Chapter 18 My Nursing Test Banks
1. What is employee behavior best reinforced by? A) Praise from a supervisor
B) An increase in their pay
C) A personally valued reward
D) Threat of punishment
Each person is a unique individual who is motivated by different things. The other options lack that element of personal value.
- A) Personal motivators could be separated from job satisfiers
- B) People are motivated by three basic needs: achievement, affiliation, and power
- C) A managers assumptions about workers directly affect the intrinsic motivation of
- D) Employees expectations about their work environment or a certain event will
affect their behavior
This theory is called Vrooms expectancy model.
3. Which is a motivating factor identified in Herzbergs motivationnhygiene theory?
- A) Money
- B) A chance for promotion
- C) A well-lighted parking lot
- D) Free meals in the cafeteria
Herzberg maintained that motivators such as promotion are present in work itself; they give people the desire to perform well. The other options were viewed less impactful on motivation.
4. Which statement most accurately defines intrinsic motivation?
- A) Motivation that is directly related to a persons internal level of aspiration
- B) Motivation that is enhanced by the jobs environmental conditions
- C) Motivation that is not shaped by personal values
- D) Motivation that is not related to achievement
Intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual. To be intrinsically motivated at work, the worker must value job performance and productivity. The other options are not as relevant to this factor.
did motivational theorist Victor Vroom state?
5. According to McClelland, what does achievement motivation focus on?
- A) The extrinsic rewards to be acquired
- B) A need to nurture others
- C) A need to have legitimate power over others
- D) The intrinsic need to be successful
McClelland stated that achievement-oriented people will focus on improving (succeeding) through action. None of the other options have that impact on motivation.
6. According to McGregor, what do Theory X assumptions hold?
- A) Putting forth effort is natural
- B) Workers are diligent, responsible, and helpful
- C) Workers are lazy, uncreative, and indifferent toward work
- D) Increased rewards will motivate workers
McGregor believed that how the manager views the employees will affect motivation and productivity. Theory Y managers thought workers were motivated, but Theory X managers thought they were lazy, uncreative, and indifferent. The remaining options are not addressed by these assumptions.
- A) All needs have equal power in motivation
- B) Unsatisfied needs trigger behavior
- C) Lower level needs are less valued
- D) Some individuals have hereditary needs
Hierarchy of need implies that people are motivated to satisfy certain needs, ranging from basic survival to complex psychological needs, and people seek a higher need only when the lower needs have been predominantly met.
is the implication in a hierarchy of needs?
8. What did Victor Vroom emphasize the importance of?
A) Managers knowing each employees expectation of reward
B) Managers being honest with their employees
C) Making sure that the employees lower-level needs are met
D) Understanding that individuals react in a stimulusnresponse mode
Victor Vroom emphasized the importance of managers knowing each employees expectation of reward. The other options are not related to Vrooms theory.
A) Individuals should be istretchedi on a regular basis to increase their productivity
did the motivational theorist Saul Gellerman argue?
and motivation levels
- B) iStretchingi should be used as a motivational strategy only for affiliation-oriented
- C) iStretchingi should be used as a motivational strategy only when an individual is
- D) Employees should be istretchedi intermittently to complete tasks more difficult
than what they are used to doing
Gellerman suggested stretching, which involves assigning tasks that are more difficult than what the person is used to doing. Stretching should not, however, be a routine or daily activity. The remaining options are not true statements regarding istretching.i
10. According to Skinner, how should rewards used as a way to reinforce behavior be given?
- A) At established intervals
- B) Specific to a particular performance
- C) Sometime after the event for maximum reinforcement
- D) Very sparingly to make them more valuable
If rewards are to succeed as motivational strategies, they should represent genuine accomplishment on the part of the employee. Rewards can be spontaneous, as long as they are truly deserved. The other options are not supportive of Skinners thoughts on rewards.
- What is the purpose for a manager to engage in inetworkingi? A) To bolster self-esteem
B) To unwind from work
C) To further professional goals
D) To meet altruistic needs
A manager networks by joining a professional group to which one can contribute and that serves to further professional goals. The goal of networking is not stated by any of the other options.
- Which statement is typically true of job satisfaction levels?
- A) They are higher for subordinates than for management staff
- B) They decline as the level of participation in unit decision making increases
- C) They are related to the degree of work life control subordinates perceive they have
- D) They are fairly static given that unit cultures are traditionally very difficult to
Job satisfaction levels can be correlated with the degree of control subordinates perceive they have over their work life. The remaining statements are not true regarding job satisfaction.
13. Which course of action would be most apt to help a demotivated RN with personal and professional renewal?
- A) Begin job hunting in a new field
- B) Start practicing self-care
- C) Take a management class
- D) Start leaving work early
Ans: B Feedback:
For self-care, the manager should seek time off on a regular basis to meet personal needs, have recreation, form relationships outside the work setting, and have fun. Friends and colleagues are essential for emotional support, guidance, and renewal. A proper diet and exercise are important to maintain physical as well as emotional health. The remaining options are not practical and lack the focus on self.
14. What managerial characteristic is essential in assuring that employees will find joy at work?
- A) Attending to the organizational climate
- B) Forming respectful relationships
- C) Effectively supervising employee work
- D) Partitioning for salary increases
Employees value a trusting and helpful manager who lets them know their uniqueness is understood. The remaining options are not essential to facilitating employee work- related joy.
- A) Work environment
- B) External rewards
- C) Personal aspiration
- D) Completion of work
Intrinsic motivation comes from within the person, driving him or her to be productive such as personal goals and aspirations. Rewards resulting from extrinsic motivation (which is motivation that is enhanced by the work environment) occur after the work has been completed.
16. Which is an example of a hygiene factor according to Herzberg?
- A) Achievement
- B) Recognition
- C) Salary
- D) Work
A hygiene factor is salary. Motivators include achievement, recognition, and work.
is intrinsic motivation directly related to?
17. McClellands studies state that all people are motivated by three basic needs. What are these needs?
- A) Physiological, security, esteem
- B) Safety, social, self-actualization
- C) Achievement, affiliation, power
- D) Responsibility, supervision, job security
McClellands studies state that all people are motivated by three basic needs: achievement, affiliation, and power. McClelland does not include the other options as needs associated with motivation.
- A) They undermanage subordinates
- B) They define responsibilities too broadly
- C) They stretch employees comfort levels too much
- D) They fail to give employees sufficient decision-making power
Gellerman states that most managers in organizations over-manage, making the responsibilities too narrow and failing to give employees any decision-making power or to stretch them often enough.
19. What is the most important strategy for avoiding burnout and maintaining a high motivation level?
- A) Intrinsic motivation
- B) External motivation
- C) Positive reinforcement
- D) Self-care
Perhaps the most important strategy for avoiding burnout and maintaining a high motivation level is self-care. The other options are not as impactful in avoiding burnout and sustaining motivation.
did Gellerman state about most managers in organizations?
20. What is one of the most powerful yet frequently overlooked or underused motivators that the manager can use to create a motivating climate?
- A) Intrinsic motivation
- B) External motivation
- C) Positive reinforcement
- D) Self-care
Ans: C Feedback:
Positive reinforcement is one of the most powerful motivators the manager can use and is frequently overlooked or underused. The other options are personal in nature.
21. When attempting to create a work environment that includes appropriate and effective monetary incentives, the nurse-manager will initially address which issue?
- A) Whether the incentives are allowed by the policies of the institution
- B) Whether the budget will allow for monetary rewards large enough to create
- C) Whether the staff views monetary incentives as having the greatest value
- D) Whether other nurse-managers feel that monetary incentives are appropriate
Organizations must be cognizant of the need to offer incentives at a level where employees value them. This requires that the organization and its managers understand employees collective values and devise a reward system that is consistent with that value system. While the other options represent reasonable areas to explore, they are not the initial issue to be addressed.
22. Which is the basic factor involving staff motivation and its relationship with the achievement of unit-oriented goals?
- A) The autonomy the staff has to achieve the stated goals
- B) The input the staff has in establishing the unit goals
- C) The value the staff places on the stated unit goals
- D) The relationship staff has with their management
Ans: D Feedback:
The interpersonal relationship between an employee and his or her supervisor is critical to the employees motivation level. We often forget that the only way to achieve our goals is through the people who work with us. While the other options reflect factors that may impact goal achievement, they are not considered the basic factor.
23. Which action by the nursing manager will have the greatest impact on staff satisfaction regarding the filling of an assistant management position?
- A) Making the decision to fill the position with an internal recruitment search
- B) Assuring the staff that established recruitment polices will be followed
- C) Publishing the promotion criteria where it can be viewed by all interested
- D) Encouraging staff that has the needed skills and knowledge to apply for the
Regardless of what the organization decides, the policy should be consistently followed and communicated to all employees. While making the decision to hire internal has both advantages and drawbacks. Publishing the criteria is appropriate but does not have the impact that consistent policies have on the staffs satisfaction with the process. Encouraging qualified staff to apply may be ineffective if they feel pressured to accept the promotion.
24. Which statement made by the Director of Nursing demonstrates the value of internal promotion of nursing staff?
- A) iThis facility values the efforts made by its nursing staff to perform at their
highest levels of knowledge and practice.i
- B) iA facility thrives on the injection of fresh, new ideas from those in manager
- C) iOur budget allows for monetary incentives directed towards the recruitment of
- D) iWe are willing to extend the recruitment search upon we have the best positive
person for this management position.i
There are obvious advantages and disadvantages to recruiting for promotions from both inside and outside the organization. Recruiting from within can help to develop employees to fill higher-level positions as they become vacant. It can also serve as a powerful motivation and recognition tool since all employees know that opportunities for advancement are possible, and this encourages them to perform at a higher level. There are advantages to recruiting from outside the organization, however. When promotions are filled with people outside the organization, the organization is infused with people with new ideas. This prevents the stagnation that often occurs when all promotions are internal. External candidates, however, often cost more in terms of salary than internal ones. This is because external candidates generally need a financial incentive to leave their current positions for something else.
25. Which reward is an example of intrinsic motivation?
- A) The prized locker is awarded to the staff member voted imost helpfuli by their
- B) An extra vacation day is awarded for every 6 months a staff member is icall offi
- C) The entire staff is treated to a pizza party each time the unit earns a ipatient
- D) A staff member is awarded a trip to a nursing conference based on the written
request that was submitted
Intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual. It is driven by a need to improve and be more productive such as attending a nursing conference. Extrinsic motivation is motivation enhanced by the job environment or external rewards. Rewards and reinforcements are given to encourage certain behaviors and/or levels of achievement. The remaining options are examples of extrinsic motivations.