Chapter 19: Nutritional Concepts and Related Therapies My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 19: Nutritional Concepts and Related Therapies

Cooper and Gosnell: Foundations and Adult Health Nursing, 7th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.The nurse makes nutrition a focus in the care plan. Where does nutrition play the most important role?

a. Weight control
b. Sustained appetite
c. Building strong bones
d. Health maintenance

ANS: D

Nutrition is the total of all processes involved in taking in and using food substances for proper growth, functioning, and maintenance of health.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 485

OBJ: 1 TOP: Nutrition KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2.The nurse is explaining the activity recommendations from the USDAs new MyPlate plan. What is the minimum amount of moderate weekly exercise needed to balance nutritional intake?

a. 15 minutes
b. 1 hour and 15 minutes
c. 2 hours and 30 minutes
d. 60 minutes

ANS: C

MyPlate recommends a minimum of 2 hours and 30 minutes of moderate aerobic physical activity a week to balance nutritional intake and 1 hour and 15 minutes of vigorous physical activity a week.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 487, Skill 19-1

OBJ: 2 TOP: MyPlate KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3.What are elements that are found in food and necessary for good health but that the body cannot make?

a. Important nutrients
b. Life-saving nutrients
c. Essential nutrients
d. Necessary nutrients

ANS: C

Elements found in food that our bodies cannot make are essential nutrients.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 487

OBJ: 3 TOP: Nutrition KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion

4.To demonstrate the energy-producing potential of different foods, the nurse explains that 3 g of lean meat produces 12 kcal/g. How many kcal/g does 3 g of fish oil produce?

a. 6 kcal/g
b. 15 kcal/g
c. 21 kcal/g
d. 27 kcal/g

ANS: D

Fat provides 9 kcal/g.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 487

OBJ: 3 TOP: Nutrition KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5.What has replaced the USDAs Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)?

a. Nutrition Recommended Allowance (NRA)
b. National Bionutritional Allowance (NBA)
c. Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
d. Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA)

ANS: C

The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) has replaced the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA).

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 487

OBJ: 2 TOP: Nutrition KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6.How many kcal/g does 1 g of alcohol provide?

a. 4 kcal/g
b. 5 kcal/g
c. 6 kcal/g
d. 7 kcal/g

ANS: D

Alcohol provides 7 kcal/g of energy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 487

OBJ: 3 TOP: Alcohol KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

7.The nurse is educating a group of high school students regarding nutrition. How should the nurse respond when the students ask what occurs when protein, mineral, iron, and fat combine?

a. Body processes are regulated
b. Energy is provided
c. Tissue is built and repaired
d. Body function is restored

ANS: C

Many nutrients are necessary to build and repair tissue, including protein, minerals, iron, and fat.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 487

OBJ: 4 TOP: Nutrition KEY: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8.When reviewing a patients dietary intake, the nurse recommends that sugar consumption be reduced to the recommended daily level. What is this level?

a. No more than 24% of total daily kilocalories
b. No more than16% of total daily kilocalories
c. No more than 8% of total daily kilocalories
d. No more than 4% of total daily kilocalories

ANS: C

DRIs relating to carbohydrates indicate that 45% to 65% of an adults total calorie intake should be in the form of carbohydrates and that added sugars should be limited to no more than 8% (approximately 40 g) of the total number of calories consumed daily

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 489

OBJ: 3 TOP: Nutrition KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9.What is the bodys storage form of carbohydrates, usually found in the liver with some storage in the muscles?

a. Sugar
b. Glucose
c. Lipids
d. Glycogen

ANS: D

Glycogen is not generally consumed in the diet but is the bodys storage form of carbohydrate. It is found mainly in the liver, with some storage in the muscles.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 489

OBJ: 4 TOP: Glycogen KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10.What is the term for stored fat that insulates the body and serves as a cushion to protect organs?

a. Subcutaneous tissue
b. Adipose tissue
c. Cohesive tissue
d. Lipid tissue

ANS: B

Fat is stored in the body as adipose tissue.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 490

OBJ:4TOP:Adipose tissue

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

11.The nurse is providing information about high cholesterol levels. What is the rationale for avoiding saturated fats?

a. They block absorption of nutrients
b. They interfere with metabolism
c. They increase blood cholesterol
d. They must be hydrogenated

ANS: C

Saturated fats tend to increase blood cholesterol.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 491

OBJ:6TOP:Saturated fats

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12.When discussing the digestion and metabolism of fat, the nurse tells the patient who has a history of cholecystitis and who is on a low-fat diet that fat must be emulsified to be digested. What is the substance necessary for emulsification?

a. Sugar
b. Cholesterol
c. Bile
d. Protein

ANS: C

Bile is necessary to emulsify fat.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 491

OBJ:6TOP:Function of bile

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

13.The body uses 22 common amino acids, but 9 of them must be obtained from protein in the diet. What are these proteins considered?

a. Essential
b. Basic
c. Fundamental
d. Primary

ANS: A

Essential amino acids must be consumed in the diet, because the body cannot make them.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Pages 492

OBJ: 4 TOP: Essential amino acids KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14.The nurse is educating a patient on a vegan diet. What supplement will the nurse encourage this patient to take to avoid a deficiency?

a. B6
b. B12
c. K
d. D

ANS: B

B12 is almost exclusively found in animal products, but it can be supplemented with fortified cereals or vitamins.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 497

OBJ: 7 TOP: B12 deficit KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15.A fit, young woman was at zero nitrogen balance. The nurse discovers that this patient is now pregnant with her first child. For what is this patient at risk?

a. Embolism
b. Anabolism
c. Catabolism
d. Metabolism

ANS: B

When more nitrogen is consumed than is excreted, anabolism occurs. This is also called a positive nitrogen balance.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 493

OBJ:8TOP:Nitrogen balance

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16.The nurse explains that a patient with a heart problem should follow a decreased sodium diet. What will this diet help reduce the risk for or prevent?

a. Stroke
b. Fluid excretion
c. Heart attacks
d. Obesity

ANS: C

Sodium attracts water and causes fluid retention. Hypervolemia increases the hearts workload, which can lead to a heart attack.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 499, Table 19-6; 500

OBJ:2TOP:Fluid retention

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

17.The patient complains to the nurse that he feels terrible since he has been taking several different kinds of vitamin preparations. What should the nurse assess for indications of vitamin toxicity?

a. Edema
b. Hypertension
c. Fatigue
d. Diarrhea

ANS: C

Toxicity usually occurs from the use of large supplemental doses of vitamins and minerals and presents as fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and headache.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Pages 494-497

OBJ:7TOP:Vitamin toxicity

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

18.The nurse cautions a patient with a pancreatic disorder that will interfere with the digestion of fats and may lead to a clotting disorder. What is the cause of these potential problems?

a. Inability to use vitamin B
b. Inability to use vitamin C
c. Inability to use vitamin D
d. Inability to use vitamin K

ANS: D

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble. Difficulty with fat metabolism will result in the inability to use fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin K plays a role in blood clotting. It is important in maintaining four of the eleven clotting factors found in the blood.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 520

OBJ:7TOP:Fat-soluble vitamins

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

19.The home health nurse is caring for a patient that has undergone removal of a part of the stomach. For what should the nurse carefully assess this patient?

a. A stomach ulcer
b. Digestive problems
c. Pernicious anemia
d. Malabsorption

ANS: C

Pernicious anemia results when the intrinsic factor is missing due to surgery on the stomach.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 497

OBJ:17TOPernicious anemia

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

20.A patient taking a diuretic is assessed by the nurse as having an erratic pulse and muscle weakness. What should the nurse suspect is deficient?

a. Sodium
b. Potassium
c. Chloride
d. Iron

ANS: B

Diuretics can deplete potassium through urine excretion and lead to muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 521

OBJ:9TOPotassium depletion

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

21.A patient who has hypertension is complaining about the lack of taste with the low- sodium diet that has been prescribed. What should the nurse emphasize that sodium may do?

a. Contribute to hypertension
b. Interfere with blood clotting
c. Produce stomach ulcers
d. Decrease calcium in the bones

ANS: A

Sodium may contribute to hypertension.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 520-521

OBJ:1TOP:Sodium-induced hypertension

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

22.The young woman who is breastfeeding will need an increase of calories and protein. What foods should the nurse suggest as sources of protein?

a. Green, leafy vegetables
b. Citrus fruits
c. Asparagus
d. Nuts

ANS: D

Nuts are a safe source of protein for lactating women.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 503, Table 19-8, 505

OBJ:4TOProtein source

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

23.At approximately 4 to 6 months of age, solid food is introduced to a baby. What foods with high iron content should be recommended by the nurse?

a. Pureed fruit
b. Fortified cereals
c. Fruit juice
d. Rice

ANS: B

At approximately 4 to 6 months, iron-rich foods, such as fortified cereal and pureed meat, are introduced to a baby.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 505

OBJ:8TOP:Iron-rich foods

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

24.A school nurse is teaching a group of adolescents about adequate nutrition. What increased intake should the nurse encourage?

a. Potassium and sodium
b. Chloride and magnesium
c. Iron and calcium
d. Vitamins and minerals

ANS: C

Dietary inadequacies in adolescence include iron and calcium.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 506

OBJ:8TOP:Adolescent nutrition

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

25.A nurse caring for a patient who is prescribed a full-liquid  diet recognizes that this diet lacks some nutrients. What nutrients are lacking?

a. Fat-soluble vitamins
b. Potassium
c. Iron and fiber
d. Water-soluble vitamins

ANS: C

A full-liquid diet is deficient in iron and fiber.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 508-509

OBJ:10TOP:Full-liquid diets

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

26.The nurse has assessed a patients body mass index (BMI) to be 19.6. This assessment of weight versus height indicates that this patients weight category is in which category?

a. Low health risk
b. Overweight
c. Obese
d. Morbidly obese

ANS: A

A BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 is associated with the lowest health risk. Those with BMIs between 25 and 29.9 are considered overweight, and those with BMIs of 30 or greater are considered obese. A BMI of less than 18.5 is considered underweight and is also associated with health risks.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 510

OBJ:12TOP:Body mass index (BMI)

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

27.What eating disorder is characterized by body image distortion, excessive exercise, and vicarious enjoyment of food?

a. Self-fasting
b. Anorexia nervosa
c. Bulimia nervosa
d. Binge eating

ANS: B

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by self-imposed starvation, excessive exercise, and body image distortion.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Pages 513, 514 Table 19-11

OBJ:13TOP:Anorexia nervosa

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

28.The nurse is counseling a patient about the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. What should the nurse stress that patients with type 2 diabetes are required to receive on a daily basis?

a. Regular carbohydrate-controlled meals
b. Oral hyperglycemic agents
c. Insulin injections
d. Stringent low-calorie diets

ANS: A

People with type 2 diabetes must take daily regulated meals with controlled carbohydrate content. Type 1 diabetics must have insulin injections.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive Level: Comprehension

REF: Pages 515-516, 523 Table 19-15 OBJ: 1 TOP: Nutrition in type 2 diabetes

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

29.Careful attention to carbohydrate consumption can improve metabolic control of diabetes. The nurse teaches a meal planning approach that focuses on the total amount of carbohydrates eaten at a meal. What is this meal planning approach called?

a. Carbohydrate splitting
b. Reduced caloric intake
c. Carbohydrate counting
d. Carbohydrate balancing

ANS: C

Carbohydrate counting is a meal planning approach that focuses on the total amount of carbohydrates eaten.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Pages 516-517

OBJ:13TOP:Carbohydrate counting

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

30.The patient who had a gastrostomy complains to the nurse about frequent episodes of dumping syndrome. What can the nurse recommend to this patient to decrease this problem?

a. Eat small, frequent meals
b. Include more fiber in meals
c. Increase seasoning on food
d. Limit intake to semi-liquids

ANS: A

The symptoms of dumping syndrome can be reduced by consuming small frequent meals of mildly seasoned food; extra fiber is not essential.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 518

OBJ:2TOPumping syndrome

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

31.The nurse reminds the male patient with lactose intolerance that he can avoid the unpleasant symptoms of nausea, bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea, if he will avoid certain foods. What product should the patient be instructed to avoid?

a. Soy beans
b. Rice
c. Milk
d. High fiber

ANS: C

Lactose intolerance occurs as a result of a lack of lactase that makes it impossible to break down milk sugar.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 518

OBJ:2TOP:Lactose intolerance

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

32.A patient diagnosed with renal failure is unable to excrete protein waste products and develops a condition that requires a protein-restricted diet. The nurse instructs the patient that azotemia can be diminished by substituting other food groups for protein. What is an example of a food that this patient can substitute for protein?

a. Potatoes
b. Beans
c. Cheese
d. Soy products

ANS: A

The foods that a patient with renal disease can substitute for energy are in the carbohydrate group. Potatoes are the only carbohydrate listed.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 520

OBJ: 11 TOP: Azotemia KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

33.What is a nursing intervention to decrease the thirst of a patient who is on a fluid restriction?

a. Rinsing the mouth with warm water
b. Sipping carbonated drinks
c. Sucking on occasional ice chips
d. Limiting tooth brushing to once per day

ANS: C

Sucking on occasional ice chips is a way to decrease thirst without adding a large amount of fluid. Rinsing the mouth with cool water and frequent tooth brushing are helpful also. Carbonated drinks contain sodium and will enhance fluid retention.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 522

OBJ:16TOP:Fluid restrictions

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

34.The nurse recognizes that when a patient is unable to consume adequate nutrition by mouth, an alternative route such as a feeding ostomy may be used. What is the proper term for feeding a patient by this method?

a. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
b. Nasogastric
c. Enteral
d. Parenteral

ANS: C

The administration of nutritionally balanced liquid foods through a feeding ostomy is called enteral nutrition.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 522

OBJ:2TOP:Enteral feedings

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

35.The nurse teaches a patient who has a nonfunctioning or dysfunctional GI tract that total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will be infused. Where will the infusion occur?

a. Through the carotid artery
b. Through the superior vena cava
c. Through the femoral vein
d. Through the inferior vena cava

ANS: B

TPN solution is usually infused through the superior vena cava.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 525

OBJ:2TOP:Total parenteral nutrition

KEY:Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

36.Which are the energy-providing food groups? (Select all that apply.)

a. Carbohydrates
b. Fats
c. Proteins
d. Vitamins
e. Minerals

ANS: A, B, C

The food groups that provide energy are carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 487

OBJ:3TOP:Energy-producing food groups

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

COMPLETION

37.To simplify food values, the measurement of energy obtained by food is defined as the ________.

ANS:

kilocalorie

The kilocalorie is the energy value by which foods are measured for their energy-producing potential.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 487

OBJ: 3 TOP: Kilocalorie KEY: Nursing Process Step: Intervention

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

38.The body mass index (BMI) of a man 6 feet tall weighing 250 pounds is _______.

ANS:

33.9

The BMI is calculated by dividing the pounds expressed as kilograms by the height in meters squared.

6 feet = 72 inches 39.37 = 1.83 meters

250 pounds 2.2 = 113.6 kg

113.6 (1.83 1.83) = 33.9

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 510

OBJ:12TOP:Calculating body mass index (BMI)

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

39._____________________softens stools, speeds transit of foods through the digestive tract, and reduces pressure in the colon.

ANS:

Insoluble fiber

Insoluble fiber softens stools, speeds transit of foods through the digestive tract, and reduces pressure in the colon. Thus it may help relieve constipation and reduce the risk of certain gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, such as diverticulosis or hemorrhoids.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 489

OBJ: 5 TOP: Fiber KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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