Chapter 1(FREE) My Nursing Test Banks

DAmico/Barbarito Health & Physical Assessment in Nursing, 2/e
Chapter 1

Question 1

Type: MCSA

The nurse is obtaining a health history from a client who reports that he is healthy and has no health concerns. As part of the health history, the nurse documents that the client reported that he has high blood pressure and suffers from a leg ulcer that remains unhealed after 6 months. Which of the following statements would be the best choice for the nurse to use at this point in the interview?

1. I feel that you may be in denial about your health status.

2. Tell me about your definition of being healthy.

3. Do you understand what hypertension is?

4. Is there anything else you are not telling me?

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: More information would be needed before the nurse could attribute the clients viewpoint as denial or lack of knowledge.

Rationale 2: A client will have his or her own definition of health, illness, and wellness. The individuals concept of health and wellness is influenced by many factors, including age, gender, race, family, culture, religion, socioeconomic conditions, environment, previous experiences, and self-expectations.

Rationale 3: The clients history of hypertension is a valid area requiring further investigation but the nurse must first ascertain the clients definition of healthy.

Rationale 4: There is not enough information to determine the clients withholding of information to the nurse.

Global Rationale: A client will have his or her own definition of health, illness, and wellness. The individuals concept of health and wellness is influenced by many factors, including age, gender, race, family, culture, religion, socioeconomic conditions, environment, previous experiences, and self-expectations. More information would be needed before the nurse could attribute the clients viewpoint as denial or lack of knowledge. The clients history of hypertension is a valid area requiring further investigation but the nurse must first ascertain the clients definition of healthy. There is also not enough information to determine the clients withholding of information to the nurse.

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.4: Identify the factors to consider in health assessment

Question 2

Type: MCSA

The nurse is documenting in the clients medical record and wishes to use SOAP charting. The nurse includes which of the following under the assessment category?

1. The clients blood pressure was 177/93.

2. The recent loss of employment and insurance have prevented the client from being able to afford prescription medications.

3. The client reports having lost her job and insurance 3 months ago.

4. Referrals have been made to social services to determine financial assistance programs available.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: This is the O component, objective data.

Rationale 2: The A component of the SOAP note refers to conclusions drawn from the subjective and objective data obtained.

Rationale 3: This is subjective data.

Rationale 4: This is the P component, plan.

Global Rationale: The A component of the SOAP note refers to conclusions drawn from the subjective and objective data obtained. The clients recent loss of employment and the potential that this was a contributing factor in the inability to afford medications is an example of a conclusion. The clients reported blood pressure would be an example of objective data. Objective data is information that can be measured by the examiner. Blood pressure is not an example of subjective information nor is it a conclusion. The clients reported loss of employment and insurance is an example of subjective data. The statement does not include conclusions as to the results of these events. Making referrals to social services is an example of an intervention. It is not a conclusion.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.4: Identify the factors to consider in health assessment.

Question 3

Type: MCSA

The nurse is presenting a workshop on wellness and health promotion and the initiatives of Healthy People 2020 as a resource for this topic. After the session, which of the following statements by a participant indicates an understanding concerning the initiatives proposed?

1. It will allow health care providers to lobby legislators for more funding.

2. The primary goal of Healthy People 2020 is to assist health care providers in determining risk factors for premature birth.

3. Healthy People 2020 seeks to promotes health, prevent illness, disability, and premature death.

4. The initiatives will outline standards of care for providers in managing diseases.

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Health care providers and other persons interested in programs to promote health have found the document to be a useful source of information in their efforts to gain funding.

Rationale 2: The Healthy People 2020 initiative is a 10-year strategy intended to promote health, prevent illness, disability, and premature death. The document identifies leading health indicators that reflect public health concerns. Risk factors for premature birth may be part of those health indicators, but the scope of the document covers broad areas of concern.

Rationale 3: The Healthy People 2020 initiative is a 10-year strategy intended to promote health, prevent illness, disability, and premature death.

Rationale 4: Standards of care in disease management is not a component of the document.

Global Rationale: The Healthy People 2020 initiative is a 10-year strategy intended to promote health, prevent illness, disability, and premature death. The document identifies leading health indicators that reflect public health concerns. Risk factors for premature birth may be part of those health indicators, but the scope of the document covers broad areas of concern. Health care providers and other persons interested in programs to promote health have found the document to be a useful source of information in their efforts to gain funding. Standards of care in disease management is not a component of the document.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.2: Discuss the importance of Healthy People 2020 and its relevance to health assessment.

Question 4

Type: MCSA

The nurse is developing a handout for clients in a healthcare providers office. The nurse would include which of the following focus areas in this handout to emphasize current changes in the health care delivery system?

1. Class recommendations for diabetics concerning insulin administration A2.Guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control outlining plans to manage outbreaks of disease, eradicating the use of toxins

2. Guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control outlining plans to manage outbreaks of disease, eradicating the use of toxins

3. Resources available to treat chronic pain

4. Class listings for exercise classes available in the community

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Symptom management, illness care, and pain management are addressed by the health care delivery system but are not the primary focus, as clients are taking a more active role in managing their own care.

Rationale 2: Management of outbreaks of disease is a function of governmental organizations and health care providers in the community, but is not a focus of individual care.

Rationale 3: Symptom management, illness care, and pain management are addressed by the health care delivery system but are not the primary focus, as clients are taking a more active role in managing their own care.

Rationale 4: The focus of health care in the United States today is wellness, prevention of disease, health promotion and health maintenance, for which a listing of exercise classes is appropriate.

Global Rationale: The focus of health care in the United States today is wellness, prevention of disease, health promotion, and health maintenance, for which a listing of exercise classes is appropriate. Symptom management, illness care, and pain management are addressed by the health care delivery system but are not the primary focus, as clients are taking a more active role in managing their own care. Management of outbreaks of disease is a function of governmental organizations and health care providers in the community, but is not a focus of individual care.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1.8: Discuss the elements of a teaching plan.

Question 5

Type: MCSA

The nurse is admitting a client to the acute care facility. The health history form has a place for recording subjective data. The nurse understands that primary subjective data should be obtained from which of the following sources?

1. The clients physical assessment

2. The clients self-reports

3. The clients healthcare provider

4. The clients significant other

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: The physical assessment will be recorded as objective data.

Rationale 2: Subjective data are gathered from the interview. The interview includes the health history and focused interview. Data will come from primary and secondary sources.

Rationale 3: The clients healthcare provider and significant other may contribute in the data collection process. The information obtained from friends and family members is considered subjective. This source of information is termed secondary.

Rationale 4: The clients significant other may contribute in the data collection process but that input is classified as subjective.

Global Rationale: Subjective data are gathered from the interview. The interview includes the health history and focused interview. Data will come from primary and secondary sources. The client is considered the primary source of subjective information. Family members and healthcare providers are examples of secondary sources of subjective information. The physical assessment will be recorded as objective data.

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.7: Describe the role of the professional nurse in health assessment.

Question 6

Type: MCSA

The nurse is reviewing a clients medical records and notes various forms of information. The nurse understands that which of the following are subjective data?

1. The client states, My abdomen hurts on the left side after eating.

2. The nurse notes the clients abdomen is tender on the left side during palpation.

3. The CAT scan reveals a large mass in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen.

4. The clients hemoglobin is 14.1 gm/dL.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Subjective reports by the client are those feelings or symptoms that cannot be observed by others, of which My abdomen hurts is an example.

Rationale 2: Physical examination findings, laboratory analysis reports and radiographic findings are objective data.

Rationale 3: Physical examination findings, laboratory analysis reports and radiographic findings are objective data.

Rationale 4: Physical examination findings, laboratory analysis reports and radiographic findings are objective data.

Global Rationale: Subjective reports by the client are those feelings or symptoms that cannot be observed by others. Objective reports are those factors that are based upon observations of others. Physical examination findings, laboratory analysis reports, and radiographic findings are objective data.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.4: Identify the factors to consider in health assessment.

Question 7

Type: MCSA

The nurse is reviewing a clients medical records and notes various information. The nurse understands that which of the following is an example of objective data?

1. I hurt my head.

2. I am 6 years old and Im here because I fell.

3. Six-year-old Hispanic female sitting on examination table holding a towel to her forehead.

4. Client states that she fell at the playground.

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Statements the client makes are subjective data.

Rationale 2: Statements the client makes are subjective data.

Rationale 3: Objective data are data that can be observed or measured by the nurse. The nurse can see the child holding the towel to her head and can use her birth date to determine her age.

Rationale 4: Statements the client makes are subjective data.

Global Rationale: Objective data are data that can be observed or measured by the nurse. The nurse can see the child holding the towel to her head and can use her birth date to determine her age. Statements the client makes are subjective data.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.4: Identify the factors to consider in health assessment.

Question 8

Type: MCSA

The nurse is evaluating the plan of care and notes that none of the goals have been met for the client with impaired gas exchange. What should the nurse do next in this situation?

1. Report the lack of achievement of the goals to the healthcare provider.

2. Review the data and modify the plan.

3. Reformulate the nursing diagnosis to a more realistic one.

4. Request a consult for the client to be seen by a pulmonologist.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Reporting the lack of achievement of the goals to the healthcare provider is not appropriate, though reporting undesirable client physiologic responses may be.

Rationale 2: The plan of care should be evaluated periodically, at the established time frames, to determine achievement of the goals. If goals are not achieved, then the data need to be further assessed and the plan modified.

Rationale 3: Reformulating the nursing diagnosis to a more realistic one is not the best course of action as the diagnosis established came from subjective and objective data specific to that diagnosis.

Rationale 4: There are no data to support the need for additional medical consultations.

Global Rationale: The plan of care should be evaluated periodically, at the established time frames, to determine achievement of the goals. If goals are not achieved, then the data need to be further assessed and the plan modified. Reporting the lack of achievement of the goals to the healthcare provider is not appropriate, though reporting undesirable client physiologic responses may be. Reformulating the nursing diagnosis to a more realistic one is not the best course of action as the diagnosis established came from subjective and objective data specific to that diagnosis. There are no data to support the need for additional medical consultations.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 1.5: Define the steps of the nursing process.

Question 9

Type: MCSA

The community health nurse is preparing to conduct a program for a group of nursing students concerning health and wellness. Which of the following statements by a participant indicates the most comprehensive and accurate understanding of health?

1. Health is the absence of illness, disease, and symptoms.

2. Health is a state of well-being and the use of every power the person possesses to the fullest extent.

3. Health is the state when a person is viewed as a holistic being.

4. Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Health is much more than the absence of illness and disease.

Rationale 2: Defining health as a state of well-being is limiting as it does not encompass the elements of an individuals being such as physical, mental, and social.

Rationale 3: While health does require a holistic approach, this definition does not explore the elements with the same clarity of the correct answer.

Rationale 4: Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being (WHO, 1947).

Global Rationale: Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being (WHO, 1947). Health is much more than the absence of illness and disease. Defining health as a state of well-being is limiting as it does not encompass the elements of an individuals being such as physical, mental, and social. While health does require a holistic approach, this definition does not explore the elements with the same clarity of the correct answer.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 1.1: Discuss the various definitions of health.

Question 10

Type: MCSA

The nurse is caring for a client who is recovering from abdominal surgery. When determining the best goal statement for the client concerning level of pain, which of the following is most appropriate?

1. The client will verbalize pain relief using an intensity rating in 4 hours.

2. The client will state that he feels fine in 4 hours.

3. The nurse will observe fewer signs of pain in the clients demeanor.

4. The nurse will reevaluate the clients pain level every 2 hours.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The goal statement is directly related to the nursing diagnosis. Goal statements are stated in a positive fashion, and have measurable criteria.

Rationale 2: This statement is not related directly related to the diagnosis and is not measurable.

Rationale 3: A goal statement must be reflective of client activities. This is an incorrect answer because it reflects activities of the nurse and not the client.

Rationale 4: A goal statement must be reflective of the clients activities. This is an incorrect answer because it reflects activities of the nurse and is not client directed. Although there is a time frame listed it is not correct as it is related to nursing actions.

Global Rationale: The goal statement is directly related to the nursing diagnosis. Goal statements are stated in a positive fashion, and have measurable criteria. Verbalization of the client of pain relief using a rating scale within a specified time period is an appropriately formatted, measurable statement. Statements by the client indicating he is feeling fine is not reflective of a measurable criteria. Statements indicating actions by the nurse are not correctly formatted goals for the client.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1.5: Define the steps of the nursing process.

Question 11

Type: MCSA

The nurse is developing the plan of care for a client who is recovering from abdominal surgery. When planning interventions the nurse recognizes which of the following will best meet the needs of the client experiencing pain?

1. The healthcare provider will prescribe additional analgesics.

2. The client will have reduced pain after administration of analgesics.

3. The client will vocalize reduced levels of pain within 3 hours.

4. Assist the client with guided imagery to manage pain levels.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: The prescribing of additional analgesics does not determine the characteristics of the pain and does not offer patient-driven information.

Rationale 2: This is a goal statement, not an intervention.

Rationale 3: This is a goal statement, not an intervention.

Rationale 4: Nursing interventions, such as assisting the client with guided imagery, are geared to assist in meeting client goals. The interventions are derived from the second part of the diagnosis, which is the etiology. The defining characteristics provide the background support for the diagnosis. The diagnostic label is global and requires specification before attempting to determine a goal. The clients stated wishes are an important component of planning, and may be included in the list of interventions as appropriate. The interventions are based upon nursing actions.

Global Rationale: Nursing interventions are geared to assist in meeting client goals. The interventions are derived from the second part of the diagnosis, which is the etiology. The defining characteristics provide the background support for the diagnosis. The diagnostic label is global and requires specification before attempting to determine a goal. The clients stated wishes are an important component of planning, and may be included in the list of interventions as appropriate. The interventions are based upon nursing actions. The prescribing of additional analgesics does not determine the characteristics of the pain and does not offer patient driven information. The reduction of pain and vocalization of pain levels within 3 hours are goal statements, not interventions.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1.6: Describe the critical thinking process with relevance to health assessment.

Question 12

Type: MCSA

The nursing instructor is discussing Healthy People 2020 with a group of nursing students. One of the students questions the instructor how this work will impact hospitalization. The best response by the nursing instructor would be:

1. Healthy People 2020 is a tool for the healthcare providers to offer information to their clients.

2. Healthy People 2020 seeks to improve health and prevent illness, disability, and premature death.

3. The purpose of Healthy People 2020 is to reduce health care costs for hospitalized clients.

4. Healthy People 2020 is seen as a tool by hospitals to reduce length of stay.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Healthy People 2020 is a resource tool for all health care professionals but its purpose is not to provide patient education between the healthcare provider and client.

Rationale 2: Healthy People 2020 presents a 10-year strategy with objectives intended to enhance health and prevent illness, disability, and premature death.

Rationale 3: Reduction of hospital costs is the not the primary purpose of Healthy People 2020.

Rationale 4: Reduction of length of stay is the not the primary purpose of Healthy People 2020.

Global Rationale: Healthy People 2020 presents a 10-year strategy with objectives intended to enhance health and prevent illness, disability, and premature death. Healthy People 2020 is a resource tool for all health care professionals but its purpose is not to provide patient education between the healthcare provider and client. Reduction of hospital costs is the not the primary purpose of Healthy People 2020.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 1.2: Discuss the importance of Healthy People 2020.

Question 13

Type: MCSA

The recent graduate nurse is orienting to the medical surgical care unit. The graduate nurse has prepared a nursing care plan for a client admitted for exacerbation of ulcerative colitis. The goal statement is, The client will resume normal bowel elimination patterns. The graduate nurse has asked the charge nurse to review the care plan. What action by the charge nurse is indicated?

1. Express to the new nurse that the goal statement meets criteria.

2. Explain to the new nurse that the lack of time frame makes the goal inappropriate.

3. Express to the new nurse that the goal statement is not reflective of the clients admitting diagnosis.

4. Accept the care plan for inclusion into the clients medical record as it is accurate.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: This goal statement does not meet criteria as it lacks a time frame.

Rationale 2: Time frames are an important component of goal statements and provide guidelines for when to evaluate the achievement of the goal.

Rationale 3: The defining characteristics of the diagnosis and the etiology of the diagnosis are components of the diagnostic statement.

Rationale 4: This goal statement does not meet criteria as it lacks a time frame.

Global Rationale: This goal statement does not meet criteria as it lacks a time frame. Time frames are an important component of goal statements and provide guidelines for when to evaluate the achievement of the goal. The defining characteristics of the diagnosis and the etiology of the diagnosis are components of the diagnostic statement. The nurses role in achieving the goal is not a component of the goal statement.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 1.5: Define the steps of the nursing process.

Question 14

Type: MCMA

The nurse is caring for a newly admitted client with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA). Which of the following are appropriate goals of the initial health assessment?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Determine the clients current state of health and ongoing health-promotion activities.

2. Predict risks to current health status.

3. Use only objective data to determine client allergies.

4. Determine how frequently the client is able to change positions.

5. Identify health-promoting activities.

Correct Answer: 1,5

Rationale 1: Determine the clients current state of health and ongoing health-promotion activities: Health assessment goals are to determine the clients current state of health and ongoing health-promotion activities.

Rationale 2: Predict risks to current health status: Health assessment activities are used to predict risks to health, and identify health status both current and future. This includes physical, social, cultural, environmental, and emotional factors including wellness behaviors, illness signs and symptoms, client strengths and weaknesses, and risk factors.

Rationale 3: Use only objective data to determine client allergies. The initial health assessment includes both objective and subjective information.

Rationale 4: Determine how frequently the client is able to change positions. The initial health assessment includes both objective and subjective information and seeks to determine the potential an individual has to implement health-promoting activities. Health assessment activities are used to predict risks to health, and identify health status. This includes physical, social, cultural, environmental, and emotional factors including wellness behaviors, illness signs and symptoms, client strengths and weaknesses, and risk factors. The ability of the client to change positions is not a part of the initial health assessment. .

Rationale 5: Identify health-promoting activities. The health assessment seeks to determine the potential an individual has to implement health-promoting activities.

Global Rationale: Health assessment goals are to determine the clients current state of health and ongoing health-promotion activities. The initial health assessment includes both objective and subjective information and seeks to determine the potential an individual has to implement health-promoting activities. Health assessment activities are used to predict risks to health, and identify health status. This includes physical, social, cultural, environmental, and emotional factors including wellness behaviors, illness signs and symptoms, client strengths and weaknesses, and risk factors. The initial health assessment does not include using objective data to determine client allergies and is not part of the initial health assessment.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.5: Define the steps of the nursing process.

Question 15

Type: MCSA

While the nurse assesses a client who is hospitalized for an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the client becomes very short of breath. The nurse recognizes the need to stop the assessment to initiate respiratory support interventions. This is an example of which phase of critical thinking?

1. Collection of information

2. Evaluation

3. Generation of alternatives

4. Analysis of the situation

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Collection of information is the initial step in the process. During this phase the nurse will assess available information.

Rationale 2: Evaluation is the final step in the process. During evaluation the nurse will determine the effectiveness of actions taken.

Rationale 3: When generating alternatives for action the nurse will use critical thinking skills to determine available options for action.

Rationale 4: The nurse in the scenario will need to employ assessment skills to review and analyze the situation. The analysis will provide the nurse with the understanding of what the best plan of action will be.

Global Rationale: The nurse in the scenario will need to employ assessment skills to review and analyze the situation. The analysis will provide the nurse with the understanding of what the best plan of action will be. Collection of information is the initial step in the process. During this phase the nurse will assess available information. Evaluation is the final step in the process. During evaluation the nurse will determine the effectiveness of actions taken. When generating alternatives for action the nurse will use critical thinking skills to determine available options for action.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 1.6: Describe the critical thinking process with relevance to health assessment.

Question 16

Type: MCMA

The nurse is completing an admission assessment. The assessment form allows for the separation of subjective and objective data. Distinguish which of the following are examples of subjective data utilized by the nurse.

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. The clients mother informs the nurse that her daughter has not been sleeping due to pain.

2. The client states, I have pain in my belly that is 7 out of 10.

3. Abdominal assessment reveals a firm, hard abdomen.

4. The client is weak and looks very pale.

5. The client appears nervous during the data collection period.

Correct Answer: 1,2

Rationale 1: The clients mother informs the nurse that her daughter has not been sleeping due to pain. Subjective data is information the client experiences and communicates to the nurse. This information can be provided by either the client or other individuals.

Rationale 2: The client states, I have pain in my belly that is 7 out of 10. Subjective data is information the client experiences and communicates to the nurse.

Rationale 3: Abdominal assessment reveals a firm, hard abdomen. Data that are observed by the examiner are termed objective data.

Rationale 4: The client is weak and looks very pale. Data that are observed by the examiner are termed objective data.

Rationale 5: The client appears nervous during the data collection period. Data that are observed by the examiner are termed objective data.

Global Rationale: Subjective data is information the client experiences and communicates to the nurse. This information can be provided by either the client or other individuals. Primary subjective data is information the client experiences and communicates to the nurse. Information provided by family is also considered subjective but is termed secondary. Assessment data that are observed by the examiner are termed objective data. Reports by the clients mother are considered secondary subjective information. The statements made by the client are referred to as primary subjective data. The characteristics of the abdomen, the clients strength level, color, and psychosocial assessment are termed objective data.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.4: Identify the factors to consider in health assessment.

Question 17

Type: MCSA

A client with hepatitis B is admitted to the hospital. When obtaining the physical assessment, what should the nurse keep in mind regarding client confidentiality?

1. Confidentiality means that information sharing is limited to those directly involved in the client care.

2. Complete client confidentiality means that all members of the health care team may have access to the chart.

3. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) helps to maintain client confidentiality and dictates who is to be communicating with the client.

4. The medical records are open to any hospital employee, including administration.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Confidentiality means that information sharing is limited to those directly involved in the client care.

Rationale 2: Not all members of the health care team have access to the chart, only those who are directly caring for the client.

Rationale 3: The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) does not dictate who is allowed to communicate with the client.

Rationale 4: The medical records are open to any hospital employee, including administration.

Global Rationale: Confidentiality means that information sharing is limited to those directly involved in the client care. Not all members of the health care team have access to the chart, only those who are directly caring for the client. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) does not dictate who is allowed to communicate with the client. Hospital records are open only to those directly related to the care of the client.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.7 Describe the role of the professional nurse in health assessment.

Question 18

Type: MCSA

The charge nurse is discussing with the new graduate nurse the care planning process for clients admitted to the unit. The graduate nurse correctly identifies the order of the steps of the nursing process as:

1. Diagnosis, Assessment, Planning, Implementation, Evaluation

2. Assessment, Diagnosis, Planning, Implementation, Evaluation

3. Planning, Assessment, Diagnosis, Implementation, Evaluation

4. Assessment, Planning, Diagnosis, Implementation, Evaluation

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: The nursing process is a systematic, rational, dynamic, and cyclic process used by the nurse for planning and providing care for the client. The assessment phase, step 1, involves the collection of data. Step 2 of the nursing process is diagnosis. Step 3 of the process is planning. Implementation is step 4. The final stage in the process, step 5, is evaluation.

Rationale 2: The nursing process is a systematic, rational, dynamic, and cyclic process used by the nurse for planning and providing care for the client. The assessment phase, step 1, involves the collection of data. Step 2 of the nursing process is diagnosis. Step 3 of the process is planning. Implementation is step 4. The final stage in the process, step 5, is evaluation.

Rationale 3: The nursing process is a systematic, rational, dynamic, and cyclic process used by the nurse for planning and providing care for the client. The assessment phase, step 1, involves the collection of data. Step 2 of the nursing process is diagnosis. Step 3 of the process is planning. Implementation is step 4. The final stage in the process, step 5, is evaluation.

Rationale 4: The nursing process is a systematic, rational, dynamic, and cyclic process used by the nurse for planning and providing care for the client. The assessment phase, step 1, involves the collection of data. Step 2 of the nursing process is diagnosis. Step 3 of the process is planning. Implementation is step 4. The final stage in the process, step 5, is evaluation.

Global Rationale: The nursing process is a systematic, rational, dynamic, and cyclic process used by the nurse for planning and providing care for the client. The assessment phase, step 1, involves the collection of data. Step 2 of the nursing process is diagnosis. The nurse uses critical thinking and applies knowledge from the sciences and other disciplines to analyze and synthesize the data. Similar data is clustered together and become the basis for the nursing diagnosis. Step 3 of the process is planning. During the planning phase the nurse sets the course for the care to be delivered. Implementation is the fourth step. During the implementation phase, step 4, the care is delivered. The final stage in the process, step 5, is evaluation. The professional nurse compares the present client status to achievement of the stated goals or outcomes. At this time the nurse will need to modify the nursing care plan.

Cognitive Level: Remembering

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 1.6: Define the steps of the nursing process.

Question 19

Type: MCSA

A client is hospitalized with end stage liver failure secondary to many years of alcoholism. The nurse begins collection of information by first:

1. Organizing how to proceed with the client and generating alternatives to the approach.

2. Identifying assumptions that can misguide or misdirect the assessment and intervention process.

3. Collecting information and determining its relevance as far as impacting the client care.

4. Identifying any inconsistencies in the communication from the client and or significant others.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Organizing how to proceed with the client occurs after identification of assumptions.

Rationale 2: The process of data collection involves a systematic approach. The first step in the process involves the identification of assumptions. Assumptions may misguide or misdirect the process of assessment and intervention.

Rationale 3: Collecting information and determining its relevance occurs after identification of assumptions.

Rationale 4: Identifying any inconsistencies in communication occurs after identification of assumptions.

Global Rationale: The process of data collection involves a systematic approach. The first step in the process involves the identification of assumptions. Assumptions may misguide or misdirect the process of assessment and intervention. Additional steps in the process, in order, include organizing the approach, determining the reliability and accuracy of the information, distinguishing between relevant and irrelevant information, and looking for any inconsistencies in the information.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.3: Define health assessment.

Question 20

Type: MCSA

The nurse is preparing a teaching plan for a client diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. When developing the teaching plan the nurse addresses objectives in the psychomotor domain. Which of the following objectives best meets this criteria?

1. The client will discuss measures to take when experiencing the feeling of low blood glucose levels.

2. The client will describe signs and symptoms of low blood sugar.

3. The client will demonstrate how to draw up the correct dose of insulin.

4. The client will define the dimensions of diabetes mellitus.

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Cognitive objectives include those concerning the acquisition of knowledge. The clients understanding of actions to take when experiencing low blood glucose levels is an example of a cognitive domain.

Rationale 2: The identification of the signs and symptoms of low blood sugar are reflective of the cognitive domain.

Rationale 3: The demonstration of skills such as drawing up insulin is reflective of the psychomotor domain.

Rationale 4: Defining the dimensions of diabetes mellitus is consistent with the cognitive domain.

Global Rationale: In the teaching plan the objectives identify specific, measurable behaviors or activities expected of the client. Action verbs may be from the cognitive, affective, or psychomotor domain. The demonstration of skills such as drawing up insulin is reflective of the psychomotor domain. Psychomotor objectives include the acquisition of skills. The affective domain refers to attitudes, feelings, values, and opinions. The identification of the signs and symptoms of low blood sugar are reflective of the cognitive domain. Cognitive objectives include those concerning the acquisition of knowledge.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 1.4: Identify the factors to consider in health assessment.

Question 21

Type: MCSA

Which of the following statements best describes the active role of the professional nurse as an educator?

1. Nurses must consider learning needs, goals, objectives, content, teaching methods, and evaluation when carrying out client education.

2. Teaching plans are developed for informal teaching when distinct needs are identified or when common needs are recognized.

3. In the role of educator, the nurse should refer the client to other health care providers who specialize in the area of need.

4. Teaching is to be delegated to the advanced practice nurse specialist or the nurse educator.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Roles of the professional nurse include teacher, both formal and informal, caregiver, and client advocate.

Rationale 2: Informal teaching does not involve teaching plans.

Rationale 3: Roles of the professional nurse include teacher, both formal and informal, caregiver, and client advocate.

Rationale 4: Teaching is often done in collaboration with the advanced practice nurse specialist or the nurse educator. Nurses at the bedside also must share the role of client educator.

Global Rationale: Roles of the professional nurse include teacher, both formal and informal, caregiver, and client advocate. The professional nurse may also have advanced practice roles. Informal teaching does not involve teaching plans. Teaching is often done in collaboration with the advanced practice nurse specialist or the nurse educator. Nurses at the bedside also must share the role of client educator.

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1.7: Describe the role of the professional nurse in health assessment.

Question 22

Type: MCSA

The charge nurse has instructed the nurse to complete a focused interview on the client who has just been admitted to the facility with complaints consistent with kidney stones. Which of the following actions by the nurse indicates the best understanding of the assignment?

1. The nurse obtains a urine sample to send for a urinalysis.

2. The nurse takes the clients vital signs.

3. The nurse questions the client about dietary preferences.

4. The nurse asks the client about the characteristics of the pain being experienced.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: The client may need to have a urine specimen that does not directly relate to determining more information about the chief complaints of the client.

Rationale 2: 2. The client vital signs will be taken but they do not directly relate to determining more information about the chief complaints of the client.

Rationale 3: Dietary preferences of clients are recorded but are not a part of the focused assessment.

Rationale 4: The focused interview is used to allow for clarification of information from the initial interview. The goal of the focused interview is to expand the information available.

Global Rationale: The focused interview is used to allow for clarification of information from the initial interview. The goal of the focused interview is to expand the information available. The client may need to have a urine specimen and will need vital signs taken but they do not directly relate to determining more information about the chief complaints of the client. Dietary preferences of clients are recorded but are not a part of the focused assessment.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.4: Identify the factors to consider in health assessment.

Question 23

Type: MCSA

A female client has been admitted to the acute care unit with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. During the interview the nurse determines the clients history includes pelvic inflammatory disease, mitral valve prolapse, and childbirth. The assessment finds the clients vital signs to be within normal limits. When analyzing the available data, what items should be clustered together?

1. Vital signs, complaints of pain history of childbirth

2. Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and history of pelvic inflammatory disease

3. Gender, history of mitral valve prolapse, and vital signs

4. History of pelvic inflammatory disease, mitral valve prolapse, and pain scale reports

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: The analysis of assessment data includes clustering or grouping related pieces of information. There is no obvious relationship between these pieces of information.

Rationale 2: The analysis of assessment data includes clustering or grouping related pieces of information. The clients complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and history of pelvic inflammatory disease are interrelated items.

Rationale 3: The analysis of assessment data includes clustering or grouping related pieces of information. There is no obvious relationship among these pieces of information.

Rationale 4: The analysis of assessment data includes clustering or grouping related pieces of information. There is no obvious relationship among these pieces of information.

Global Rationale: The analysis of assessment data includes clustering or grouping related pieces of information. The clients complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and history of pelvic inflammatory disease are interrelated items. There is no obvious relationship between the remaining pieces of information.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.6: Describe the critical thinking process with relevance to health assessment.

Question 24

Type: MCMA

The nurse is preparing the care plan for a client who has undergone an abdominal hysterectomy to manage endometriosis. When reviewing goal statements, which of the following reflect the need for further development?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. The nurse will assess the vital signs every 2 hours.

2. The client will walk Q2h on the first postoperative day.

3. The client will report feeling better.

4. The client will begin a clear liquid diet on the first postoperative day.

5. The healthcare provider will prescribe oral analgesics on the first postoperative day.

Correct Answer: 1,3,5

Rationale 1: The nurse will assess the vital signs every 2 hours. Goal statements are used to provide planned outcomes for the client. Goal statements must be measurable and are reflective of client activities. This statement reflects actions of the nurse, not the client.

Rationale 2: The client will walk Q2h on the first postoperative day. The goal statement is used to provide planned outcomes for the client. Goal statements must be measurable and reflective of client activities. All elements needed for an appropriate goal statement are represented.

Rationale 3: The client will report feeling better. Goal statements must be measurable and reflective of client activities. This statement is vague and does not provide a definitive means for measurement.

Rationale 4: The client will begin a clear liquid diet on the first postpartum day. Goal statements are used to provide planned client outcomes. This statement contains the needed elements for a successful goal statement.

Rationale 5: The healthcare provider will prescribe oral analgesics on the first postoperative day. This statement is not a client-centered goal statement. This statement reflects an intervention performed by the healthcare provider.

Global Rationale: Goal statements are used to provide planned outcomes for the client. Goal statements must be measurable and are reflective of client activities. The only statement reflecting these criteria is that the client will walk Q2h on the first postoperative day. Statements reflecting actions of the nurse or healthcare provider are not goal statements. Vague statements such as feeling better are not measurable. The statement that the client will begin a clear liquid diet on the first postoperative day contains the needed elements for a successful goal statement.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 1.5: Define the steps of the nursing process.

Question 25

Type: MCSA

The community health nurse is preparing a program about health maintenance. The nurse has decided to use the Leavall and Clark model as the framework for the programming. Which of the following program objectives best explain the concepts presented by this model?

1. The participants will recognize health as the absence of disease.

2. The participants will verbalize the role of self-actualization achievement in relation to health.

3. The participants will define health as the interrelationships between the agent, host, and the environment.

4. Internal harmony is the foundational basis for health achievement.

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: The absence of disease and internal harmony are not specific independent models for health.

Rationale 2: Self-actualization and health are explored in the eudaemonistic model for health.

Rationale 3: Leavall and Clark developed the ecologic model for health. This model considers the relationship between the agent, host, and environment as the key determinants for health status.

Rationale 4: The absence of disease and internal harmony are not specific independent models for health.

Global Rationale: Leavall and Clark developed the ecologic model for health. This model considers the relationship between the agent, host, and environment as the key determinants for health status. Self-actualization and health are explored in the eudaemonistic model for health. The absence of disease and internal harmony are not specific independent models for health.

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1.1 Discuss the various definitions of health.

Question 26

Type: MCSA

The nurse educator is discussing the charting used in the facility with a group of recently hired nurses. The facility uses the APIE method of charting. Which of the following responses by one of the newly hired nurses indicates understanding of the charting method?

1. I will only need to chart by exception with this method.

2. Only subjective data are included in the assessment portion.

3. The P refers to the planning phase of the process.

4. The activities implemented to manage the clients needs will be documented in the I section.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: APIE is not the same as charting by exception.

Rationale 2: The APIE method of charting uses the letters to refer to the assessment, problem, intervention, and evaluation. The assessment includes both the objective and subjective data.

Rationale 3: The APIE method of charting uses the letters to refer to the assessment, problem, intervention, and evaluation. The P refers to the chief problem.

Rationale 4: The APIE method of charting uses the letters to refer to the assessment, problem, intervention, and evaluation. I includes the interventions implemented to manage the client.

Global Rationale: The APIE method of charting involves charting that is problem based. Information documented are only those items that are not within normal limits. The APIE method of charting uses the letters to refer to the assessment, problem, intervention, and evaluation. The assessment includes both the objective and subjective data. The P refers to the chief problem. I includes the interventions implemented to manage the client. E stands for evaluation of the response to the plan of care.

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 1.7: Describe the role of the professional nurse in health assessment.

Question 27

Type: MCSA

The nurse manager is considering changing the type of charting/documentation done on the client care unit. The nurses have requested a system that will reduce time spent writing out routine tasks and will still allow for documentation of exceptions. Which type of documentation will best meet the needs of the nursing staff?

1. Focus documentation

2. Flow sheets

3. SOAP charting

4. APIE charting

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Focused documentation records client problems and strengths.

Rationale 2: Flow sheets use columns or categories to log in assessment findings and to note interventions performed. Flow sheets reduce repetition and are time efficient.

Rationale 3: SOAP charting is detailed and includes subjective and objective data, assessment findings, and planning information.

Rationale 4: APIE charting includes assessment, planning, intervention, and evaluation.

Global Rationale: Flow sheets use columns or categories to log in assessment findings and to note interventions performed. Focused documentation records client problems and strengths. Flow sheets reduce repetition and are time efficient. Focused documentation records client problems and strengths. SOAP charting is detailed and includes subjective and objective data, assessment findings, and planning information. APIE charting includes assessment, planning, intervention, and evaluation.

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 1.7: Describe the role of the professional nurse in health assessment.

Question 28

Type: MCMA

The student nurse is preparing a care plan for an assigned client. The student correctly recognizes that the nursing diagnosis is composed of which of the following elements?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Medical diagnosis

2. Risk or related factors

3. Defining characteristics

4. A diagnostic label

5. A definition

Correct Answer: 2,3,4,5

Rationale 1: Medical diagnosis. The nursing diagnosis is composed of four components. These components are a diagnostic label, definition, defining characteristics, and risks or related factors. A medical diagnosis is not included in the nursing diagnosis.

Rationale 2: Risk or related factors. The nursing diagnosis is composed of four components. These components are a diagnostic label, definition, defining characteristics, and risks or related factors.

Rationale 3: Defining characteristics. The nursing diagnosis is composed of four components. These components are a diagnostic label, definition, defining characteristics, and risks or related factors.

Rationale 4: A diagnostic label. The nursing diagnosis is composed of four components. These components are a diagnostic label, definition, defining characteristics, and risks or related factors.

Rationale 5: A definition. The nursing diagnosis is composed of four components. These components are a diagnostic label, definition, defining characteristics, and risks or related factors.

Global Rationale: The nursing diagnosis is composed of four components. These components are a diagnostic label, definition, defining characteristics, and risks or related factors. A medical diagnosis is not included in the nursing diagnosis.

Cognitive Level: Remembering

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 1.5: Define the steps of the nursing process.

Question 29

Type: MCSA

The nurse is developing a plan of care for a recently admitted client. The nurse recognizes that the basis for the plan and implementation of care is (are):

1. The nursing diagnosis

2. The objective data

3. The subjective data

4. Client goals

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The nursing diagnosis is the basis for the plan and implementation of care delivered to the client.

Rationale 2: Objective and subjective data are collected and used to formulate the nursing diagnosis.

Rationale 3: Objective and subjective data are collected and used to formulate the nursing diagnosis.

Rationale 4: Client goals are developed to determine the success of the care delivered.

Global Rationale: The nursing diagnosis is the basis for the plan and implementation of care delivered to the client. Objective and subjective data are collected and used to formulate the nursing diagnosis. Client goals are developed to determine the success of the care delivered.

Cognitive Level: Remembering

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 1.5: Define the steps of the nursing process.

Question 30

Type: MCSA

During step 3 of the nursing process, which of the following activities is performed?

1. Statement of client goals

2. Collection of subjective data

3. Performance of care activities

4. Review of client goal achievement

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The third step in the nursing process is the planning phase. During the planning phase, care interventions are determined, priorities are set, and client goals are stated.

Rationale 2: Collection of subjective data takes place during the first step in the nursing process.

Rationale 3: Care activities are implemented during the fourth phase of the nursing process.

Rationale 4: During the final stage of the nursing process the clients progress toward goal achievement is evaluated.

Global Rationale: The third step in the nursing process is the planning phase. During the planning phase, care interventions are determined, priorities are set, and client goals are stated. Collection of subjective data takes place during the first step in the nursing process. Care activities are implemented during the fourth phase of the nursing process. During the final stage of the nursing process the clients progress toward goal achievement is evaluated.

Cognitive Level: Remembering

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1.5: Define the steps of the nursing process.

Question 31

Type: MCSA

The nurse is reviewing the following flow chart entries for a client experiencing pain. Which of the following chart entries represents a subjective entry?

1. The clients leg is red and swollen.

2. The client complains of leg tenderness.

3. The clients white blood cell count is 5.6.

4. The client demonstrates guarding behaviors during the assessment of the affected extremity.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Objective information is observable by the examiner. The examiner is able to visualize the appearance of the extremity.

Rationale 2: Subjective information refers to data reported by the client. The clients complaints are an example of subjective information.

Rationale 3: The laboratory values are objective data that can be determined by a technician.

Rationale 4: Objective information is observable by the examiner. The presence of guarding behaviors may be noted by the examiner.

Global Rationale: Subjective information refers to data reported by the client. The clients complaints are an example of subjective information. Objective information is observable by the examiner. The examiner is able to visualize the appearance of the extremity. The laboratory values are objective data that can be determined by a technician. The presence of guarding behaviors may be noted by the examiner.

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1.4: Identify factors to consider in a health assessment.

Question 32

Type: MCSA

The nurse manager is reviewing the following SOAP chart entries for a recently licensed nurse. Which of the following entries indicate that the nurse needs further instruction concerning documentation?

1. S: The client states, I am so nauseated.

2. O: The client reports feeling fatigued.

3. A: Bowel sounds are high-pitched in all abdominal quadrants.

4. P: The client will remain NPO.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: S refers to subjective data. Client reports are examples of subjective information.

Rationale 2: S refers to subjective data. Client reports are examples of subjective information.

Rationale 3: A refers to assessment. The characteristics of the clients bowel sounds represents of an assessment.

Rationale 4: P refers to planning. Planning indicates actions taken to resolve or address the clients needs.

Global Rationale: SOAP charting is a problem-oriented system of documentation. S refers to subjective data. Client reports are examples of subjective information. O refers to objective data. Objective information is observable by the examiner. Report of fatigue is an example of subjective information. A refers to assessment. The characteristics of the clients bowel sounds represents an assessment. P refers to planning. Planning indicates actions taken to resolve or address the clients needs.

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 1.7: Describe the role of the professional nurse in health assessment.

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