Chapter 17. Measuring Vital Signs My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 17. Measuring Vital Signs

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. A clients vital signs at the beginning of the shift are as follows: oral temperature 99.3F (37C), heart rate 82 beats per minute, respiratory rate 14 breaths per minute, and blood pressure 118/76. Four hours later the clients oral temperature is 102.2F (39C). Based on the temperature change, the nurse should anticipate the clients heart rate would be how many beats per minute?

1)

62

2)

82

3)

102

4)

122

____ 2. The nurse is assessing vital signs for a client after surgical procedure on the left leg and has intravenous (IV) fluids running. It would be most important for the nurse to:

1)

Compare the left pedal pulse with the right pedal pulse.

2)

Count the clients respiratory rate for 1 full minute.

3)

Take the blood pressure in the arm without an IV.

4)

Take an oral temperature with an electronic thermometer.

____ 3. The nurse hears rhonchi when auscultating a clients lungs. Which nursing intervention would be appropriate for the nurse to implement before reassessing lung sounds?

1)

Have the client take several deep breaths.

2)

Request the client take a deep breath and cough.

3)

Take the clients blood pressure and apical pulse.

4)

Count the clients respiratory rate for 1 minute.

____ 4. Which of the following sets of vital signs are all within normal limits for patients at rest?

1)

Infant: T 98.8F (rectal), HR 160, RR 16, BP 120/54

2)

Adolescent: T 98.2F (oral), HR 80, RR 18, BP 108/68

3)

Adult: T 99.6F (oral), HR 48, RR 22, BP 130/84

4)

Older adult: T 98.6F (oral), HR 110, RR 28, BP 170/95

____ 5. The nurse assesses the following changes in a clients vital signs. Which client situation should be reported to the primary care provider?

1)

Decreased blood pressure (BP) after standing up

2)

Decreased temperature after a period of diaphoresis

3)

Increased heart rate after walking down the hall

4)

Increased respiratory rate when the heart rate increases

____ 6. The clients temperature is 101.1F. Which is the correct conversion to centigrade?

1)

38.0C

2)

38.4C

3)

38.8C

4)

39.2C

____ 7. The client has had a fever, ranging from 99.8F orally to 103F orally over the last 24 hours. The clients fever would be classified as:

1)

Constant.

2)

Intermittent.

3)

Relapsing.

4)

Remittent.

____ 8. A clients vital signs 4 hours ago were temperature (oral) 101.4F (38.6C), heart rate 110 beats/minute, respiratory rate 26 breaths/minute, and blood pressure 124/78. The temperature is now 99.4F (37.4C). Based only on the expected relationship between temperature and respiratory rate, the nurse might best anticipate the clients respiratory rate to be:

1)

16.

2)

18.

3)

20.

4)

22.

____ 9. Which one of the following clients would probably have a higher than normal respiratory rate? A client who has:

1)

Had surgery and is receiving a narcotic analgesic.

2)

Had surgery and lost a unit of blood intraoperatively.

3)

Lived at a high altitude and then moved to sea level.

4)

Been exposed to the cold and is now hypothermic.

____ 10. For which of the following adult clients should the nurse make follow-up observations and monitor the vital signs closely? A client whose:

1)

Resting morning blood pressure is 136/86 while the afternoon BP is 128/84.

2)

Oral temperature is 97.9F in the morning and 99.8F in the evening.

3)

Heart rate was 76 beats/minute before eating and 88 beats/minute after eating.

4)

Respiratory rate is 16 breaths/minute when standing and 18 when lying down.

____ 11. A client who has been hospitalized for an infection states, The nursing assistant told me my vital signs are all within normal limits; that means Im cured. The nurses best response would be:

1)

Your vital signs confirm that your infection is resolved; how do you feel?

2)

Ill let your health care provider know so you can be discharged.

3)

Your vital signs are stable, but there are other things to assess.

4)

We still need to keep monitoring your temperature for a while.

____ 12. The nursing instructor asks students how they would assess the fifth vital sign. Which student would be correct? I would:

1)

Have the client rate her pain on a scale of 0 to 10.

2)

Ask the client when she had her last bowel movement.

3)

Take the clients pulse oximetry reading.

4)

Interview the client about history of tobacco use.

____ 13. A clients axillary temperature is 100.8F. The nurse realizes this is outside normal range for this client, and that axillary temperatures do not reflect core temperature. What should the nurse do to obtain a good estimate of the core temperature?

1)

Add 1F to 100.8F to obtain an oral equivalent.

2)

Add 2F to 100.8F to obtain a rectal equivalent.

3)

Obtain a rectal temperature reading.

4)

Obtain a tympanic membrane reading.

____ 14. In caring for a client who has a fever, it would be important for the nurse to monitor for increased:

1)

Urine output

2)

Sensitivity to pain

3)

Blood pressure

4)

Respiratory rate

____ 15. The nurse is teaching a client how to use a portable blood pressure device to monitor his blood pressure at home. It would be most important for the nurse to:

1)

Have the client demonstrate the use of the blood pressure device.

2)

Explain the importance of frequent calibration of the device.

3)

Give the client a chart to record his blood pressure readings.

4)

Provide written instructions of the information taught.

____ 16. At last measurement, the clients vital signs were as follows: oral temperature 98F (36.7C), heart rate 76, respiratory rate 16, and blood pressure (BP) 118/60. Four hours later, the vital signs are as follows: oral temperature 103.2F (38.5C), heart rate 76 beats/minute, respiratory rate 14 breaths/minute, and blood pressure 120/66. Which should the nurses first intervention be at this time?

1)

Ask the client if he has had a warm drink in the last 30 minutes.

2)

Notify the primary care provider of the clients temperature.

3)

Ask the client if he is feeling chilled.

4)

Take the temperature by a different route.

____ 17. A clients average normal temperature is 98F. Which of the following temperatures would be expected during the night in this healthy young adult client who does not have a fever, inflammatory process, or underlying health problems?

1)

97.2F

2)

98.0F

3)

98.6F

4)

99.2F

____ 18. The nurse is instructing a client how to appropriately dress an infant in cold weather. Which of the following instructions would be most important for the nurse to include?

1)

Be sure to put mittens on.

2)

Layer the infants clothing.

3)

Place a cap on the head.

4)

Put warm booties on.

____ 19. In evaluating a clients blood pressure for hypertension, it would be most important to:

1)

Use the same type of manometer each time.

2)

Auscultate all five Korotkoff sounds.

3)

Measure the blood pressure in both arms.

4)

Monitor the blood pressure for a pattern.

____ 20. Which of the following information in the clients health history might indicate a risk for primary hypertension?

1)

Consumes a high-protein diet

2)

Drinks three to four beers every day

3)

Has a family history of kidney disease

4)

Does not engage in physical exercise

____ 21. The nurse provides client education regarding hypertension prevention and management. Which of these statements indicates that the client understands the instructions?

1)

I dont have to worry if my blood pressure is high once in a while.

2)

I guess I will have to make sure I dont drink too much water.

3)

I can lose some weight to help lower my blood pressure.

4)

I will need to reduce the amount milk and other dairy products I use.

____ 22. For which of the following patients would it be most important to obtain an apical-radial pulse and calculate the pulse deficit? A patient who:

1)

Had abdominal surgery 2 hours ago.

2)

Suffered a fractured hip yesterday.

3)

Is dehydrated from vomiting.

4)

Has a heart of lung disease.

____ 23. Which of the following procedure techniques has the most effect on the accuracy of an apical pulse count?

1)

Counting the rate for 1 full minute

2)

Exposing only the left side of the chest

3)

Determining why assessment of apical pulse is indicated

4)

Using your ring finger to palpate the intercostal spaces

____ 24. Which assessment data best support a report of severe pain in an adult client whose baseline vital signs are within an average normal range?

1)

Oral temperature 100F (37.8C)

2)

Respiratory rate 26 breaths/minute and shallow

3)

Apical heart rate 56 beats/minute

4)

Blood pressure of 124/82

____ 25. During a clinic interview, a client states he has been experiencing dizziness upon standing. Which nursing action is appropriate for the nurse to implement?

1)

Ask the client when in the day dizziness occurs.

2)

Help the client to assume a recumbent position.

3)

Measure both heart rate and blood pressure with the client standing.

4)

Measure vital signs with the client supine, sitting, and standing.

Multiple Response

Identify one or more choices that best complete the statement or answer the question.

____ 1. Which blood pressure has a pulse pressure within normal limits? Choose all that apply.

1)

104/50

2)

120/62

3)

120/80

4)

130/86

____ 2. Which of the following interventions would be appropriate for a client who has a fever? Choose all that apply.

1)

Put an ice pack on the clients neck and axillae.

2)

Provide the client a blanket when he is shivering.

3)

Offer the client fluids to drink every 1 to 2 hours.

4)

Take the temperature using a tympanic thermometer.

____ 3. Comparing the changes in vital signs as a person ages, which statement(s) is/are correct? Select all that apply.

1)

Blood pressure decreases less than heart rate and respiratory rate.

2)

Respiratory rate remains fairly stable throughout a persons life.

3)

Blood pressure increases; heart rate and respiratory rate decline.

4)

Men have higher blood pressure than women until after menopause.

____ 4. Which of these steps in taking a blood pressure is correct? Choose all that apply.

1)

Use a bladder that encircles 40% of the arm.

2)

Wrap the cuff snugly around the clients arm.

3)

Ask the client to hold the arm at heart level.

4)

Have the client sit with feet flat on the floor.

____ 5. When assessing the quality of a clients pedal pulses, what is the nurse assessing? (Choose all that apply.)

1)

Rhythm of the pulses

2)

Strength of the pulses

3)

Bilateral equality of pulses

4)

Rate compared with apical pulse

____ 6. All of the following clinical signs may be present with hypoxia. However, only two are specific indicators of hypoxia (that is, if they are present, it means that the patient is probably hypoxic). Which ones are specific indicators of hypoxia?

1)

Feelings of anxiety

2)

Crackles in the lung bases

3)

Increased heart rate

4)

Improved breathing in upright position

Matching

Match the breath sound with the appropriate description.

1)

High-pitched sound heard on inspiration in infants

2)

High-pitched, continuous musical sound

3)

High-pitched popping or low-pitched bubbling sounds

4)

Low-pitched continuous sounds that clear with coughing

5)

Labored, snoring sound

____ 1. Crackles

____ 2. Rhonchi

____ 3. Stridor

____ 4. Wheezes

____ 5. Stertor

Other

1. How will each of the errors affect a clients blood pressure reading?

A. Blood pressure cuff too narrow __________________________

B. Blood pressure cuff too wide ____________________________

C. Assessing immediately after smoking _____________________

D. Assessing immediately after eating _______________________

E. Assessing when the client is in mild-to-moderate pain __________

F. Assessing when the client experiences severe pain _________________

G. Assessing immediately after exercise ______________________

Essay

1. Describe where to auscultate the apical pulse for an average size adult.

Chapter 17. Measuring Vital Signs

Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ANS: 3

Heart rate increases about 10 beats per minute for each degree of temperature to meet increased metabolic needs and compensate for peripheral dilation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 331

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

2. ANS: 1

The nurse would, of course, count the respiratory rate for 1 full minute and take the BP in the arm without the IV. Oral temperatures are commonly obtained using electronic thermometers. However, for a client having surgery on the leg, the most important data would be whether the circulation has been compromised because of the surgery. This can only be done by comparing one leg with the other.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate

REF: V1, entire chapter; specific information about peripheral pulses and bilateral equality in V1, pp. 334-335 and V2, p. 199

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Analysis

3. ANS: 2

Rhonchi are caused by secretions in the large airways and may clear with coughing. This is how you differentiate between rhonchi and other adventitious sounds. Deep breathing will not help to clear rhonchi. Taking the blood pressure and apical pulse and counting the respiratory rate are not effective for clearing rhonchi, and would not be sufficient for the nurse to identify whether the sounds were, indeed, rhonchi.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 339

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

4. ANS: 2

All of the adolescents vital signs are within normal parameters for the age. The infants temperature is below normal for a rectal reading because the core temperature is approximately 1 degree higher than readings from other sites. The heart rate (HR) for an infant is high, the respiratory rate (RR) is low, and the blood pressure (BP) is high for the age. For the typical adult, the temperature is high, the HR is low, the RR is high, and the BP is elevated for the age. For the older adult, the temperature is high end normal, the HR is high, the RR is high, and the BP is high for the age.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult

REF: V1, p. 318; for adult vital signs ESG Table 17-1 Comparison of Normal Vital Signs for Various Ages

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Analysis

5. ANS: 1

A drop in the clients blood pressure when standing indicates orthostatic hypotension, and the cause should be investigated. The changes in vital signs indicated in the other options are normal changes for the situations.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate

REF: V1, pp. 347-348; for hypotension information, but should read content about all of the vital signs KEY: Nursing process: Diagnosis | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Analysis

6. ANS: 2

To convert Fahrenheit to centigrade, subtract 32 from the temperature, and multiply by 5/9.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: V1, p. 324

KEY: Cognitive level: Application

7. ANS: 4

Remittent fevers fluctuate widely over a 24-hour period. Constant fevers stay above normal with only slight fluctuations. Intermittent fevers alternate between normal or subnormal temperatures with periods of fever. Relapsing fevers alternate between periods of fever and periods of normal temperature; each phase lasting 1 to 2 days.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 322

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

8. ANS: 2

For every degree Fahrenheit (0.6C) the temperature falls, the respiratory rate may decrease up to 4 breaths per minute. The clients temperature has fallen 2 degrees; multiplied by 4, this is 8. It was 26 breaths/minute. 26 minus 8 = 18 breaths per minute.

PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: V1, p. 337

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

9. ANS: 2

A reduction in hemoglobin from blood loss would increase the respiratory rate. Narcotics and hypothermia slow the respiratory rate. Going from lower altitudes to higher altitudes inhibits oxygen binding, so going to a lower altitude would decrease the respiratory rate or have no effect. Hypothermia decreases the metabolic rate, so the respiratory rate would likely decrease.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 337

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

10. ANS: 1

Both the blood pressures would be classified as prehypertension according to the JNC 7 Express guidelines. Body temperature normally increases during the course of a day. Heart rate increases for several hours after eating. Respiratory depth decreases when lying down, so it would be normal for the rate would increase; both rates are within normal limits.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 347

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Analysis

11. ANS: 3

Vital signs are one indicator of a clients physiological status, but they are not an absolute indicator of well-being from every aspect. It may be inaccurate to state that the vital signs indicate the infection is resolved; vital signs could stabilize even if the infection remains active. The health care providers decision regarding the clients readiness for discharge is not based exclusively on the vital signs but rather is based on a compilation of other sources of information, primarily the clients clinical status, but also cultures, complete blood counts, and various other laboratory and possibly radiologic evidence. Although the nurse will need to continue monitoring the temperature, other clinical signs must also be monitored; therefore, the statement We still need to keep monitoring your temperature . . . is incomplete and less useful than the statement that begins Your vital signs are stable, but . . .

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: V1, p. 317

KEY: Nursing process: Evaluation | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

12. ANS: 1

Pain is considered to be the fifth vital sign.

PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: V1, p. 317

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Comprehension

13. ANS: 3

Body temperatures, from lowest to highest, are axillary, oral, rectal, and tympanic. For oral, axillary, and rectal temperatures, there is a 1F degree difference between each site and the next higher one. However, mathematical conversions between sites are not reliable and should be used only when a rough estimate is neededfor instance, to decide whether a reading needs to be validated by another site or another thermometer. Rectal temperatures are most reliable and most accurately reflect the core temperature. Tympanic membrane readings are considered by most to be the least accurate and least reliable.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 319

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

14. ANS: 4

The metabolic rate increases with a fever, increasing a persons respiratory rate. Urine output would more likely decrease, rather than increase, because of increased insensible loss and possible loss of intake because of loss of appetite. Change in pain sensation is not a symptom of a fever. Blood pressure is more likely to decrease with a fever because of peripheral vasodilation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 329

KEY: Nursing process: Evaluation | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

15. ANS: 1

All are important things to include in client education, but self-monitoring of blood pressure is of little value unless it is done using proper technique. Requesting the client demonstrate the procedure would allow the nurse to evaluate the clients technique.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: V1, p. 344; not stated directly

KEY: Nursing process: Interventions | Client need: SECE | Cognitive level: Analysis

16. ANS: 1

With a fever, the heart rate and respiratory rate are usually elevated. In this case, they are within normal limits, so the nurse should wonder about the accuracy of the temperature reading and validate it in some way. Because having a hot drink is a common cause of false readings, the nurse should determine whether that has occurred before retaking or otherwise validating the reading.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate

REF: V1, p. 327; should know norms for all vital signs in V1, p. 318 to answer question

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Analysis

17. ANS: 1

The lowest temperature occurs during sleep (usually at night) when the metabolic rate is lowest. Temperature normally increases throughout the day until it peaks in the early evening.

PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: V1, p. 321

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: HPM | Cognitive level: Application

18. ANS: 3

All interventions are correct, but because of the many blood vessels close to the skin surface in the head, infants lose approximately one third of their body heat through the head. Therefore, to prevent heat loss, it is most important to cover the head.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 320

KEY: Nursing process: Interventions | Client need: SECE | Cognitive level: Application

19. ANS: 4

Blood pressure fluctuates a great deal during the day and is influenced by age, sex, activity, and many other factors. Any determination of hypertension must be done after two or more BP readings taken on separate occasions. The type of manometer does not greatly influence the reliability of BP readings, although the mercury manometer is more accurate. Only the first and last Korotkoff sounds are necessary to determine a BP reading. The first time BP is assessed for a patient, the nurse should compare the reading in the left and right arm; however, this is not specific to evaluating for hypertension.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 342

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Analysis

20. ANS: 2

Heavy alcohol consumption, age, race, high-sodium diet, tobacco use, family history of hypertension, and high cholesterol levels put a client at risk for primary hypertension. Kidney disease is a cause of secondary hypertension.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 342

KEY: Nursing process: Diagnosis | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Analysis

21. ANS: 3

A single lifestyle change, such as weight loss, can lower blood pressure (BP). Whenever the client has an elevated BP, the reading should be monitored even when it occurs just occasionally. Drinking too much alcohol is associated with hypertension, but water consumption is not unless accompanied by high sodium intake. A diet high in calcium is recommended to prevent and manage hypertension; therefore, it is not advisable to limit the intake of dietary calcium found in dairy products.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 342

KEY: Nursing process: Evaluation | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

22. ANS: 4

Conditions that require assessment of pulse deficit include digitalis therapy, blood loss, cardiac or respiratory disease, and other conditions that affect oxygenation status.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V2, p. 206

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

23. ANS: 1

Apical pulse is generally indicated for patients with cardiac conditions or who are taking cardiac medications. Often they have irregular heartbeats or slow rates. A more accurate count is obtained when such heartbeats are counted for a full minute. Exposing the chest is, of course, necessary; exposing only the left side protects the patients privacy but does not improve the accuracy. The nurse should know why an apical pulse is indicated, but this would not affect the accuracy of the count. Which finger the nurse uses to palpate depends on which hand is used. Even if the nurse failed to use the index or ring finger, this would be unlikely to affect the accuracy of the counting.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V2, p. 204

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

24. ANS: 2

Respiratory rate 26 breaths/min and shallow. Acute pain causes an increase in respiratory rate, but a decrease in depth. Elevated temperature does not indicate pain. The apical pulse is lower than normal, but because the pulse increases with pain, a rate of 56 beats/min does not indicate pain. A blood pressure of 124/82 is within normal limits. Blood pressure usually elevates temporarily with acute pain; it may decrease over time with unremitting chronic pain.

PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: V1, p. 337

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

25. ANS: 4

Dizziness upon standing is a symptom of orthostatic hypotension. The nurse should obtain orthostatic vital signs (measure pulse and blood pressure with the patient supine, sitting, and standing) to assess for orthostatic hypotension. The time of day is irrelevant to the diagnosis. If the nurse observes the patient become dizzy upon standing, the first action would be to help the client lie down, and then obtain orthostatic vital signs; but this is not necessary when the symptom is not present. The nurse needs to measure both the heart rate and the blood pressure but not only in the standing position.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 348

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. ANS: 3, 4

The pulse pressure is the systolic blood pressure (BP) minus the diastolic BP. The pulse pressure is usually approximately one third of the systolic pressure. (120 80 = 40; 40 = 1/3 of 120) (130 86 = 44; 1/3 of 130 = 43.3)

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 340

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

2. ANS: 1, 3

If ice packs are used, they are applied to the groin, neck, or axillae. A fever increases metabolic needs, so fluids are necessary to prevent dehydration. A blanket would help with heat retention. A tympanic thermometer is not appropriate when an accurate temperature is needed, as when a client has a fever.

PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: V1, p. 329

KEY: Nursing process: Interventions | Client need: SECE | Cognitive level: Application

3. ANS: 3, 4

Heart rate and respiratory rate tend to decrease as people age, whereas the blood pressure increases because of increased vascular resistance. Mens blood pressure tends to be higher than womens until after menopause, when womens blood pressure typically increases.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, pp. 320-321 | V1, p. 337 | V1, p. 342

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: HPM | Cognitive level: Analysis

4. ANS: 2, 4

The cuff should be wrapped snugly around the clients arm. Crossed legs or dangling legs can increase blood pressure, so feet should be flat on the floor. The bladder should encircle 80% of the arm. Holding the arm out can cause an erroneously higher blood pressure measurement; the arm should be supported.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: V1, p. 323 | V1, p. 345 | V2, pp. 209-213

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: SECE | Cognitive level: Comprehension

5. ANS: 2, 3

The quality of a pulse refers to the pulse volume (strength) and bilateral equality of the pulses.

PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: V1, pp. 333-334

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Recall

6. ANS: 1, 3

Apprehension, confusion, dizziness, and an increased heart rate are all specific manifestations of hypoxia. Crackles and orthopnea are abnormal respiratory findings, but they do not necessarily indicate poor oxygenation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: V1, p. 339

KEY: Nursing process: Diagnosis | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Analysis

MATCHING

1. ANS: 3 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate

REF: V1, pp. 338-339; Descriptions of the various breath sounds are as stated.

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

2. ANS: 4 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate

REF: V1, pp. 338-339; Descriptions of the various breath sounds are as stated.

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

3. ANS: 5 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate

REF: V1, pp. 338-339; Descriptions of the various breath sounds are as stated.

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

4. ANS: 1 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate

REF: V1, pp. 338-339; Descriptions of the various breath sounds are as stated.

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

5. ANS: 2 PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate

REF: V1, pp. 338-339; Descriptions of the various breath sounds are as stated.

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Application

OTHER

1. ANS:

A: erroneously high; B: erroneously low; C: temporarily high; D: temporarily high; E: temporarily high; F: temporarily low; G: temporarily high.

Improper cuff size causes errors in blood pressure (BP) readings: too narrow a cuff increases the BP reading, while too wide a cuff decreases it. Tobacco use, eating, mild/moderate pain, and exercise all stimulate and increase BP. Severe pain can lower BP, whereas, mild to moderate pain can increase blood pressure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate

REF: V1, p. 342; for factors that influence BP | V1, p. 345; for cuff size implications

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Recall

ESSAY

1. ANS:

Auscultate at approximately 3 inches to the left of adult sternum at the fourth, fifth, or sixth intercostal spaces in the midclavicular line.

Apical pulse is heard at the apex of the heart. The position of the apex of the heart is different for a child than an adult.

PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: V1, p. 333

KEY: Nursing process: Assessment | Client need: PHSI | Cognitive level: Recall

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