses.

PTS:1DIF:UnderstandREF:4

TOP:Communication and Documentation

MSC:Health Promotion and Maintenance

7. A older man is transferred to a hospice facility with end-stage disease. Which is a suitable nursing intervention for this older adult and his family according to the goals of long-term care?

a.

Decrease the analgesic dose to prevent sedation.

b.

Provide a basin and towels for morning self-care.

c.

Inform family members about strict visiting hours.

d.

Facilitate family rituals related to death and dying.

ANS: D

To promote comfort and dignity, the nurse facilitates the enactment of family wishes, rituals, or religious practices related to death and dying. To promote comfort, the gerontological nurse administers medications as prescribed and avoids restricting analgesic agents to patients, regardless of the setting or the nurses personal views. Although fostering independence is within the scope of the gerontological nursing practice, the nurse should assess the older adult and family before assuming that he will want or be able to perform self-care. Although hospice can have regular visiting hours, the older adult may need his family at the bedside for comfort, strength, or companionship. Thus to provide comfort and promote dignity, the gerontological nurse adapts visiting hours to suit the older adults needs.

PTS:1DIF:ApplyREF:30 Box 2-6

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Safe, Effective Care Environment

8. A nursing home executive interviews RNs to fill a full-time position for direct patient care to maintain the standards of elder care. Which nurse should the nursing home hire?

a.

Nurse from a certified college

c.

Nurse with 15 years of experience

b.

Certified gerontological nurse

d.

Gerontological nurse practitioner

ANS: B

A certified gerontological nurse receives education and training to care for older adults, assuring the nursing home and the public that the nurse has mastered the specialized skills and knowledge to care for older adults according to gerontological nursing standards. A nurse educated in a certified college does not necessarily have specialty education and training in gerontology. A nurse with 15-years experience might have no experience with gerontology and offers no proof of specialized knowledge or skills. Although a gerontological nurse practitioner receives specialized education and training in gerontology, these nurses provide primary care in a nursing home.

PTS:1DIF:ApplyREF:9

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Safe, Effective Care Environment

9. Mezey and Fulmer (2002) justify gerontological nursing research and the work of gerontological advanced practice nurses by concluding the following:

a.

Other scientists devalue gerontological nursing research.

b.

The research influences outcomes from nursing care in a positive way.

c.

Gerontological care is expensive but required in long-term care.

d.

Gerontological nursing research is well known to practicing nurses.

ANS: B

The practices of advanced practice nurses, who base their practice on nursing research, have resulted in positive older adult outcomes and cost effectiveness. The scientific community widely accepts the research. Advanced practice nurses generate positive outcomes and are cost effective in many settings. Mezey and Fulmer believe the goal of gerontological nursing is to disseminate the knowledge from gerontological nursing research to all nurses and to have the knowledge applied to their practices.

PTS: 1 DIF: Understand REF: 16 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. The gerontological nurse collaborates with the wound care team about an older patient who has an ulcer. How is this nurse demonstrating leadership in the care of older people?

a.

Assessing older adults effectively

b.

Facilitating access to elder care programs

c.

Coordinating members of the health care team

d.

Empowering older adults to manage chronic illness

ANS: C

The nurse demonstrates leadership in the care of older adults by initiating and coordinating collaboration with the wound care team to improve the health of an older adult. Screening and assessing are only indirectly related to collaboration. In this case, the nurses collaborative efforts are unrelated to facilitating access to a program. Thus far, the nurse has not educated or trained this patient in wound care.

PTS: 1 DIF: Apply REF: 8-9 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:Health Promotion and Maintenance

11. Several organizations collaborated in 2001 to publish Scope and Standards of Gerontological Nursing Practice by the ANA. What is the significance of the collaborative effort to gerontological nurses?

a.

Changes the health care delivery to increasing numbers of older adults

b.

Mandates gerontological certification for nurses who care for older adults

c.

Standardizes gerontological nursing practice among various organizations

d.

Ensures minimum gerontological competencies for all graduating students

ANS: C

Various gerontological nursing organizations collaborated to define the criteria for gerontological nursing practice, demonstrating an agreement among the various organizations on these standards. The collaboration among multiple organizations potentially improves the quality of gerontological nursing care as the number of older adults grows. This document establishes the criteria for gerontological nursing practice.

To improve the health care to older adults, all graduating students should master minimum competencies in gerontological nursing; however, many students continue to receive little specialty training and education in the care of older adults.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze REF: 5 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Safe, Effective Care Environment

12. Which had a major influence in shifting the care of older adults away from almshouses and public institutions and stimulated the growth of commercial nursing homes?

a.

Medicare

b.

Social Security Act

c.

Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing

d.

Health maintenance organizations (HMOs)

ANS: B

With the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935, federal monies were provided for old-age insurance and public assistance for needy older people not covered by insurance. To combat the fear of almshouse placement, Congress stipulated that the Social Security funds could not be used to pay for care in almshouses or other public institutions. This move is thought to have been the genesis of commercial nursing homes. During the next 10 years, many almshouses closed, and the number of private boarding homes providing care to older adults increased. Because retired and widowed nurses often converted their homes into such living quarters and gave care when their boarders became ill, they can be considered the first geriatric nurses and their homes to be the first nursing homes. The Hartford Institute has sponsored significant improvements in gerontological nursing practice, research, and education. HMOs have had a significant impact on the management of care but were virtually nonexistent in the 1930s and 1940s.

PTS:1DIF:UnderstandREF:4

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

13. Which gerontological organization had a significant influence on the care of older adults?

a.

American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)

b.

John Hartford Foundation

c.

Medicare

d.

Mutual of Omaha Insurance

ANS: B

The most significant influence in enhancing gerontological nursing has been the work of the Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing, funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation. The foundation seeks to shape the quality of the nations health care for older Americans by promoting geriatric nursing excellence to both the nursing profession and the larger health care community. Initiatives in nursing education, nursing practice, nursing research, and nursing policy include enhancing geriatrics in nursing education programs through curricular reform and faculty development and the development of nine Centers of Geriatric Nursing Excellence. AARP is a foundation that helps struggling seniors by being a force for change on the most serious issues they face today. Medicare is a national social insurance program, administered by the U.S. federal government since 1965, that guarantees access to health insurance for Americans ages 65 years and older and younger people with disabilities. Mutual of Omaha is a Fortune 500 mutual insurance and financial services company based in Omaha, Nebraska.

PTS:1DIF:RememberREF:5

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Safe, Effective Care Environment

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. In which areas have advanced practice nurses demonstrated their skill in improving? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Health outcomes

b.

Length of stay

c.

Cost effectiveness

d.

Reimbursement measures

e.

Interprofessional communication

ANS: A, C

Advanced practice nurses have demonstrated their skill in improving health outcomes and cost effectiveness. Many of these advanced practice nurses have nursing facility practices managing complex care of frail older adults in collaboration with interprofessional teams. This role is well established, and positive outcomes include increased patient and family satisfaction, decreased costs, less frequent hospitalizations and emergency department visits, and improved quality of care. Reimbursement measures and interprofessional communication have not been identified as areas that advanced practice nurses have demonstrated their skill in improving.

PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: 10 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Safe, Effective Care Environment

2. Identify future directions for gerontological nursing research as suggested by Wykle and Tappen. (Select all that apply.)

a.

Interdisciplinary practice models

b.

Intergenerational caregiving

c.

Health disparities

d.

Influence of culture on aging

e.

Long-term care initiatives

ANS: A, B, C, D

The following have been identified for future directions for gerontological nursing research according to Wykle and Tappen: interdisciplinary practice models, intergenerational caregiving, health disparities, and the influence of culture on aging. Long-term care initiatives have not been identified as a future direction for nursing research.

PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: 27 Box 2-3 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Safe, Effective Care Environment

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