Chapter 17 Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host My Nursing Test Banks

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e, (Tortora)

Chapter 17   Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host

17.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

1) What type of immunity results from vaccination?

A) innate immunity

B) naturally acquired active immunity

C) naturally acquired passive immunity

D) artificially acquired active immunity

E) artificially acquired passive immunity

Answer:  D

Section:  17.11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.20

Global Outcome:  5

2) What type of immunity results from transfer of antibodies from one individual to a susceptible individual by means of injection?

A) innate immunity

B) naturally acquired active immunity

C) naturally acquired passive immunity

D) artificially acquired active immunity

E) artificially acquired passive immunity

Answer:  E

Section:  17.11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  17.20

Global Outcome:  5

3) What type of immunity results from recovery from mumps?

A) innate immunity

B) naturally acquired active immunity

C) naturally acquired passive immunity

D) artificially acquired active immunity

E) artificially acquired passive immunity

Answer:  B

Section:  17.11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.20

4) Which of the following is the best definition of epitope?

A) specific regions on antigens that interact with T-cell receptors

B) specific regions on antigens that interact with MHC class molecules

C) specific regions on antigens that interact with haptens

D) specific regions on antigens that interact with antibodies

E) specific regions on antigens that interact with perforins

Answer:  D

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.4

5) Newborns immunity due to the transfer of antibodies across the placenta is an example of

A) innate immunity.

B) naturally acquired active immunity.

C) naturally acquired passive immunity.

D) artificially acquired active immunity.

E) artificially acquired passive immunity.

Answer:  C

Section:  17.11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.20

6) Which of the following statements is NOT a possible outcome of antigen-antibody reaction?

A) clonal deletion

B) activation of complement

C) opsonization

D) ADCC

E) agglutination

Answer:  A

Section:  17.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.11

7) Which of the following cells is NOT an APC?

A) dentritic cells

B) macrophages

C) mature B cells

D) natural killer cells

E) None of the answers is correct; all of these are APCs.

Answer:  D

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.16

8) When an antibody binds to a toxin, the resulting action is referred to as

A) agglutination.

B) opsonization.

C) ADCC.

D) apoptosis.

E) neutralization.

Answer:  E

Section:  17.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.11

9) CD4+ T cells are activated by

A) interaction between CD4+ and MHC II.

B) interaction between TCRs and MHC II.

C) cytokines released by dendritic cells.

D) cytokines released by B cells.

E) complement.

Answer:  A

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.14

10) Which of the following recognizes antigens displayed on host cells with MHC II?

A) TC cell

B) B cell

C) TH cell

D) natural killer cell

E) basophil

Answer:  C

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.13

11) The specificity of an antibody is due to

A) its valence.

B) the H chains.

C) the L chains.

D) the constant portions of the H and L chains.

E) the variable portions of the H and L chains.

Answer:  E

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.5

12) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of B cells?

A) They originate in bone marrow.

B) They have antibodies on their surfaces.

C) They are responsible for the memory response.

D) They are responsible for antibody formation.

E) They recognize antigens associated with MHC I.

Answer:  E

Section:  17.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.8

13) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of cellular immunity?

A) The cells originate in bone marrow.

B) Cells are processed in the thymus gland.

C) It can inhibit the immune response.

D) B cells make antibodies.

E) T cells react with antigens.

Answer:  D

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.12

14) Plasma cells are activated by a(n)

A) antigen.

B) T cell.

C) B cell.

D) memory cell.

E) APC.

Answer:  A

Section:  17.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.8

15) The antibodies found in mucus, saliva, and tears are

A) IgG.

B) IgM.

C) IgA.

D) IgD.

E) IgE.

Answer:  C

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.6

16) The antibodies found almost entirely and only on the surface of B cells (not secreted from them), and which always exist as monomers, are

A) IgG.

B) IgM.

C) IgA.

D) IgD.

E) IgE.

Answer:  D

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.6

17) The antibodies that can bind to large parasites are

A) IgG.

B) IgM.

C) IgA.

D) IgD.

E) IgE.

Answer:  E

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.6

18) In addition to IgG, the antibodies that can fix complement are

A) IgM.

B) IgA.

C) IgD.

D) IgE.

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  A

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.6

19) Large antibodies that agglutinate antigens are

A) IgG.

B) IgM.

C) IgA.

D) IgD.

E) IgE.

Answer:  B

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.6

20) The most abundant class of antibodies in serum is

A) IgG.

B) IgM.

C) IgA.

D) IgD.

E) IgE.

Answer:  A

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.6

Figure 17.1

21) In Figure 17.1, which letter on the graph indicates the patients secondary response to a repeated exposure with the identical antigen?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

Answer:  C

Section:  17.10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.2a

Learning Outcome:  17.19

Global Outcome:  3

22) In Figure 17.1, which letter on the graph indicates the highest antibody titer during the patients response to a second and distinct/different antigen?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

Answer:  E

Section:  17.10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.2a

Learning Outcome:  17.19

Global Outcome:  3

23) In Figure 17.1, the arrow at time (c) indicates

A) the time of exposure to the same antigen as at time (a).

B) the secondary response.

C) the primary response.

D) exposure to a new antigen.

E) the T-cell response.

Answer:  B

Section:  17.10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.2a

Learning Outcome:  17.19

Global Outcome:  3

24) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

A) The variable region of a heavy chain is partially responsible for binding with antigen.

B) The variable region of a light chain is partially responsible for binding with antigen.

C) The Fc region attaches to a host cell.

D) The constant region of a heavy chain is the same for all antibodies.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.5

25) Which of the following is the best definition of antigen?

A) something foreign in the body

B) a chemical that elicits an antibody response and can combine with these antibodies

C) a chemical that combines with antibodies

D) a pathogen

E) a protein that combines with antibodies

Answer:  B

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.4

26) Which of the following WBCs are NOT lymphocytes?

A) cytotoxic T cells

B) helper T cells

C) NK cells

D) M cells

E) B cells

Answer:  D

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.12

27) The following events elicit an antibody response. What is the third step?

A) Antigen-digest goes to surface of APC.

B) APC phagocytizes antigen.

C) B cell is activated.

D) TH cell recognizes antigen-digest and MHC II.

E) TH cell produces cytokines.

Answer:  D

Section:  17.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.9

Figure 17.2

28) In Figure 17.2, which areas are similar for all IgG antibodies?

A) a and b

B) a and c

C) b and c

D) c and d

E) b and d

Answer:  D

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.5

29) In Figure 17.2, which areas are different for all IgM antibodies?

A) a and b

B) a and c

C) b and c

D) c and d

Answer:  A

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.5

30) In Figure 17.2, which areas represent antigen-binding sites?

A) a and b

B) a and c

C) b and c

D) c and d

E) b and d

Answer:  A

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.5

31) In Figure 17.2, what portion will typically attach to a host cell?

A) a and c

B) b

C) b and c

D) a and d

E) e

Answer:  E

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.5

32) Which of the following bacterial components would most likely result in B cell stimulation by T-independent antigens?

A) capsule

B) flagellum

C) pili

D) ribosome

E) plasmid

Answer:  A

Section:  17.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.7

33) The presence of which of the following indicates a current infection rather than a previous infection or vaccination?

A) IgA

B) IgG

C) IgM

D) IgD

E) IgE

Answer:  C

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  17.6

34) Which of the following destroys virus-infected cells?

A) CTL

B) Treg

C) TH

D) dendritic cells

E) B cells

Answer:  A

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  17.12

35) The following events occur in cellular immunity, leading to a response from TH cells. What is the third step?

A) Antibodies are produced.

B) Dendritic cell takes up antigen.

C) Antigen enters M cell.

D) TH cell produces cytokines.

E) TH cells proliferate.

Answer:  E

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.13

36) Cytokines released by TH1 cells

A) activate CD8+ cells to CTLs.

B) convert TH1 cells to TH2 cells.

C) convert TH2 cells to TH1 cells.

D) kill parasites.

E) convert B cells to T cells.

Answer:  A

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.14

37) Which one of the following causes transmembrane channels in target cells?

A) granzymes

B) hapten

C) IL-1

D) IL-2

E) perforin

Answer:  E

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.12

38) At a minimum, the human immune system is capable of recognizing approximately how many different antigens?

A) 105

B) 1010

C) 1015

D) 1020

E) 1025

Answer:  C

Section:  17.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.10

39) Thymic selection

A) destroys T cells that do not recognize self-molecules of MHC.

B) destroys B cells that make antibodies against self.

C) destroys MHC molecules.

D) destroys CD4+ cells that attack self.

E) activates B cells.

Answer:  A

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.14

40) Which of the following statements about natural killer cells is FALSE?

A) They destroy virus-infected cells.

B) They destroy tumor cells.

C) They destroy cells lacking MHC I.

D) They are stimulated by an antigen.

E) None of the answers are correct; all of these statements are true.

Answer:  D

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.12

41) An antibodys Fc region can be bound by

A) antibodies.

B) macrophages.

C) T helper cells.

D) B cells.

E) CTLs.

Answer:  B

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.5

42) A Treg cell deficiency could result in

A) increased number of viral infections.

B) increased number of bacterial infections.

C) autoimmunity.

D) increased severity of bacterial infections.

E) transplant rejection.

Answer:  C

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  7.12

43) ADCC is a process that is most effective in destroying

A) eukaryotic pathogens.

B) prions.

C) extracellular viruses.

D) bacterial pathogens.

E) bacterial toxins.

Answer:  A

Section:  17.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.18

44) IL-2, produced by TH cells,

A) activates macrophages.

B) stimulates TH cell maturation.

C) causes phagocytosis.

D) activates antigen-presenting cells.

E) activates TC cells to CTLs.

Answer:  B

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.14

45) Which of the following statements about IL-12 is FALSE?

A) It activates macrophages.

B) It inhibits some tumor cells.

C) It activates the TH1 pathway.

D) It causes autoimmune diseases.

E) It causes TH cells to respond to HIV.

Answer:  D

Section:  17.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

17.2   True/False Questions

1) Apoptosis results in significant leakage of cellular contents.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.15

2) Cytokines are protein-based chemical messengers that allow for communication between cells of the immune system.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  17.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.3

3) Only dendritic cells produce interleukins.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  17.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

4) The production of interferons at an infection site is critical for chemotaxis.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  17.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.3

5) Cytokine storms negatively impact human health.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  17.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.3

6) The variable region of the antibody is solely responsible the significant diversity of antigen targets.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.12

7) Plasma cells will eventually differentiate into memory cells.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  17.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.8

8) Memory cells do not require B cell receptors.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  17.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.8

9) The implementation of vaccinations occurred prior to experimental support for the germ theory of disease.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  17.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.1

Global Outcome:  5

10) When haptens attach to carrier molecules, an epitope forms on hapten which then can be bound to antibody.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  17.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.4

17.3   Essay Questions

1) A person has antibodies against the measles virus. Identify three ways in which these antibodies could be acquired.

Section:  17.11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.20

Global Outcome:  8

2) Describe the production of antibodies using the clonal selection theory.

Section:  17.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  17.9

Global Outcome:  8

3) A very ill 48 year old man comes to the Emergency Room and is diagnosed with pneumonia and thrush. Suspicious, the attending physician orders an HIV antibody test which comes back positive within a few hours. Why does a patient with acquired immunodeficiency have antibodies to HIV?

Section:  17.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Global Outcome:  8

4) Can natural killer cells successfully perform duties without antibodies? Explain.

Section:  17.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.17

Global Outcome:  8

5) What adaptive immune responses, if any, could one expect to function normally in a human born without a thymus?

Section:  17.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  17.14

Global Outcome:  8

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