Chapter 19: Patient and Health Care Education My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 19: Patient and Health Care Education

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A nursing instructor asks, What are the stages of standard educational methodologies? Which response by the student would indicate that further teaching is needed?

a.

Design

c.

Process

b.

Development

d.

Evaluation

ANS: C

The five stages of a standard education methodology are analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Process is not one of the stages. Implementing standard educational methodologies is a process in and of itself.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: TABLE 19-1 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY

2. A clinic nurse is planning to teach a group of clients procedures for administering their own medications. The two types of objectives the nurse will use to help clarify learning include which of the following?

a.

Behavioral and terminal

c.

Cognitive and terminal

b.

Affective and sequencing

d.

Terminal and enabling

ANS: D

When designing educational offerings, it is important to structure the objectives around the goals for the offering. Two objectives are used to support the goals of the program/initiative. They are terminal objectives (identifies themajor behavior that contributes to the achievement of the overall goal) and enabling objectives (identifies a secondary behavior that enables/contributes to the achievement of the terminal goal).

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: TERMINAL AND ENABLING OBJECTIVES

3. A nursing instructor has asked a group of students to develop teaching plans for their clients according to Gagnes nine elements. If the instructor asks the students about some of the components of Gagnes events of instruction, which response by a student would indicate that further teaching is needed?

a.

Gain attention

c.

Implement performance

b.

Present stimulus materials

d.

Provide feedback

ANS: C

Gagnes nine elements of instruction are one of the most frequently utilized guides for developing a framework for instruction. These nine elements/events of instruction are as follows: gain attention, inform the learner of the objective, stimulate recall of prerequisite learning, present stimulus materials, provide learning guidance, elicit performance (not implement performance), provide feedback, assess performance, and enhance retention and transfer.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis

REF: TABLE 19-10 GAGNES NINE EVENTS OF INSTRUCTION

4. During an in-service program, the nurses are taught that learning can be classified according to several types of learning domains. When asked to name the domains, which responses by one of the nurses would indicate that further teaching is needed?

a.

Cognitive

c.

Affective

b.

Psychomotor

d.

Effective

ANS: D

A learning domain is a means of categorizing learning theories according to the primary type of learning involved. The three major types are cognitive (centers on knowledge), psychomotor (centers on skills), and affective(centers on attitude).

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: LEARNING DOMAINS

5. When developing behavioral objectives, the nurse recognizes that an essential component would be which of the following?

a.

Design

c.

Implementation

b.

Performance

d.

Evaluation

ANS: B

A primary aspect of any learning objectives is the performance that is built into the statement. Performance is something that can be observed and measured such as demonstrating the correct injection sites for intramuscular injections.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: ESTABLISHING BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES

6. Some elements of taxonomies based in the cognitive domain are listed here. Which does not necessarily belong?

a.

Knowledge

c.

Process

b.

Comprehension

d.

Synthesis

ANS: C

The six levels of learning for taxonomies grounded in the cognitive domain are knowledge, comprehension, application (not process), analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

REF: TABLE 19-4 TAXONOMIES OF LEARNING: COGNITIVE DOMAIN

7. The majority of learning theories fall into three categories. Which is correct?

a.

Cognition, perception, and information

b.

Psychomotor, cognitive, and affective

c.

Perception, information processing, and personality

d.

Behavioral, psychosocial, and affective

ANS: C

A learning style is a particular manner in which a person responds to and processes learning. Most learning style theories fall into three categories: perception, information processing, and personality. Cognitive, psychomotor, and affective pertain to learning domains.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension REF: LEARNING STYLES

8. During which phase of learning would a nurse conduct teaching based upon the lesson plan?

a.

Implementation

c.

Evaluation

b.

Development

d.

Execution

ANS: A

Lesson plans provide a blueprint for the educational session and are used to implement the learning. They have been designed during the development phase, and the success of the plan will be evaluated during the evaluation phase.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: IMPLEMENTATION

9. A nurse is using Kolbs experiential learning style (Kolb, 1984). Which of the following thinking styles would the nurse least likely employ?

a.

Sensing

c.

Doing

b.

Abstracting

d.

Perceiving

ANS: D

Kolbs experiential learning style theory can be categorized as an information processing theory that emphasizes different styles of thinking. The four major thinking styles espoused in Kolbs experiential learning style are sensing, abstracting, doing, and watching.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: INFORMATION PROCESSING

10. When establishing behavioral learning objectives, the nurse educator would consider which of the following four components?

a.

Audience, behavior, condition, and degree

b.

Performance, behavior, design, and condition

c.

Behavior, audience, situation, and design

d.

Audience, condition, design, and behavior

ANS: A

The four primary elements that should be present in all behavioral learning objectives are audience (who will perform the behavior), behavior (what they will do), condition (limitations or conditions placed on the performance), and degree (level of measurement to determine successful performance).

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: DESIGN

11. A nurse educator is preparing to teach a group of nurses the use of a new piece of equipment. The nurse educator establishes the format to be used, selects strategies and media, and finalizes the teaching plan. The nurse educator would be completing which phase of the educational process?

a.

Design

c.

Implementation

b.

Development

d.

Evaluation

ANS: B

During the development phase of education, the following occur: format (selection and use of a framework such as Gagnes nine events of instruction), selection of strategies (i.e., lecture, group discussion, and role-playing),selection of media (i.e., written, visual, computer-based, audio), and the finalization of the lesson plan (the structured plan for the delivery of the education is completed).

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: DEVELOPMENT

12. Context analysis consists of two types of context that need to be considered and incorporated into planned instructional sessions. They are:

a.

situational and presentational.

c.

instructional and situational.

b.

learner and instructional.

d.

environmental and instructional.

ANS: C

One of the three major elements of any educational program is the context of the planned offering. Context is divided into two categories: instructional (the conditions/environment under which the education will occur, for example, the location and time) and situational (the situation that created the need for the education).

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension REF: CONTEXT ANALYSIS

13. Gardners multiple intelligences theory divides learners into several different types such as verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, intrapersonal, spatial, and naturalist. Teaching considerations that might be used for an intrapersonal learner type might be:

a.

graphics or visual models.

c.

talking in a group.

b.

listening to music.

d.

reflecting upon a specified situation.

ANS: D

Another perception-based learning theory is Gardners multiple intelligences. This theory categorizes learners in eight categories according to how they best perceive their environment. Intrapersonal types of learners tend to respond to personal, inner emotions to understand themselves and others. Activities that use introspection, reflection, and/or process emotions work should be incorporated into learning plans for this particular kind of learner.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: TABLE 19-3 GARDNERS MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

14. Education conducted according to a standardized structured approach is called:

a.

formal education.

c.

methodology.

b.

information processing.

d.

informal education.

ANS: C

Education is more effective when it is structured and presented according to a standardized approach called a methodology. Formal education is planned, structured, and targeted toward a specific topic/goal, and informal education is not as structured or organized and can be as simple as information being exchanged during a conversation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge REF: METHODOLOGY

15. You are in the analysis phase of developing an educational program for your clients diagnosed with diabetes. The three major elements that you will focus on during this phase are which of the following?

a.

Content, process, and learner

c.

Process, objectives, and presentation

b.

Learner, context, and format

d.

Context, learner, and content

ANS: D

The first phase in developing educational programs is called the analysis phase, and it consists of three primary components to be analyzed: the context (the situational context in which the need for the education arose and the instructional context in how it will be delivered), learner (who needs to be taught and what unique characteristics should be considered in delivering this information), and content (what needs to be taught/learned).

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: ANALYSIS

16. During a staff development program, each nurse was asked to complete the Meyers-Briggs test of personality. The results of the test indicated that each nurse showed characteristics related to one of the four categories of types of personality traits. These four categories have been identified as which of the following?

a.

Introversion-extroversion, thinking-intuition, sensing-perceiving, and sensing-judging

b.

Thinking-perceiving, sensing-intuition, judging-extroversion, and feeling-introversion

c.

Extroversion-introversion, sensing-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving

d.

Verbal-linguistic, sensing-feeling, bodily-kinesthetic, and introversion-extroversion

ANS: C

Personality theories, such as the Meyers-Briggs, emphasize how personality differences influence learning. The four complementary sets of traits are extroversion-introversion, sensing-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: FIGURE 19-3 MEYERS-BRIGGS PERSONALITY DICHOTOMIES

17. That individuals learn best when they touch and move is a design quality for which learning theory?

a.

Meyers-Briggs

c.

Roses visual-auditory-kinesthetic model

b.

Gardners multiple intelligences

d.

Kolbs experiential learning style

ANS: C

The visual-auditory-kinesthetic model (VAK) by Rose (1985) is a perception learning theory and emphasizes the relationship of the senses to learning. According to this model, kinesthetic learners learn best when they can touch and move; hence the model incorporates activities that get learners up and moving or having them physically practice what they have just learned.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: TABLE 19-2 ROSES VISUAL-AUDITORY-KINESTHETIC (VAK) MODEL OF LEARNING

18. Some factors that affect the success of an educational session for patients are listed here. Which does not necessarily belong?

a.

Environment

c.

Nurses education

b.

Patient condition

d.

Topic to be learned

ANS: D

Some elements that are critical to the success or failure of a patient educational session are the environment, patients condition, the nurses education, and communication skills.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension REF: IMPLEMENTATION

19. During the evaluation phase of education, what two components are of major importance?

a.

Learner evaluation and educational evaluation

b.

Program evaluation and communication

c.

Process evaluation and strategies for improvement

d.

Focus and learner evaluation

ANS: A

Evaluation is a process by which the effectiveness of an educational session can be assessed. Two major areas in which to evaluate the education being offered are learner evaluation (whether the learner effectively processed and adopted the information presented) and educational evaluation (whether the education itself was effectively constructed and presented).

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis REF: EVALUATION

20. Nurse B has planned to instruct Mr. C, a newly diagnosed diabetic, in how to test his blood sugar. Nurse B has decided that due to time constraints she will quickly show him how to test his blood sugar, but she will not stay for a return demonstration to see if he can do this himself, due to other duties on the unit. Mr. C appears to be confused and becomes agitated halfway through the session. Which education evaluation area does Nurse Bs training session need more work on?

a.

Process

c.

Pacing

b.

Implementation

d.

Accuracy

ANS: C

The evaluation area of appropriate pacing was lacking in this particular example. Some questions that pertain to the pacing of an instructional session: Did the education move too fast or too slowly? Was there enough patient involvement? Was there a lack of or shortage of activities and/or practice time? The answer is yes, because she did not build in enough time to enable Mr. C to practice and reinforce the training. Accuracy focuses upon whether the information was accurate, not the pace at which it was delivered.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis REF: TABLE 19-14 EDUCATION EVALUATION

21. According to the Institute of Medicine, what percentage of all American adults have difficulty understanding and using health information?

a.

Fewer than 10 percent

c.

Nearly half

b.

Under one-fourth

d.

Three-quarters

ANS: C

According to the Institute of Medicine, nearly half of all American adults have difficulty understanding and using health information.

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge REF: LEARNER ANALYSIS

22. You are planning to teach a client about her disease and decide to give her a short paper-pencil, true/false test at the end of your teaching. Which domain of learning will you be evaluating with this technique?

a.

Cognitive

c.

Psychomotor

b.

Affective

d.

Behavioral

ANS: A

A paper-pencil test is a tool to use when evaluating a clients cognitive domain. The cognitive domain is centered on knowledge, or what the learner knows.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: LEARNING DOMAINS

23. The staff developer has just completed a session on cultural diversity and nursing care. One of the questions on the final exam asks the participants about their feeling related to caring for clients from different ethnic groups than the nurses. The staff developer is measuring which domain of learning?

a.

Cognitive

c.

Psychomotor

b.

Affective

d.

Effective

ANS: B

Asking the nurses about their feelings is a method used to measure the affective domain of learning. The affective domain is centered on attitude, values, beliefs, and feelings of the learner.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis REF: LEARNING DOMAINS

24. Health literacy is best defined as which of the following?

a.

Reading level of the learner

b.

Learners ability to sign his name on a consent

c.

Educational level of the learner

d.

Learners ability to read, understand, and act on health information

ANS: D

Health literacy is defined as the learners ability to read, understand, and act on health information. Incomplete health literacy can affect anyone of any age, ethnicity, background, or education level.

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge REF: LEARNER ANALYSIS

25. A nurse educator develops a PICO question to research the success of a support group for renal failure. The questions is: Do newly diagnosed renal failure patients who attend monthly support group meetings have a decreased readmission rate over a 6-month period when compared to a similar group of patients who do not attend a support group? In analyzing the data, the letter C might focus on which of the following?

a.

Comparison with patients who do not attend a support group

b.

The patients involvement in a monthly support group

c.

Decreased readmission rate over 6-month period

d.

The problem of maintaining newly diagnosed renal failure patients at home

ANS: A

Using the acronym PICO, the C might involve a comparison with patients who do not attend a support group. P would be the patient or problem such as the problem of maintaining newly diagnosed renal failure patients at home. The letter I would be the intervention such as involvement in a monthly support group. And the letter O would reflect the outcome. In this case the outcome might be decreased readmission rate over a 6-month period.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis REF: CONTENT ANALYSIS

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Which of the following are part of Gagnes nine elements of instruction? Select all that apply.

a.

Gain attention

d.

Present stimulus materials

b.

Stimulate recall

e.

Elicit performance

c.

Repeat lesson several times

f.

Assess performance

ANS: A, B, D, E, F

According to Gagne, the nine elements of instruction include gain attention, inform learner of objectives, stimulate recall, present stimulus materials, provide learning guidance, elicit performance, provide feedback, assess performance, and enhance retention.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension REF: DEVELOPMENT

2. An instructor is planning to teach a group of students a new procedure. The analysis of the students learning style indicates that they are all predominantly kinesthetic learners. Which teaching strategies would best facilitate learning of individuals who are kinesthetic learners? Select all that apply.

a.

Numerous handouts to be read

b.

Activities to get learners up and moving

c.

Opportunities for the students to physically practice using the equipment

d.

Verbally lecturing to the students

e.

Use of charts, pictures, and graphs

f.

Models, equipment, or other objects the students can touch

ANS: B, C, F

Strategies that would facilitate learning by kinesthetic learners would include activities to get learners up and moving; opportunities for the students to physically practice using the equipment; and the use of models, equipment, or other objects the students can touch. Visual learners like handouts, charts, pictures and graphs, while auditory learners prefer things they can hear such as a lecture.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis

REF: TABLE 19-2 ROSES VISUAL-AUDITORY-KINESTHETIC (VAK) MODEL OF LEARNING

3. A nurse is preparing to teach a group of elementary students, and she decides to write all of the objectives at the knowledge level. The objectives would most likely begin with which of the following words? Select all that apply.

a.

Identify

d.

Name

b.

Construct

e.

Compare

c.

List

f.

Select

ANS: A, C, D, F

The nurse would most likely develop objectives that begin with identify, list, name, or select. Asking students to construct would involve comprehension, while using the word compare would require them to analyze.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: TABLE 19-4 TAXONOMIES OF LEARNING: COGNITIVE DOMAIN

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