Chapter 18: Urinary System Disorders My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 18: Urinary System Disorders

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following structures is most likely to be located in the renal medulla?

a.

Proximal convoluted tubule

b.

Glomerulus

c.

Loop of Henle

d.

Afferent arteriole

ANS: C REF: 492-493

2. Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidney?

a.

Regulation of body fluid concentrations

b.

Removal of nitrogenous and acidic wastes

c.

Activation of vitamin D

d.

Production of albumin

ANS: D REF: 491

3. Which of the following describes the correct flow of blood in the kidney?

a.

Afferent arteriole to the peritubular capillaries to the venule

b.

Efferent arteriole to the glomerular capillaries to the peritubular capillaries

c.

Peritubular capillaries to the glomerular capillaries to the venule

d.

Afferent arteriole to the glomerular capillaries to the efferent arteriole

ANS: D REF: 494

4. Which of the following describes the flow of filtrate in the kidney?

a.

The collecting duct to the distal convoluted tubule to the renal pelvis

b.

Bowmans capsule to the proximal convoluted tubule to the loop of Henle

c.

The loop of Henle to the collecting duct to Bowmans capsule

d.

The distal convoluted tubule to the loop of Henle to the collecting duct

ANS: B REF: 492

5. Which of the following describes the normal flow of urine?

a.

Collecting duct to the renal pelvis to the ureter to the bladder

b.

Renal pelvis to the urethra to the bladder to the ureter

c.

Ureter to the renal pelvis to the urethra to the bladder

d.

Collecting duct to the ureter to the urethra

ANS: A REF: 496

6. Which statement about the bladder is TRUE?

a.

The bladder wall lacks rugae.

b.

Three openings from the urinary bladder form the trigone.

c.

It contracts when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.

d.

Continuous peristalsis in the bladder wall promotes urine flow.

ANS: B REF: 496

7. Which of the following increases glomerular filtration rate?

a.

Increased plasma osmotic pressure

b.

Dilation of the efferent arteriole

c.

Increased hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries

d.

Constriction of the afferent arteriole

ANS: C REF: 495

8. By what process is water reabsorbed from the filtrate?

a.

Osmosis

b.

Active transport

c.

Cotransport

d.

Capillary action

ANS: A REF: 492

9. Which substance directly controls the reabsorption of water from the collecting ducts?

a.

Renin

b.

Aldosterone

c.

Angiotensin

d.

Antidiuretic hormone

ANS: D REF: 492

10. Under what circumstances do cells in the kidneys secrete renin?

a.

The urine pH decreases.

b.

Blood flow in the afferent arteriole decreases.

c.

Serum potassium levels are high.

d.

Serum osmotic pressure increases.

ANS: B REF: 495

11. Which of the following should be present in the filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule?

a.

Plasma proteins

b.

Erythrocytes

c.

Sodium ions

d.

Leukocytes

ANS: C REF: 492

12. From the following, choose the substance likely to appear in the urine when the glomerulus is inflamed.

a.

Albumin

b.

Urea

c.

Sodium

d.

Creatinine

ANS: A REF: 497

13. Involuntary urination by a child after age 4 or 5, when bladder control is expected, is referred to as:

a.

enuresis.

b.

stress incontinence.

c.

micturition.

d.

overflow incontinence.

ANS: A REF: 496

14. When a respiratory infection with high fever is present in the body, how would the kidney tubules maintain normal pH of body fluids?

a.

Increase the flow of filtrate.

b.

Secrete more acids and reabsorb more bicarbonate ions.

c.

Excrete a larger volume of more dilute urine.

d.

Retain more potassium ions in exchange for sodium ions.

ANS: B REF: 502-503

15. When comparing normal kidney function with dialysis, which of the following mechanisms is not possible in dialysis?

a.

Diffusion

b.

Osmosis

c.

Ultrafiltration

d.

Active transport

ANS: D REF: 500

16. What is the cause of most cases of pyelonephritis?

a.

An ascending infection by E. coli

b.

Abnormal immune response, causing inflammation

c.

Dialysis or other invasive procedure

d.

Severe pH imbalance of urine

ANS: A REF: 500

17. Which disease is manifested by dysuria and pyuria?

a.

Nephrotic syndrome

b.

Cystitis

c.

Glomerulonephritis

d.

Urolithiasis

ANS: B REF: 502

18. Why may acute pyelonephritis and cystitis follow untreated prostatitis?

a.

Microbes spread through the circulation.

b.

Antibodies have not yet formed.

c.

There is no effective treatment.

d.

There is a continuous mucosa along the involved structures.

ANS: D REF: 502

19. Pyelonephritis may be distinguished from cystitis by the presence in pyelonephritis of:

a.

microbes, leukocytes, and pus in the urine.

b.

painful micturition.

c.

urgency and frequency.

d.

urinary casts and flank pain.

ANS: D REF: 502

20. In a case of acute pyelonephritis, what is the cause of flank pain?

a.

Inflammation, causing ischemia in the tubules

b.

Inflammation, stretching the renal capsule

c.

Increasing glomerular permeability, creating an increased volume of filtrate in the kidney

d.

Microbes irritating the tissues

ANS: B REF: 502

21. Which pathophysiological process applies to acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis?

a.

Streptococcal infection affects both the glomerular and tubule functions

b.

Ischemic damage occurs in the tubules, causing obstruction and decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

c.

Immune complexes deposit in glomerular tissue, causing inflammation

d.

Increased glomerular permeability for unknown reasons

ANS: C REF: 502-503

22. What causes the dark urine associated with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis?

a.

Blood and protein leaking through the capillary into the filtrate

b.

Proteinuria and microscopic hematuria from the inflammation

c.

Pyuria from inflammatory exudate

d.

Bleeding from ulcerations in the kidneys

ANS: A REF: 503

23. Renal disease frequently causes hypertension because:

a.

albuminuria increases vascular volume.

b.

congestion and ischemia stimulate release of renin.

c.

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion is decreased.

d.

damaged tubules absorb large amounts of filtrate.

ANS: B REF: 503

24. Urinary casts are present with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis because:

a.

large numbers of microbes and leukocytes enter the filtrate.

b.

ruptured capillaries release debris into the tubules.

c.

normal reabsorption of cells and proteins cannot take place.

d.

inflamed tubules compress red blood cells (RBCs) and protein into a typical mass.

ANS: D REF: 508

25. Which disease would cause an increased ASO titer and elevated serum ASK?

a.

Nephrotic syndrome

b.

Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis

c.

Pyelonephritis

d.

Polycystic kidney

ANS: B REF: 503-504

26. Why does metabolic acidosis develop with bilateral kidney disease?

a.

Tubule exchanges are impaired.

b.

GFR is increased.

c.

Serum urea is increased.

d.

More bicarbonate ion is produced.

ANS: A REF: 510

27. What is the first indicator in the arterial blood gases of acidosis caused by glomerulonephritis?

a.

Increased carbonic acid

b.

Increased bicarbonate ion

c.

A pH less than 7.35

d.

Decreased bicarbonate ion

ANS: D REF: 503

28. What would be the long-term effects of chronic infection or inflammation of the kidneys?

a.

Dehydration and hypovolemia

b.

Gradual necrosis, fibrosis, and development of uremia

c.

Sudden anuria and azotemia

d.

Severe back or flank pain

ANS: B REF: 504

29. What factors contribute to headache, anorexia, and lethargy with kidney disease?

1. Increased blood pressure

2. Elevated serum urea

3. Anemia

4. Acidosis

a.

1 only

b.

2, 4

c.

1, 3, 4

d.

1, 2, 3, 4

ANS: D REF: 513

30. What are the significant signs of nephrotic syndrome?

a.

Hyperlipidemia and lipiduria

b.

Pyuria and leucopenia

c.

Hypertension and heart failure

d.

Gross hematuria and pyuria

ANS: A REF: 504

31. Why does blood pressure often remain near normal in patients with nephrotic syndrome?

a.

Massive amounts of fluid are lost from the body with polyuria.

b.

Renin and aldosterone are no longer secreted.

c.

Tubules do not respond to ADH and aldosterone.

d.

Hypovolemia results from fluid shift to the interstitial compartment.

ANS: D REF: 504

32. Common causes of urolithiasis include all of the following EXCEPT:

a.

hypercalcemia.

b.

hyperlipidemia.

c.

inadequate fluid intake.

d.

hyperuricemia.

ANS: B REF: 506

33. Which of the following results from obstruction of the left ureter by a renal calculus?

a.

Mild flank pain on the affected side

b.

Hydronephrosis in both kidneys

c.

Immediate cessation of urine production

d.

An attack of renal colic

ANS: D REF: 506

34. What does hydronephrosis lead to?

a.

Ischemia and necrosis in the compressed area

b.

Multiple hemorrhages in the kidney

c.

Severe colicky pain radiating into the groin

d.

Increased GFR

ANS: A REF: 507

35. Which of the following is a predisposing factor to bladder cancer?

a.

Prostatic cancer

b.

Hormonal abnormalities

c.

Exposure to chemicals and cigarette smoke

d.

Presence of embryonic tissue

ANS: C REF: 508

36. What is the common initial sign of adenocarcinoma of the kidney?

a.

Gross hematuria

b.

Microscopic hematuria

c.

Sharp flank pain

d.

Oliguria

ANS: B REF: 507

37. Which of the following does NOT usually result from nephrosclerosis?

a.

Secondary hypertension

b.

Chronic renal failure

c.

Acute renal failure

d.

Increased renin and aldosterone secretions

ANS: C REF: 508

38. Which of the following relates to polycystic kidney disease?

a.

It affects only one of the kidneys.

b.

It results in gradual degeneration and chronic renal failure.

c.

The kidneys are displaced and the ureters are twisted.

d.

The prognosis is good because there is adequate reserve for normal life.

ANS: B REF: 510

39. Which of the following is related to Wilms tumor?

a.

Direct exposure to carcinogens

b.

Hormonal imbalance

c.

Repeated infections

d.

A genetic defect

ANS: D REF: 509

40. With severe kidney disease, either hypokalemia or hyperkalemia may occur and cause:

a.

cardiac arrhythmias.

b.

encephalopathy.

c.

hypervolemia.

d.

skeletal muscle twitch or spasm.

ANS: A REF: 513

41. Which of the following indicates the early stage of acute renal failure?

a.

Polyuria with urine of fixed and low specific gravity

b.

Hypotension and increased urine output

c.

Development of decompensated acidosis

d.

Very low GFR and increased serum urea

ANS: D REF: 510

42. What is/are a cause(s) of acute tubule necrosis and acute renal failure?

a.

Prolonged circulatory shock

b.

Sudden significant exposure to nephrotoxins

c.

Crush injuries or burns

d.

All of the above

ANS: D REF: 510

43. Which of the following would likely cause chronic renal failure?

a.

Cystitis with pyelonephritis in the right kidney

b.

Circulatory shock

c.

Diabetes

d.

Obstruction of a ureter by a renal calculus

ANS: C REF: 510

44. What causes polyuria during the stage of renal insufficiency?

a.

Loss of tubule function

b.

Increased blood pressure

c.

Decreased aldosterone secretion

d.

Increased GFR

ANS: A REF: 510

45. What is the primary reason for hypocalcemia developing during end-stage renal failure or uremia?

a.

Decreased parathyroid hormone secretion

b.

Insufficient calcium in the diet

c.

Excessive excretion of calcium ions in the urine

d.

A deficit of activated vitamin D and hyperphosphatemia

ANS: D REF: 513

46. Cystitis is more common in females because:

a.

the mucosa in the urinary tract is continuous.

b.

the urethra is short, wide, and adjacent to areas with resident flora.

c.

the pH of urine is more acidic in females.

d.

females have a higher incidence of congenital anomalies.

ANS: B REF: 500

47. Which of the following indicate a decreased GFR?

a.

Increased serum urea and decreased serum bicarbonate

b.

Urine with low specific gravity and dark color

c.

Albuminuria and hematuria

d.

Hyponatremia and hypokalemia

ANS: A REF: 497

48. Which of the following is NOT likely to lead to hydronephrosis?

a.

Renal calculi

b.

Pyelonephritis

c.

Nephrosclerosis

d.

Benign prostatic hypertrophy

ANS:CREF:502 | 506 | 507 | 515

49. Which of the following congenital defects is a common cause of cystitis in young children?

a.

Polycystic kidney

b.

Horseshoe kidney

c.

Hypoplasia of the kidney

d.

Vesicoureteral reflux

ANS: D REF: 500

50. Which factor contributes to severe anemia in individuals with chronic renal failure?

a.

Increased erythropoietin secretion

b.

Limited protein intake

c.

Compensatory increase in bone marrow activity

d.

Inability to absorb vitamin B12 and iron

ANS: B REF: 513

51. When acidosis becomes decompensated in renal failure, a key indicator is:

a.

increased PCO2.

b.

increased bicarbonate ion.

c.

serum pH dropping below 7.35.

d.

serum buffer ratio of 20 bicarbonate ions to 1 carbonic acid.

ANS: C REF: 513

52. What is the primary action of the diuretic furosemide?

a.

Decreased reabsorption of sodium and water

b.

Decreased reabsorption of H+ in the tubules

c.

Increased secretion of antidiuretic hormone

d.

Inhibition of renin

ANS: A REF: 498

53. Which of the following causes acute renal failure?

a.

Polycystic kidney disease

b.

Pyelonephritis in the right kidney

c.

Nephrosclerosis

d.

Bilateral acute glomerulonephritis

ANS: D REF: 510

54. Which of the following is a significant indicator of renal insufficiency?

a.

Urine with pH of 5

b.

Increased serum urea and creatinine

c.

Urine with high specific gravity

d.

Decreased blood pressure

ANS: B REF: 510

55. Uremic signs of renal failure include all of the following EXCEPT:

a.

encephalopathy.

b.

high blood pressure.

c.

osteodystrophy.

d.

azotemia and acidosis.

ANS: B REF: 513

56. Choose the basic cause of osteodystrophy associated with chronic renal failure.

a.

Development of hypercalcemia

b.

Deficit of parathyroid hormone

c.

Failure of the kidney to activate vitamin D

d.

Excessive loss of phosphate ion

ANS: C REF: 513

57. Agenesis is often not diagnosed because:

a.

the kidney is displaced from its normal position.

b.

it is a genetic defect and asymptomatic until mid-life.

c.

the two functioning kidneys are fused together.

d.

it is usually asymptomatic as one kidney provides adequate function.

ANS: D REF: 509

58. The normal pH of urine is:

a.

7.35-7.45.

b.

4.5- 8.0.

c.

1.5-7.5.

d.

1.0-7.0.

ANS: B REF: 596-597

59. Wilms tumor is:

a.

a malignant tumor in the bladder.

b.

an encapsulated mass in one kidney.

c.

not considered to have a genetic origin.

d.

manifested in adulthood.

ANS: B REF: 509

60. Reduced urine output resulting from inflammation and necrosis of the tubules is called:

a.

oliguria.

b.

anuria.

c.

pyuria.

d.

polyuria.

ANS: A REF: 510

61. The micturition reflex is initiated by:

a.

sympathetic nerves in the sacral spinal cord.

b.

relaxation of the internal sphincter of the bladder.

c.

increased pressure distending the bladder.

d.

contraction of the bladder.

ANS: C REF: 496

62. Which of the following results from decreased blood flow into the kidneys?

a.

Decreasing blood pressure

b.

Dilation of the afferent arterioles

c.

Decreased aldosterone secretion

d.

Increased angiotensin and systemic vasoconstriction

ANS: D REF: 496

63. In acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, the glomerular inflammation results from:

a.

toxins produced by the bacteria.

b.

a type III hypersensitivity reaction.

c.

an ascending infection from the bladder.

d.

spread of infection from the tubules.

ANS: B REF: 502

64. In acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, the inflammation causes:

a.

increased permeability of the glomerular capillaries.

b.

glomerular congestion and decreased GFR.

c.

decreased blood pressure and edema.

d.

A and B

ANS: D REF: 503

65. Circulatory shock causes:

a.

decreased GFR and increased renin secretion.

b.

increased ADH and decreased aldosterone secretion.

c.

immediate tubule necrosis and obstruction.

d.

sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stimulation and vasodilation of afferent and efferent arterioles.

ANS: A REF: 510

66. Autoregulation in the kidneys refers to:

a.

control of blood flow by the SNS.

b.

the secretion of renin and activation of angiotensin.

c.

local minor reflex adjustments in the arterioles to maintain normal blood flow.

d.

the control of systemic blood pressure by the kidneys.

ANS: C REF: 495

67. The reabsorption of water and electrolytes by the kidneys is directly controlled by:

1. atrial natriuretic hormone.

2. antidiuretic hormone.

3. angiotensin.

4. the levels of bicarbonate ion.

a.

2 only

b.

3 only

c.

1, 2

d.

2, 4

ANS: C REF: 492

68. Uncontrolled essential hypertension may cause chronic renal failure because of:

a.

predisposition to recurrent urinary tract infections.

b.

damage to afferent arterioles and renal ischemia.

c.

failure of tubules to respond to hormonal controls.

d.

glomerular congestion causes damaged capillaries.

ANS: B REF: 508

69. Urine with a low specific gravity is usually related to:

a.

an infection of the gallbladder.

b.

renal failure due to tubule damage.

c.

lack of sufficient fluid intake.

d.

presence of numerous renal calculi.

ANS: B REF: 510 | 512

70. Excess urea and other nitrogen wastes in the blood is referred to as:

a.

dysuria.

b.

azotemia.

c.

bacteremia.

d.

hematuria.

ANS: B REF: 513

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